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See detailInvestigating the social dynamics of free-ranging long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) under birth control: A tool for primate management in urban environments
Giraud, Gwennan ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Broens, Damien ULiege et al

Conference (2018, November 13)

Worldwide, the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats, especially tropical forests, lead to a multiplication of contacts and conflicts between humans and wild primates. Developing means of population ... [more ▼]

Worldwide, the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats, especially tropical forests, lead to a multiplication of contacts and conflicts between humans and wild primates. Developing means of population control and strategies for coexistence is urgently needed. Surprisingly, while birth control programs are spreading, particularly in Asia, the assessment of their efficiency and impacts on primates’ behaviour remains a neglected area of research. The main goal of this research is to test the effects of birth control programs on social dynamics of wild primate populations living in urban environments. We take advantage of an ongoing female sterilization program in one population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) living in a sanctuary in Bali (Indonesia) to address research questions concerning the impact on individual and social behaviour. This research aims to measure the implications of birth control on sexual competition and social network. We present here preliminary results in Ubud of the 6 first months after the first sterilization event of July 2017. These preliminary results showed that the first sterilization campaign does not seem impacting on stress levels, infant interest-related behaviours or centrality of the sterilized females (distances: contact, <1m, <5m). Even if there are not significant results, the sexual motivation of these females is preserved and shows a slight increase. The mean time that the sterilized females are inspected is longer than for the control ones, probably because the former are longer available for mating. The inter-birth intervals are around 1 year for this species, so we will keep going working on our dataset to study on a long-term basis the potential behavioural changes due to the sterilization program. [less ▲]

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See detailPros and cons of primate sterilization in anthropogenic habitats: A study case of Balinese macaques
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Giraud, Gwennan ULiege; Broens, Damien ULiege et al

Conference (2018, November 13)

Worldwide, primates and humans are increasingly forced to share space, and often enter in conflict when primates proliferate in anthropogenic environments. Although many primate species are concerned, the ... [more ▼]

Worldwide, primates and humans are increasingly forced to share space, and often enter in conflict when primates proliferate in anthropogenic environments. Although many primate species are concerned, the genus Macaca exhibits one of the highest degrees of spatial overlap with humans. Reproductive control is increasingly used to limit population growth as an ethical alternative to culling and translocation. However, the impact of birth control on free-ranging primates remains a neglected area of research, especially when it comes to those using tubectomy. Therefore, the efficiency and implications of such programs requires a careful examination. Our research aims to investigate the demographical, behavioral and social responses of wild female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) included in a tubectomy sterilization program in Ubud, Bali. Rationales for choosing the surgical approach of endoscopic tubectomy are: targeting philopatric females, effective and permanent technique which limits multiple captures, less invasive and maintaining intact the sex steroid hormone secretion contrary to ovariectomy. To solve the challenging issue of capture in free-ranging settings, we choose giant trapping cages in order to achieve a high number of captures while minimizing stress and discomfort for the macaques. The specific objective of the program is to stop the exponential growth of the population, while preserving its longterm survival and viability. Therefore, based on stage-structured matrix population models, it has been modeled that 52% of the adult females have to be sterilized to reach this objective. So far, we conducted two sterilization campaigns including 42 adult females sterilized without any postop complications. Captures with trapping cages were successful and showed no negative impacts as macaques re-used the cages very quickly. The ethological monitoring of sterilized females revealed that, compared to control females, they were more active and engaged in sexual interactions with males, probably because they are experiencing repeated non-conceptive ovarian cycles. However, they did not show higher proportion of stress-related behaviours or alloparental behaviours. We are pursuing this study in order to assess any long-term impact of tubectomy such as a disturbance of the female social position and of the group cohesion. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiological and behavioural responses to habitat fragmentation by black lion tamarins
Kaisin, Olivier ULiege; Culot, Laurence ULiege; Poncin, Pascal ULiege et al

Conference (2018, November 13)

