References of "Brotcorne, Fany"
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See detailToward a better understanding of habituation process to human observer: A statistical approach in Macaca leonina (Primates: Cercopithecidea)
Gazagne, Eva ULiege; Hambuckers, Alain ULiege; Savini, Tommaso ULiege et al

in Raffles Bulletin of Zoology (2020), 68(2020), 735-749

Habituation allows an observer to closely approach and follow free-ranging animals, as they no longer respond to the observer presence (e.g., through flight, avoidance, display, curiosity). While ... [more ▼]

Habituation allows an observer to closely approach and follow free-ranging animals, as they no longer respond to the observer presence (e.g., through flight, avoidance, display, curiosity). While habituation is implicitly acknowledged as a necessary step before any direct observational studies of primates, there is very little published data on the subject. The aim of this study is to analyse the habituation process over time (17 months) in a wildfeeding troop of northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina) inhabiting a degraded forest fragment of the Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve, Thailand. Based on the number of encounters, contact duration with the studied troop, and behavioural responses to the observer recorded ad libitum and via scan sampling, we found statistical evidence of habituation progress over five stages: early, minimal, partial, advanced, and full. The complete habituation process took nearly 13 months. Factors such as the macaques’ limited experience of human contact, semi-terrestriality, large ranging patterns, fission-fusion dynamics, unpredictable resource use, as well as reduced native fruit availability in this degraded forest fragment may explain the length of the process. It was only possible to collect ranging and behavioural data from the partial habituation stage, although these data were biased toward adult males and sub-adults, while overestimating movement behaviour over inactivity and social behaviours. Our results highlight the importance of analysing behavioural data of fully habituated groups of primates to limit biases of observer presence, and also of not underestimating the habituation process length. This study provides novel information on the habituation process in macaques and proposes an effective methodology to analyse the habituation process across a wide range of primate species. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen Northern Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca leonina) Cannot Select for Ideal Sleeping Sites in a Degraded Habitat
Gazagne, Eva ULiege; Savini, Tommaso ULiege; Ngoprasert, Dusit et al

in International Journal of Primatology (2020), 41(4), 614-633

Primates must select sleeping sites carefully to maximize fitness. In habitats with diminished quality and availability of resources, sleeping site selection becomes an even more crucial aspect of primate ... [more ▼]

Primates must select sleeping sites carefully to maximize fitness. In habitats with diminished quality and availability of resources, sleeping site selection becomes an even more crucial aspect of primate survival. We investigated sleeping site selection patterns in northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina) living in a degraded habitat by testing the hypotheses of random selection, predation avoidance, and food proximity. We followed a group of northern pigtailed macaques in Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve, northeastern Thailand, over 14 months between February 2017 and October 2018. We identified 107 total sleeping sites and analyzed the forest structure at 50 sleeping sites and 50 randomly selected available sites.While the rate of reuse was low and random (N = 15), with sleeping sites characterized by a low availability of large and tall trees, the selection pattern was not random, with sleeping sites occurring more often in familiar areas (i.e., high site fidelity), and those with a greater number of stems and a higher canopy. These sleeping site characteristics were likely selected to decrease detection by predators and facilitate macaque escape in case of attack, supporting the predator avoidance hypothesis. However, food proximity also played a key role in sleeping site selection in this degraded habitat. Macaques often slept within, or close to, their first/last feeding site and selected their sleeping sites following food distribution, presumably to maximize energy intake. Our results present a new impact of habitat degradation on sleeping site selection in large primate groups: the use of a high number of sleeping sites in order to cope with low availability and scattered distribution of fruit resources. [less ▲]

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See detailSpontaneous Tool Use by a Wild Black Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus)
Kaisin, Olivier ULiege; Amaral, Rodrigo; Bufalo, Felipe et al

in International Journal of Primatology (2020)

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See detailNorthern pigtailed macaques rely on old growth plantations to offset low fruit availability in a degraded forest fragment
Gazagne, Eva ULiege; José‐Domínguez, Juan Manuel; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege et al

in American Journal of Primatology (2020)

Space‐use and foraging strategies are important facets to consider in regard to the ecology and conservation of primates. For this study, we documented movement, ranging, and foraging patterns of northern ... [more ▼]