Habitat fragmentation is one of the major threats hanging over primate populations in South America. Before affecting primates at a population level, environmental perturbations affect the physiology of ... [more ▼]

Habitat fragmentation is one of the major threats hanging over primate populations in South America. Before affecting primates at a population level, environmental perturbations affect the physiology of the individuals. Glucocorticoids (GCs), often referred to as stress hormones, are metabolic hormones which mediate the energetic demands needed to overcome predictable and unpredictable environmental and social challenges. These physiological biomarkers play a key role in enabling individuals to respond to stressors and restore physiological homeostasis. How primates adapt to habitat fragmentation pressures remains poorly understood. The aim of this research is to investigate the physiological and behavioural responses of the endangered black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) living in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a habitat particularly affected by fragmentation. The three specific objectives of this research are: (1) reviewing the effect of anthropogenic habitat disturbance on the well-being of primates, (2) analysing variation in chronic stress of tamarins in different forest fragment quality, and (3) relating transient stress levels to behavioural patterns. The first objective will consist of an extensive bibliographic research to identify how habitat disturbance variables affect primate well-being. Regarding physiological markers, we will use two different matrixes to measure GC concentrations. First, GC levels in hair samples (hair cortisol concentrations-HCC) will provide us with information on long term adrenocortical activity, recounting the animal’s chronic stress levels. Second, faecal GC levels will inform us about short term exposure to stress unfolding the animal’s daily fluctuations. Consequently, to approach the second objective, we will compare habitat quality with the HCCs of six tamarin groups living in fragments of different quality. For the third objective, we will compare faecal GC levels with behaviour patterns collected during daily follow-ups of three tamarin groups. This project will be conducted as a joint-PhD between ULiège and the Sao Paulo State University (Brazil). Evaluating stress levels in primate populations living in fragmented landscapes can shed light on how primates respond to such habitat perturbations and how significant it is for their survival. [less ▲]

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See detailForaging strategies underlying bird egg predation by macaques: A study using artificial nests
Kaisin, Olivier ULiege; Gazagne, Eva ULiege; Savini, Tommaso ULiege et al

in American Journal of Primatology (2018), 80(11),

Bird egg predation is widespread in non-human primates. Although nest predation is often described as opportunistic, little is known about foraging strategies and nest detection in primates. Since it is ... [more ▼]

Bird egg predation is widespread in non-human primates. Although nest predation is often described as opportunistic, little is known about foraging strategies and nest detection in primates. Since it is the prevalent cause of nest failure in the tropics, birds select nest sites within specific microhabitats and use different nest types to increase nesting success. Identifying the nests targeted by the northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina), an omnivorous cercopithecine species, and known nest predator, will shine light on nest foraging strategies in primates. The aim of this research was to reveal if nest predation is a selective or opportunistic feeding behavior. We studied, using artificial nests and camera traps, the influence of nest type (open-cup vs. cavity), microhabitat (i.e., understory density, canopy cover, canopy height, ground cover, and presence vs. absence of thorns and lianas), and nest height, on nest predation by a troop of northern pigtailed macaques in the Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve (Thailand), a degraded environment. In our study, macaque predation on artificial nests was high; out of the200nests thatwereset up, 112were plunderedbymacaques. Althoughpredation ratesdecreasedwithnest height,nest type,andmicrohabitathadnosignificant effecton predation by macaques. Nest detectability and accessibility did not affect predation rates. Macaques actively searched for nests in different microhabitats, suggesting that nest predation by this primate might be considered a selective feeding behavior in this degraded habitat. Consequently, nest predation by this primate might have important conservation implications on the population dynamics of forest-dwelling bird species. Behavior observation methods, such as instantaneous scan sampling, may underesti- mate nest predation by primates, a furtive and cryptic behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyser les avantages et inconvénients des stérilisations de primates en milieux anthropisés: une étude de cas des macaques balinais
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Broens, Damien ULiege; Delooz, Sophie ULiege et al

Conference (2018, October 18)

Les macaques et les hommes sont aujourd’hui contraints de partager leurs habitats, conduisant souvent à des situations conflictuelles lorsque ces premiers prolifèrent en milieux urbains. Ce phénomène ... [more ▼]

Les macaques et les hommes sont aujourd’hui contraints de partager leurs habitats, conduisant souvent à des situations conflictuelles lorsque ces premiers prolifèrent en milieux urbains. Ce phénomène s’accroit en Asie où certaines espèces survivent et tirent profit des habitats anthropisés et de leurs ressources, alors que d’autres sont en déclin. Récemment, les programmes de contrôle des naissances (via stérilisation permanente ou contraception) se multiplient afin de contrôler l’expansion locale de certaines populations dites « à problème ». Cette approche représente une alternative plus éthique à l’élimination, voire dans certains cas à la translocation. Cependant, les effets et les implications de ces programmes restent largement méconnus. Très peu d’études décrivent la manière dont la stérilité provoquée impacte ou non l’environnement social et le comportement des individus traités, ainsi que de leur groupe. L’objectif de notre recherche est d’investiguer les réponses physiologiques, comportementales et sociales de macaques à longue-queue (Macaca fascicularis) femelles adultes inclues depuis 2017 dans un programme de stérilisation (par ligature des trompes) dans le sanctuaire Monkey Forest Ubud à Bali, en Indonésie. A travers un monitoring éthologique comportemental (basé sur +/- 1000 heures de données focales collectées depuis 2017 via la méthode du focal individuel de 15 minutes combiné à des scans de groupe à intervalle de 5 minutes) et démographique (via comptages mensuels systématiques) à long-terme, nous mesurons le niveau d’activités que les femelles mobilisent au regard de leur condition (stérilisées vs. contrôles) et nous quantifions les indicateurs comportementaux d’anxiété (agressions et comportements autodirigés) afin d’évaluer également les implications des stérilisations en termes de bien-être. Pour cette communication, nous décrirons dans un premier temps le contexte de la population cible (i.e., forte densité démographique, et intensification du conflit humain-macaque et de la tension sociale au sein des groupes de macaques), les objectifs du programme de stérilisation (i.e., taux de croissance visé et modélisation du nombre de femelles à stériliser), et les méthodologies utilisées pour les captures et les stérilisations. Dans un second temps, nous présenterons les résultats préliminaires sur le suivi des femelles stérilisées et les différences éventuelles observées avec les femelles contrôles. Lors la première année qui suit leur stérilisation, les femelles montrent des budgets d’activités globalement similaires aux femelles contrôles. Ce résultat à court-terme s’explique par la technique de stérilisation sélectionnée (i.e., ligature des trompes) qui n’annule pas la production de stéroïdes ovariens, et ainsi n’impacte pas directement le comportement. La seconde étape de nos recherches consiste maintenant à analyser l’évolution du profil comportemental sur le long-terme afin d’évaluer l’impact éventuel des cycles non-féconds répétés et de l’absence permanente de nouveaux jeunes chez les femelles stérilisées. Ces implications seront discutées à travers une analyse des avantages et des inconvénients de ce type de programme. [less ▲]

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See detailLiving Together: Enjeux et Gestion des Macaques dans les Temples. Etude de Cas à Bali – Indonésie
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailIntergroup variation in robbing and bartering by long-tailed macaques at Uluwatu Temple (Bali, Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Giraud, Gwennan ULiege; Gunst, Noelle et al

in Primates: Journal of Primatology (2017)

Robbing and bartering (RB) is a behavioral practice anecdotally reported in free-ranging commensal macaques. It usually occurs in two steps: after taking inedible objects (e.g., glasses) from humans, the ... [more ▼]