Space‐use and foraging strategies are important facets to consider in regard to the ecology and conservation of primates. For this study, we documented movement, ranging, and foraging patterns of northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina) for 14 months in a degraded habitat with old growth Acacia and Eucalyptus plantations at the Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve in northeastern Thailand. We used hidden Markov models and characteristic hull polygons to analyze these patterns in regard to fruit availability. Macaques' home range (HR) was 599 ha and spanned through a natural dry‐evergreen forest (DEF), and plantation forest. Our results showed that active foraging increased with higher fruit availability in DEF. Macaques changed to a less continuous behavioral state during periods of lower fruit availability in DEF, repeatedly moving from foraging to transiting behavior, while extending their HR further into plantation forest and surrounding edge areas. Concomitantly, macaques shifted their diet from fleshy to dry fruit such as the introduced Acacia species. Our results showed that the diet and movement ecology adaptations of northern pigtailed macaques were largely dependent on availability of native fruits, and reflected a “high‐cost, high‐yield” foraging strategy when fresh food was scarce and dry fruit was available in plantation forest. Conversely, wild‐feeding northern pigtailed macaque populations inhabiting pristine habitat approached a “low‐cost, low‐yield” foraging strategy. Our results outline the effects of habitat degradation on foraging strategies and show how a flexible species can cope with its nutritional requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailBirth control in urban macaques: Description of a tubectomy program and post-op monitoring in Macaca fascicularis, Indonesia
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Deleuze, Stefan ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege et al

Conference (2020, February 10)

In Asia, primates and humans are increasingly forced to share space, and often enter in conflict when primates proliferate in anthropogenic environments. Reproductive control is increasingly used to limit ... [more ▼]

In Asia, primates and humans are increasingly forced to share space, and often enter in conflict when primates proliferate in anthropogenic environments. Reproductive control is increasingly used to limit population growth but very few monitoring data are available. Therefore, the efficiency and implications of such programs require a careful examination. Our research aims to assess the adequacy and implications of a three-year sterilization program in wild female long-tailed macaques in Ubud, Bali. We present the rationales behind the selected methods (surgical approach of endoscopic tubectomy and giant trapping cages for captures) and we describe the demographic population model used to establish the objectives of population growth control. We then present the outcomes of this program and the postoperative monitoring results. 137 females underwent tubectomy over four successive campaigns between 2017 and 2019, which represented 45% of the sexually mature females of the population. The survival rate was very high (96%) six months after sterilization and no major postoperative complication were recorded. No novel pregnancy in treated females was observed, reflecting a 100% success rate of the procedure. Moreover, the surgical approach was also applicable for pregnant females since 26% of the treated females were pregnant at the time of the surgery and 77% of them experienced term delivery. Overall, this study case demonstrates the safety and efficiency of tubectomy sterilization as mean of population control in wild macaques. A demographical and behavioural monitoring is currently in progress to provide a global evaluation of the implications of such programs [less ▲]

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See detailSocial influence on the expression of robbing and bartering behaviours in Balinese long‑tailed macaques
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Holzner, Anna; Jorge‑Sales, Lucía et al

in Animal Cognition (2019), 23(2), 311-326

Animals use social information, available from conspecifics, to learn and express novel and adaptive behaviours. Amongst social learning mechanisms, response facilitation occurs when observing a ... [more ▼]

Animals use social information, available from conspecifics, to learn and express novel and adaptive behaviours. Amongst social learning mechanisms, response facilitation occurs when observing a demonstrator performing a behaviour temporarily increases the probability that the observer will perform the same behaviour shortly after. We studied “robbing and bartering” (RB), two behaviours routinely displayed by free-ranging long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at Uluwatu Temple, Bali, Indonesia. When robbing, a monkey steals an inedible object from a visitor and may use this object as a token by exchanging it for food with the temple staff (bartering). We tested whether the expression of RB-related behaviours could be explained by response facilitation and was influenced by model-based biases (i.e. dominance rank, age, experience and success of the demonstrator). We compared video-recorded focal samples of 44 witness individuals (WF) immediately after they observed an RB-related event performed by group members, and matched-control focal samples (MCF) of the same focal subjects, located at similar distance from former demonstrators (N = 43 subjects), but in the absence of any RB-related demonstrations. We found that the synchronized expression of robbing and bartering could be explained by response facilitation. Both behaviours occurred significantly more often during WF than during MCF. Following a contagion-like effect, the rate of robbing behaviour displayed by the witness increased with the cumulative rate of robbing behaviour performed by demonstrators, but this effect was not found for the bartering behaviour. The expression of RB was not influenced by model-based biases. Our results support the cultural nature of the RB practice in the Uluwatu macaques. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen pigtailed macaques cannot select for optimal sleeping sites in degraded habitat
Gazagne, Eva ULiege; Savini, Tommaso ULiege; Ngoprasert, Dusit et al

Conference (2019, October 10)