Robbing and bartering (RB) is a behavioral practice anecdotally reported in free-ranging commensal macaques. It usually occurs in two steps: after taking inedible objects (e.g., glasses) from humans, the macaques appear to use them as tokens, returning them to humans in exchange for food. While extensively studied in captivity, our research is the first to investigate the object/food exchange between humans and primates in a natural setting. During a 4-month study in 2010, we used both focal and event sampling to record 201 RB events in a population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), including four neighboring groups ranging freely around Uluwatu Temple, Bali (Indonesia). In each group, we documented the RB frequency, prevalence and outcome, and tested the underpinning anthropogenic and demographic determinants. In line with the environmental opportunity hypothesis, we found a positive qualitative relation at the group level between time spent in tourist zones and RB frequency or prevalence. For two of the four groups, RB events were significantly more frequent when humans were more present in the environment. We also found qualitative partial support for the male-biased sex ratio hypothesis [i.e., RB was more frequent and prevalent in groups with higher ratios of (sub)adult males], whereas the group density hypothesis was not supported. This preliminary study showed that RB is a spontaneous, customary (in some groups), and enduring population-specific practice characterized by intergroup variation in Balinese macaques. As such, RB is a candidate for a new behavioral tradition in this species. [less ▲]

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See detailReproduction control as management strategy for local overpopulation of primates in tropical human-dominated habitats: a review
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Wandia, Nengah; Poncin, Pascal ULiege et al

Conference (2017, February 08)

Today, anthropogenic pressures are posing major challenges to Asian primates, forced either to adapt ecologically and behaviourally to the human massive encroachment into natural habitats, or to disappear ... [more ▼]

Today, anthropogenic pressures are posing major challenges to Asian primates, forced either to adapt ecologically and behaviourally to the human massive encroachment into natural habitats, or to disappear. Species ability to survive in human-modified habitats greatly varies, with generalist species, such as Cercopithecines, being more likely to thrive. Several macaque species in particular proliferate in situations of commensal association with humans, which leads sometimes to local overpopulation. High density of primates, resulting from the combined effect of population spatial compression and positive demographics, systematically induces conflicts with humans over crop-raiding and nuisance issues. Different management strategies have been deployed these last decades, going from culling or trapping programmes to sterilization campaigns. Sterilization is an ethical and flourishing solution to mitigate the human-macaque conflict by limiting the population expansion, but very few empirical data are available about their efficiency and potential side effects. We propose here to review various macaque sterilization programmes conducted in Asia, highlighting the pros and cons as well as the short- and long-term effects. As a study case, we will present data on population dynamics and side behavioural effects, as the base for an ongoing sterilization programme in a population of long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis) in Bali (Indonesia). This population has experienced a tenfold increase over the last 30 years. Vasectomy undergone by several males in a former approach was not efficient to limit births. With others, we argue that macaque’s reproductive profile requires female sterilization. The goal here is to stimulate discussion over management of forced coexistence scenarios between human and primates, since this phenomenon is an integrative part of conservation in this rapidly changing world. [less ▲]

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See detailRelation between social tension and demographic density of commensal long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Bali (Indonesia)
Giraud, Gwennan ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Wandia, I Nengah et al

in Primate Tidings (2015, December), 33

In Bali, Indonesia, Macaca fascicularis groups are sometimes leaving in situations of high density or overpopulation. Previous researches established three models in order to explain how macaques cope ... [more ▼]