Primates spend half of their lives in sleeping sites and should select them carefully to maximize fitness. Sleeping site selection in degraded habitat, with reduced availability and quality of resources ... [more ▼]

Primates spend half of their lives in sleeping sites and should select them carefully to maximize fitness. Sleeping site selection in degraded habitat, with reduced availability and quality of resources, is therefore likely to play a leading role in primates’ survival. We aimed to assess the impact of habitat degradation on sleeping site selection patterns in a troop of northern pigtailed macaques, using 3 non-mutually exclusive hypotheses: null hypothesis of random selection, predation avoidance, and food proximity. We identified 107 sleeping sites with only 15 reused sites selected at random in the Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve, northeastern Thailand. After analyzing forest structure at sleeping sites and random sites, we found a general low availability of large and tall trees. Our results show that macaques did not select sleeping sites at random; probability of site selection increased in familiar areas with a high number of stems and with emergent trees. Following the predator avoidance hypothesis, these characteristics are likely to facilitate macaques escape in case of predator attack and also to decrease predator detection at their sleeping sites. Additionally, the food proximity hypothesis seems to be the leading strategy in explaining sleeping sites selection of this degraded habitat. Macaques multiplied their sleeping sites following food distribution, and slept inside or in close proximity to their feeding area, which is likely to maximize their energy intake. Our results highlight the impact habitat degradation may have on sleeping site selection in a flexible species. [less ▲]

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See detailBirth control in urban macaques: Description of an endoscopic tubectomy procedure and post-op monitoring
Deleuze, Stefan ULiege; Polet, Roland ULiege; Gede, Soma et al

Conference (2019, October 10)

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See detailFaire face à une faible disponibilité en fruits dans un habitat dégradé : rôle des plantations chez les macaques à queue de cochon (Macaca leonina) en Thaïlande.
Gazagne, Eva ULiege; José Domínguez, Juan Manuel; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege et al

Conference (2019, October 04)

Etudier les facteurs impactant l’utilisation de l’habitat ainsi que les stratégies de recherche alimentaire chez les primates résidents dans des habitats dégradés, est indispensable pour pouvoir mettre en ... [more ▼]

Etudier les facteurs impactant l’utilisation de l’habitat ainsi que les stratégies de recherche alimentaire chez les primates résidents dans des habitats dégradés, est indispensable pour pouvoir mettre en place des stratégies de conservation efficaces. Nous avons étudié l’écologie du mouvement, le domaine vital et les stratégies de recherche alimentaire pendant 14 mois, d’une troupe de macaques à queue-de-cochon du nord (Macaca leonina) de 141± 10 individus dans le fragment forestier dégradé de la réserve de biosphère Sakaerat, située au Nord-Ouest de la Thaïlande. Nous avons analysé ces objectifs en utilisant les méthodes récentes suivantes en fonction de la disponibilité en fruit : les modèles d’Hidden Markov et les polygones caractéristiques de Hull. Nos résultats montrent que la troupe étudiée a un domaine vital total de 599 ha qui couvre la Forêt native Sèche Sempervirente (FSS) et de vieilles plantations d’acacias et d’eucalyptus. Lors des périodes de forte disponibilité en fruits natifs, les macaques recherchent activement de la nourriture à l’intérieur de la FSS (i.e. mouvements lents et variables). A l’inverse, lors des périodes de faibles disponibilités en fruits natifs, les macaques passent plus fréquemment d’un état de recherche alimentaire à un état de transit (i.e. mouvements rapides et orientés). Ils élargissent leurs déplacements aux plantations et zone lisières avec une plus faible fidélité au site quotidienne, bien que les domaines vitaux et trajet parcourus journaliers ne soient pas significativement plus grands. En revanche, les macaques adaptent leur régime alimentaire en consommant significativement plus de fruits secs exotiques comme les graines d’acacia. En combinant pour la première fois de nouvelles analyses sur l’écologie du mouvement et le domaine vital, notre étude montre que les macaques à queue-de-cochon adaptent la dynamique de leur mouvement, leur profil de déplacement ainsi que leur régime alimentaire en fonction de la disponibilité en fruit natif. Ces patrons indiquent que les macaques consomment les ressources prédictibles des plantations et ont tendance à suivre la stratégie de maximisation de l’énergie pour faire face à de faibles disponibilités alimentaires. Cette stratégie énergétique est différente de celle utilisé par leurs congénères habitant la forêt pristine du parc national de Khao Yai située près de Sakaerat, qui ont tendance à minimiser leurs dépenses énergétiques lors de faibles disponibilités en fruit, en diminuant leur domaine vitaux et déplacement quotidiens. Ces résultats approfondissent les connaissances sur l’écologie de cette espèce vulnérable et peu connue, et révèlent un des effets potentiels de la dégradation de l’habitat : la modification des stratégies énergétiques chez les macaques. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of reproductive status in social network of female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis)
Giraud, Gwennan ULiege; Larrivaz, Marine; Wandia, Nengah et al