In Bali, Indonesia, Macaca fascicularis groups are sometimes leaving in situations of high density or overpopulation. Previous researches established three models in order to explain how macaques cope with high-density conditions. We tested the validity of these models for free-ranging M. fascicularis, considered as less despotic than M. mulatta on which the models have been originally tested by comparing free-ranging and captive populations. Allowing the increasing ecological validity of our research’s conclusions, the free-ranging macaques we studied had a time window of life in high density condition long enough to set up an efficient and well-established social coping strategies. The study sites of Ubud and Uluwatu consisted of respectively six and five groups of M. fascicularis. We collected demographic data using a procession counting method, and behavioural data using focal and all-occurrence sampling methods. We assessed home range size using the daily group’s GPS location. Although Ubud is a crowded space while Uluwatu is not, we recorded less home range overlap between groups in Ubud in comparison to Uluwatu. Although global aggression did not differ between both populations, aggressive and submissive time increased whereas affiliative time decreased when density increased. According to the activity budget, while time spent in affiliative contacts was shorter in higher density condition, time spent in distant affiliative behaviours was longer. Females of both populations spent longer aggressive time than males but, although they increased more submissive time and decreased more affiliative time, their increase of aggressive time was lower than this of males when density increased. A plateau in aggressions occurred when density increased. In the study conditions, macaques seem to become more hierarchically structured that known for the species. However, some evidences seem to indicate they could become less despotic as well, supporting the coping model originally tested on M. mulatta. Macaca fascicularis could be expected to combine two different coping strategies to cope with high densities. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in Activity Patterns and Intergroup Relationships After a Significant Mortality Event in Commensal Long- Tailed Macaques (Macaca Fascicularis) in Bali, Indonesia
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Fuentes, Agustin; Wandia, I Nengah et al

in International Journal of Primatology (2015), 36(3), 548566

Little is known regarding behavioral and social responses of free-ranging primates to demographic changes emerging from significant mortality events. Here, we report on the activity patterns and ... [more ▼]

Little is known regarding behavioral and social responses of free-ranging primates to demographic changes emerging from significant mortality events. Here, we report on the activity patterns and intergroup sociospatial relationships in a commensal population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Bali, Indonesia, that underwent a significant mortality event in summer 2012. During the period of interest, we noted heightened mortality in three of the five social groups present in this population, with adult females and juveniles experiencing higher mortality rates than adult and subadult males. Limited diagnostic data regarding pathogen identification and a lack of any conclusive etiology of the deaths prevent our ascertainment of the agent(s) responsible for the observed mortality, but given the characteristics of the event we assume it was caused by a transmissible disease outbreak. Comparing the pre- and postmortality event periods, we found significant differences in activity patterns, including a decreased proportion of affiliation in adult females. This result is likely indicative of enhanced social instability induced by the high mortality of adult females that constitute the stable core of macaque social structure. A higher social tension between groups after the mortality event was indicated by more frequent and intense agonistic intergroup encounters. Intergroup conflict success was inversely proportional to the rate of mortality a group suffered. Our results illustrate how changes in demographic structure caused by significant mortality events may have substantial consequences on behavior and social dynamics in primate groups and at the level of a population. [less ▲]

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See detailMonkey business: Inter-group differences in the object/food bartering practice in Balinese macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the Uluwatu Temple, Indonesia
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noelle et al

in Folia Primatologica: International Journal of Primatology (2015), 86

While there is increasing evidence for the social transmission of behavioural innovations and intergroup behavioural variation in a wide range of nonhuman primate taxa, some behavioural domains (e.g ... [more ▼]

While there is increasing evidence for the social transmission of behavioural innovations and intergroup behavioural variation in a wide range of nonhuman primate taxa, some behavioural domains (e.g., tool use) are far more represented than others (e.g., arbitrary social conventions) in the literature. Our study explores the ‘object/food bartering’ activity in the free-ranging long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, living around the Uluwatu temple, southern Bali (Indonesia). This practice occurs in two steps: after robbing temple visitors of non-edible objects, the monkeys use these objects as tokens, by returning them in exchange for specific food rewards. This spontaneous population-level activity is customary and enduring at Uluwatu, whereas it is very rare or absent at other macaque-tourism sites across the island. During a fourmonth study in 2010 at Uluwatu, we used the all-occurrence sampling technique to record 186 successful events of object-robbing, where 95 (51%) were followed by object/food bartering attempts. In line with the ‘needing-to-learn’ hypothesis, we found that older individuals were significantly more efficient at robbing valuable objects and more successful at exchanging them for food than younger individuals. We also found substantial differences in the frequency and form of the bartering practice (n = 95 events) among the four social groups constituting the Uluwatu population, with two groups (‘Temple’: 60% of the bartering events, ‘Tear’: 34%) being responsible for more frequent bartering events than the two other groups (‘Scarface’: 4%, ‘Nez’: 2%). We investigated the role of group-specific environmental and anthropic influences (food provisioning and degree of human presence) in such intergroup differences. Taken together, these preliminary results suggest that the bartering practice could be a local behavioural tradition in Balinese macaques. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of Nest Sites of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Kibira National Park, Burundi
Hakizimana, Dismas; Hambuckers, Alain ULiege; Brotcorne, Fany ULiege et al