Conference (2019, October 02)

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See detailImpact of habitat degradation in northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina) sleeping site selection pattern
Gazagne, Eva ULiege; Savini, Tommaso ULiege; Crane, Matt et al

Conference (2019, June 24)

Primates spend half of their lives at sleeping sites and should select them carefully. Macaques usually use about thirty sleeping sites and their selection respond primarily to predation avoidance. We ... [more ▼]

Primates spend half of their lives at sleeping sites and should select them carefully. Macaques usually use about thirty sleeping sites and their selection respond primarily to predation avoidance. We studied a northern pigtailed macaques troop sleeping sites selection pattern in a degraded forest fragment, the Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve in Thailand. We identified 107 sleeping sites with only 15 reused sites selected at random. Using resource selection function, we found that macaques sleeping site selection is best explained by proximity to feeding areas. Preliminary study of habitat characteristic suggests that there is no structural difference between selected and available sleeping trees in the troop home range. In degraded habitat where forest structure does not offer optimal sleeping trees against predators and with scattered fruit tree distribution, macaques seem to favor strategy based on food resources proximity. These results highlight impact of habitat degradation may have on sleeping site selection in a flexible species. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (5 ULiège)
See detailPhysiological and behavioural responses to habitat fragmentation by black lion tamarins
Kaisin, Olivier ULiege; Culot, Laurence ULiege; Poncin, Pascal ULiege et al

Conference (2018, November 13)

Habitat fragmentation is one of the major threats hanging over primate populations in South America. Before affecting primates at a population level, environmental perturbations affect the physiology of ... [more ▼]

Habitat fragmentation is one of the major threats hanging over primate populations in South America. Before affecting primates at a population level, environmental perturbations affect the physiology of the individuals. Glucocorticoids (GCs), often referred to as stress hormones, are metabolic hormones which mediate the energetic demands needed to overcome predictable and unpredictable environmental and social challenges. These physiological biomarkers play a key role in enabling individuals to respond to stressors and restore physiological homeostasis. How primates adapt to habitat fragmentation pressures remains poorly understood. The aim of this research is to investigate the physiological and behavioural responses of the endangered black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) living in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a habitat particularly affected by fragmentation. The three specific objectives of this research are: (1) reviewing the effect of anthropogenic habitat disturbance on the well-being of primates, (2) analysing variation in chronic stress of tamarins in different forest fragment quality, and (3) relating transient stress levels to behavioural patterns. The first objective will consist of an extensive bibliographic research to identify how habitat disturbance variables affect primate well-being. Regarding physiological markers, we will use two different matrixes to measure GC concentrations. First, GC levels in hair samples (hair cortisol concentrations-HCC) will provide us with information on long term adrenocortical activity, recounting the animal’s chronic stress levels. Second, faecal GC levels will inform us about short term exposure to stress unfolding the animal’s daily fluctuations. Consequently, to approach the second objective, we will compare habitat quality with the HCCs of six tamarin groups living in fragments of different quality. For the third objective, we will compare faecal GC levels with behaviour patterns collected during daily follow-ups of three tamarin groups. This project will be conducted as a joint-PhD between ULiège and the Sao Paulo State University (Brazil). Evaluating stress levels in primate populations living in fragmented landscapes can shed light on how primates respond to such habitat perturbations and how significant it is for their survival. [less ▲]

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See detailForaging strategies underlying bird egg predation by macaques: A study using artificial nests
Kaisin, Olivier ULiege; Gazagne, Eva ULiege; Savini, Tommaso ULiege et al

in American Journal of Primatology (2018), 80(11),

Bird egg predation is widespread in non-human primates. Although nest predation is often described as opportunistic, little is known about foraging strategies and nest detection in primates. Since it is ... [more ▼]