in African Primates (2015), 10

Abstract: Kibira National Park is the only site in Burundi that harbors a large number of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). While information on factors influencing the selection of nest sites ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Kibira National Park is the only site in Burundi that harbors a large number of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). While information on factors influencing the selection of nest sites by chimpanzees is available for other locations of the species’ range, this information is lacking for Kibira National Park. This is mainly due to the political troubles that prevailed in the country from 1993 until 2007, making study there difficult. To better protect this chimpanzee population, it is crucial to survey nest sites to identify the tree species, physical characteristics of the trees and habitat type that chimpanzees preferentially use for nesting. Therefore, in this study, we investigated: 1) the tree species used by chimpanzees for building their nests; 2) nest tree availability in the study area; 3) whether chimpanzee selection of a nest tree is based on physical characteristics such as diameter at breast height, lowest branch height, tree size and crown height; and 4) whether chimpanzees choose their nest sites according to topography and canopy types. We collected data monthly along 16 transects of 3 km each, from September 2011 to February 2013 (18 months). However, data related to the measurements of nests and nest trees were collected for only the last 12 months, from March 2012 to February 2013. We identified tree species used for nesting, and measured physical characteristics of trees used as opposed to surrounding trees unused. The results showed that chimpanzees select certain tree species to build their nests. Among the 32 species of trees bearing nests, chimpanzees used 12 species significantly more frequently than expected and 11 species significantly less frequently than expected. In addition, trees bearing nests were significantly larger and taller than the surrounding trees and had higher lowest branch and bigger canopies. [less ▲]

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See detailAn ethnoprimatological approach of the human-macaque interactions at the Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali (Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Fuentes, Agustin; Wandia, I Nengah et al

Conference (2014, September 24)

Macaque tourism, i.e. a tourist activity focusing on wild macaques as main attraction, is an example of the bourgeoning and diversified human-macaque interactions in Southeast Asia. Although both people ... [more ▼]

Macaque tourism, i.e. a tourist activity focusing on wild macaques as main attraction, is an example of the bourgeoning and diversified human-macaque interactions in Southeast Asia. Although both people and macaques can benefit from their interactions at tourist sites, this activity also raises several conservation and management issues which are essential to understand in order to promote a sustainable coexistence. Using an ethnoprimatological approach, we provide here an assessment of the effect of a long-term management regime at the very popular tourist Ubud Monkey Forest in Bali, Indonesia. Over a four-month period in 2013, we characterized the visitor-macaque interactions with ethological methods and we compared our data with those collected 12 years earlier by Fuentes and colleagues. In parallel, we conducted a questionnaire survey, interviewing 99 Balinese people to assess their attitudes towards macaques and the Monkey Forest. Our results confirmed that the management efforts to reduce the aggressiveness of macaques towards visitors have been effective. Indeed, we observed a considerable reduction of the frequency and intensity of agonistic interspecies interactions. However, the interactions between macaques and visitors frequently involved close physical contact, such as during provisioning. Men on the human side, and adult or subadult males on the macaque side, were the groups the most frequently involved in these types of interaction. A reinforcement of the management practices limiting close interspecies contact interactions by targeting the most exposed groups, is therefore necessary in order to reduce the risk of pathogen cross-species transmission. Our questionnaire survey revealed globally a high level of tolerance of local people towards macaques in Ubud. These positive attitudes were determined by the economic and cultural benefits derived from the macaque presence and tourism activity, as far as they compensate for the nuisances caused by macaques. Crop raiding in cultivated fields surrounding the Monkey Forest was still a source of tension which would require further management efforts including the development of open buffer zones. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioral ecology and commensal long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Bali, Indonesia: impact of anthropic factors
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Coexistence between humans and wildlife is one of the major challenge to biodiversity conservation in the onset of this new millennium. In addition to the development of protected areas providing refuges ... [more ▼]