Bird egg predation is widespread in non-human primates. Although nest predation is often described as opportunistic, little is known about foraging strategies and nest detection in primates. Since it is the prevalent cause of nest failure in the tropics, birds select nest sites within specific microhabitats and use different nest types to increase nesting success. Identifying the nests targeted by the northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina), an omnivorous cercopithecine species, and known nest predator, will shine light on nest foraging strategies in primates. The aim of this research was to reveal if nest predation is a selective or opportunistic feeding behavior. We studied, using artificial nests and camera traps, the influence of nest type (open-cup vs. cavity), microhabitat (i.e., understory density, canopy cover, canopy height, ground cover, and presence vs. absence of thorns and lianas), and nest height, on nest predation by a troop of northern pigtailed macaques in the Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve (Thailand), a degraded environment. In our study, macaque predation on artificial nests was high; out of the200nests thatwereset up, 112were plunderedbymacaques. Althoughpredation ratesdecreasedwithnest height,nest type,andmicrohabitathadnosignificant effecton predation by macaques. Nest detectability and accessibility did not affect predation rates. Macaques actively searched for nests in different microhabitats, suggesting that nest predation by this primate might be considered a selective feeding behavior in this degraded habitat. Consequently, nest predation by this primate might have important conservation implications on the population dynamics of forest-dwelling bird species. Behavior observation methods, such as instantaneous scan sampling, may underesti- mate nest predation by primates, a furtive and cryptic behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyser les avantages et inconvénients des stérilisations de primates en milieux anthropisés: une étude de cas des macaques balinais
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Broens, Damien ULiege; Delooz, Sophie ULiege et al

Conference (2018, October 18)

Les macaques et les hommes sont aujourd’hui contraints de partager leurs habitats, conduisant souvent à des situations conflictuelles lorsque ces premiers prolifèrent en milieux urbains. Ce phénomène ... [more ▼]

Les macaques et les hommes sont aujourd’hui contraints de partager leurs habitats, conduisant souvent à des situations conflictuelles lorsque ces premiers prolifèrent en milieux urbains. Ce phénomène s’accroit en Asie où certaines espèces survivent et tirent profit des habitats anthropisés et de leurs ressources, alors que d’autres sont en déclin. Récemment, les programmes de contrôle des naissances (via stérilisation permanente ou contraception) se multiplient afin de contrôler l’expansion locale de certaines populations dites « à problème ». Cette approche représente une alternative plus éthique à l’élimination, voire dans certains cas à la translocation. Cependant, les effets et les implications de ces programmes restent largement méconnus. Très peu d’études décrivent la manière dont la stérilité provoquée impacte ou non l’environnement social et le comportement des individus traités, ainsi que de leur groupe. L’objectif de notre recherche est d’investiguer les réponses physiologiques, comportementales et sociales de macaques à longue-queue (Macaca fascicularis) femelles adultes inclues depuis 2017 dans un programme de stérilisation (par ligature des trompes) dans le sanctuaire Monkey Forest Ubud à Bali, en Indonésie. A travers un monitoring éthologique comportemental (basé sur +/- 1000 heures de données focales collectées depuis 2017 via la méthode du focal individuel de 15 minutes combiné à des scans de groupe à intervalle de 5 minutes) et démographique (via comptages mensuels systématiques) à long-terme, nous mesurons le niveau d’activités que les femelles mobilisent au regard de leur condition (stérilisées vs. contrôles) et nous quantifions les indicateurs comportementaux d’anxiété (agressions et comportements autodirigés) afin d’évaluer également les implications des stérilisations en termes de bien-être. Pour cette communication, nous décrirons dans un premier temps le contexte de la population cible (i.e., forte densité démographique, et intensification du conflit humain-macaque et de la tension sociale au sein des groupes de macaques), les objectifs du programme de stérilisation (i.e., taux de croissance visé et modélisation du nombre de femelles à stériliser), et les méthodologies utilisées pour les captures et les stérilisations. Dans un second temps, nous présenterons les résultats préliminaires sur le suivi des femelles stérilisées et les différences éventuelles observées avec les femelles contrôles. Lors la première année qui suit leur stérilisation, les femelles montrent des budgets d’activités globalement similaires aux femelles contrôles. Ce résultat à court-terme s’explique par la technique de stérilisation sélectionnée (i.e., ligature des trompes) qui n’annule pas la production de stéroïdes ovariens, et ainsi n’impacte pas directement le comportement. La seconde étape de nos recherches consiste maintenant à analyser l’évolution du profil comportemental sur le long-terme afin d’évaluer l’impact éventuel des cycles non-féconds répétés et de l’absence permanente de nouveaux jeunes chez les femelles stérilisées. Ces implications seront discutées à travers une analyse des avantages et des inconvénients de ce type de programme. [less ▲]

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See detailLiving Together: Enjeux et Gestion des Macaques dans les Temples. Etude de Cas à Bali – Indonésie
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (1 ULiège)