Coexistence between humans and wildlife is one of the major challenge to biodiversity conservation in the onset of this new millennium. In addition to the development of protected areas providing refuges for wildlife populations, another option relies on the sharing of space, i.e., tolerating wildlife living alongside human populations in non-protected interface zones. During the last century, massive human encroachment into wildlife natural habitat has led to an increasing number of worldwide interface zones and a consecutive intensification of the human-wildlife conflict which is likely to escalate further as human populations rapidly expand. However, conflict does not account for all the scenarios since diverse forms of interaction between humans and wildlife exist. The human-nonhuman primate commensalism is one of these possible interspecies associations. Commensal (or synanthropic) primates are free-ranging populations ecologically associated with humans in anthropogenic habitats and taking advantage of human food, waste or crops to supplement their diet. In Bali, Indonesia, humans and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) already have a long history of coexistence. The forest-agricultural matrix landscape of the island and the numerous religious Hindu temples provide habitat patches for macaques sometimes living in very close proximity to humans. The opportunistic style of this species enables it to exploit numerous habitat types. However little is known about the ways anthropic factors impact its behavioral ecology. Our intention was to conduct a comparative study which would investigate whether anthropic factors were potential drivers of the behavioral ecology and population dynamics of Balinese macaques. During a two-year period in the field (between 2009 and 2013), using a protocol including three populations of Balinese macaques made of ten social groups, we documented variations in the activity, dietary, ranging and demographic patterns between populations. We systematically investigated the anthropogenic influences (i.e. human food provisioning degree and habitat anthropization level) on those variations, and we questioned the biological significance of the responses in terms of costs and benefits. While daily following each social group of macaques, we collected spatial, behavioral and botanical data, and we further conducted bi-annual demographic census in order to estimate the status and demographic trends of the study groups. Finally, our interest was to link our results with applied concerns regarding the management of these populations interacting with humans, while taking into account the implications of these interactions from the human point of view. We found a remarkable eco-behavioral diversity between our studied populations. Human food was a central component of their ecology, macaques preferentially exploiting this resource when available while retaining their abilities to forage on natural resources. The inclination for human food was optimal for macaques as it maximized their energy intake while minimizing the time expended for food acquisition. Therefore, they adjusted their activity budget according to the proportions of human food consumed. The free time available from relaxed foraging constraints was invested into resting and social activities. Macaques were flexible in their movements, making them successful in exploiting natural forest areas as well as highly anthropogenic habitats. However, increased social tension was a cost that stemmed from high-density situations induced by excessive anthropization of their habitat. We showed that, although predation risk partially influenced the selection of sleeping trees, proximity to human settlements appeared to be the most influential factor in the essential process of sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques living at the edge of the forest and anthropogenic zones. Demographic data provide essential information to assess the status of a population and the long-term impacts of human pressures. Overall, our three studied populations displayed good reproductive performances and positive growth rates, probably due to the human food consumed. Indeed, we showed that the human food abundance in tourist sites may have diminished the density-dependence mechanism on macaques’ birth rates, to eventually inflate the size of populations. When combined with a high level of habitat anthropization, these effects have led to high local densities and even overcrowded situations with associated costs regarding within and between-group social tension and epidemic risks. In this framework, we documented the demographic and social impacts of a Streptococcus outbreak which occurred in the Ubud population in 2012. The pre- and post-epidemic study showed that macaques modified their social dynamics following a significant mortality in certain groups. This study emphasized the role of pathogens in regulating primate populations living in zones of interface with humans. Our research also contributed to identify solutions regarding management of these populations increasingly interacting with humans in Bali. We notably provided preliminary evidence that vasectomy, as sterilization technique to control for overpopulation, had no negative side-effects on social and sexual behaviors of male macaques. Finally, we assessed the effect of a ten-year management regime at the Ubud Monkey Forest, using an ethnoprimatological approach. We showed that the aggressiveness of macaques towards visitors had been effectively reduced and the high tolerance of local people towards macaques was determined by economic and cultural benefits deriving from the macaque presence. However, we also identified men and adult or subadult male macaques as the most exposed groups to a potential risk of cross-species pathogen transmission given the frequency of close physical contact interactions at this site. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Anthropic, Ecological, and Social Factors in Sleeping Site Choice by Long‐Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Maslarov, Cindy; Wandia, I. Nengah et al

in American Journal of Primatology (2014), 76

When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade‐offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human‐modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the ... [more ▼]

When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade‐offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human‐modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the influence of ecological (predation), social (intergroup competition), and anthropic (proximity to human settlements) factors in sleeping site choice by long‐tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) occupying a habitat at the interface of natural forests and human‐modified zones in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia. Over the course of 56 nights, we collected data relating to physical features of sleeping trees, patterns of the use of sleeping sites within the home range, pre‐sleep behavior, diurnal ranging patterns and availability of natural and human food. Overall, the macaques used 17 sleeping sites with 37 sleeping trees. When the monkeys slept in forest zones, they selected sleeping trees that had larger trunks but were not significantly taller than surrounding trees. Though the macaques rarely re‐used sleeping sites on consecutive nights, they frequently re‐used four sites over the study period. The group favored sleeping within the core area of its home range, despite the occurrence of frequent agonistic intergroup encounters there. Macaques preferentially selected sleeping trees located within or near human‐modified zones, especially when human food was abundant and natural food was scarce. These results partially support the hypothesis that long‐tailed macaques choose their sleeping sites to avoid predation; proximity to human settlements appears to be the primary factor influencing sleeping site choice in this primate species. Our results reflect the strong influence that anthropic factors have on primates, which subsist in increasingly human‐dominated landscapes. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal perceptions and attitudes towards synanthrope long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) living in Padangtegal Monkey forest, Bali (Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Paquay, Leila; Wandia, I.Nengah et al

in Folia Primatologica: International Journal of Primatology (2013, October 03), 85(1), 48

The sympatric relationship between humans and other primates in interface zones is a contemporary widespread phenomenon. The expanding landscapes anthropization leads to an intensification of human-other ... [more ▼]

The sympatric relationship between humans and other primates in interface zones is a contemporary widespread phenomenon. The expanding landscapes anthropization leads to an intensification of human-other primate interactions ranging from conflict to co-operation scenarios. Our study investigated the commensal relationships between long-tailed macaques and humans at the tourist Padangtegal Monkey Forest. We present here results related to human-macaque interactions and local people’s perceptions and attitudes towards the latter. We used ethological methods to quantify the nature of the interactions and we conducted a questionnaire survey to identify the macaques’ status in local public opinion. 99 respondents (62 males and 37 females) were selected in a radius of 2km around the Monkey Forest. Perceptions and attitudes were explicitly measured on self-reports and were attributed to a 4 point score. Macaques interacted with humans for 1.1% of their activity budget and these interactions were mostly aggressive (0.6%), food-related (0.4%) or neutral (0.1%). 80% of the aggressive interactions were initiated by humans but the majority aimed at protecting crops and properties from macaques’ incursions. Overall, most of the respondents had positive perceptions and attitudes towards macaques, except neighbouring landowner farmers who suffered from crop damage. Despite nuisances caused by macaques, the majority of the interviewees reported to derive compensatory economic and cultural benefits from their relationships with macaques. The religious and economic contexts might explain the high tolerance level towards macaques that represents a source of hope for a sustainable coexistence, although some management strategies minimizing crop damage still need to be reinforced. [less ▲]

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