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See detailEVALUATION OF THE SELF EFFICACY OF LEARNERS DURING INTENSIVE STATISTICAL TRAINING SESSIONS
Colaux, Catherine ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege

in Gómez Chova, L.; López Martinez, A.; Candel Torres, I. (Eds.) INTED 2019 Proceedings (2019, March)

With the growing access to spatial data, through free satellite imagery, cheap drone cameras and GPS on all sort of devices, many applications in agriculture and environmental sciences can benefit from ... [more ▼]

With the growing access to spatial data, through free satellite imagery, cheap drone cameras and GPS on all sort of devices, many applications in agriculture and environmental sciences can benefit from those new sources of data. The importance of this new field justifies the creation of lifelong learning courses. The OpenSpat [1] training course is a European master level course for adult who already have statistical skills and wish to be trained in the spatial data analysis. This course is the result of an Erasmus+ collaboration project between three partners (University of Liege, University of Lisboa and Montpellier SupAgro), and is based on free and open tools like QGIS and R. In order to assess this new course we have evaluated, during a testing session, some parameters (self-efficacy, the task value, the learners’ interest/enjoyment, the acquired competence, the professor’s attitude and the level of commitment to peer learning activities) which are related to the motivation of the learners. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation de la capacité à travailler en groupe : Impacts de deux dispositifs d’évaluation par les pairs
Colaux, Catherine ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege; Detroz, Pascal ULiege

Conference (2018, November 15)

Évaluation de la capacité à travailler en groupe : Impacts de deux dispositifs d’évaluation par les pairs La capacité à travailler en groupe joue un rôle majeur dans le métier d’ingénieur (CTI, 2016). Á ... [more ▼]

Évaluation de la capacité à travailler en groupe : Impacts de deux dispositifs d’évaluation par les pairs La capacité à travailler en groupe joue un rôle majeur dans le métier d’ingénieur (CTI, 2016). Á Gembloux Agro Bio Tech, nos étudiants sont amenés, dès leur première année, à travailler par groupes de 6 supervisés par un tuteur. Si l’enseignement basé sur la coopération est souvent qualifié de performant (Johnson, & Johnson, 2005), il est également connu pour ses difficultés liées à l'évaluation (King et Behnke, 2005). Classiquement, deux grandes méthodes se dégagent : L’évaluation par l’enseignant où une note globale et unique est attribuée au groupe (King et Behke, 2005). Ce système peut parfois générer un sentiment d’injustice chez les étudiants (Mentzer et al., 2016). L’évaluation par les pairs attribue une note individuelle calculée à partir des appréciations des pairs. Celle-ci peut toutefois favoriser l’inflation des notes attribuées aux amis, les collusions entre étudiants, l’effet de tendance centrale et l’influence des leaders (Kozanitis, 2005). Conformément à ce que recommande le plus souvent la littérature, notre dispositif d’évaluation utilise simultanément ces deux méthodes. La pondération est conforme à ce que Stevens (2007) propose, à savoir 80 % pour la note de l’enseignant et 20 % la note des pairs. Dans le cadre de cette étude, deux systèmes d’évaluation par les pairs ont été testés. Le premier repose sur une grille d’évaluation descriptive holistique. Chacun des indicateurs est décrit et associé explicitement à un score sur 10. Le second repose sur une grille d’évaluation analytique à 7 critères (engagement, délais, attitude, collaboration, Feedback, qualité du travail), sans qu’un score apparent soit associé aux indicateurs proposés. Lors de cette communication, nous évaluerons l’impact de ces deux systèmes sur la capacité des étudiants à s’autoévaluer mais aussi sur les difficultés rencontrées pour évaluer leurs pairs. Nous nous baserons sur les résultats d'une enquête soumise aux étudiants et sur une analyse de leurs évaluations. [less ▲]

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See detailHow far can consumer grade UAV RGB imagery describe crop production? A 3D and multi-temporal modelling approach applied to Zea mays
Michez, Adrien ULiege; Bauwens, Sébastien ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in Remote Sensing (2018), 10(11), 1798

In recent decades, remote sensing has increasingly been used to estimate the spatio-temporal evolution of crop biophysical parameters such as the above-ground biomass (AGB). On a local scale, the advent ... [more ▼]

In recent decades, remote sensing has increasingly been used to estimate the spatio-temporal evolution of crop biophysical parameters such as the above-ground biomass (AGB). On a local scale, the advent of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) seems to be a promising trade-off between satellite/airborne and terrestrial remote sensing. This study aims to evaluate the potential of a low-cost UAV RGB solution to predict the final AGB of Zea mays. Besides evaluating the interest of 3D data and multitemporality, our study aims to answer operational questions such as when one should plan a combination of two UAV flights for AGB modeling. In this case, study, final AGB prediction model performance reached 0.55 (R-square) using only UAV information and 0.8 (R-square) when combining UAV information from a single flight with a single-field AGB measurement. The adding of UAV height information to the model improves the quality of the AGB prediction. Performing two flights provides almost systematically an improvement in AGB prediction ability in comparison to most single flights. Our study provides clear insight about how we can counter the low spectral resolution of consumer-grade RGB cameras using height information and multitemporality. Our results highlight the importance of the height information which can be derived from UAV data on one hand, and on the other hand, the lower relative importance of RGB spectral information. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom crop fields to baker's shop, data science at every step
Brostaux, Yves ULiege

Conference (2018, October 21)

If "data science" is a recent expression, one of its parents, experimental statistics, lies back to the early 20th century. And from the beginning, it has been deeply linked to cereal science, thanks to ... [more ▼]

If "data science" is a recent expression, one of its parents, experimental statistics, lies back to the early 20th century. And from the beginning, it has been deeply linked to cereal science, thanks to the work of Ronald A. Fisher at the Rothamsted Experimental Station where he developed some of the fundamentals of experimental designs and data analyses, still widely used in every field of sciences, like the maximum likelihood principle, and the analysis of variance. As the time passed, new challenges arose. With the industrialisation came the need for optimisation of the processes, standardisation and quality control of the products, ... ; the digital revolution introduced real time monitoring in the fields and in the factories, massification of the data collection, access to aerial imagery, ...; and the -omics breakthrough recently opened the pandora box of the billions of jigsaw pieces which build each living individual. Each of these (r)evolution came with their own questions, their own new problems to solve, their own data to process, resulting in new advances in the toolbox of data analysis methods. We'll take a quick trip through time and processes to illustrate how, from crop fields to baker's shop, now more then ever, data science is everywhere. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing gauging network for regional monitoring of stream water temperature (Wallonia, Belgium)
Georges, Blandine ULiege; Hervé, Piégay; Huylenbroeck, Léo ULiege et al

Poster (2018, June)

Stream water temperature is recognized as a primary factor for the aquatic ecosystem. This factor is influenced by many environmental variables. Wallonia (Southern Belgium) has a water level monitoring ... [more ▼]

Stream water temperature is recognized as a primary factor for the aquatic ecosystem. This factor is influenced by many environmental variables. Wallonia (Southern Belgium) has a water level monitoring network of about 140 stations that also measure continuous water temperature data taken at intervals of 10 minutes. The aim of this presentation is firstly to better understand the thermal phenomenon of Wallonia's rivers between 2012 and 2016, and secondly to highlight the main environmental factors influencing stream water temperature. The analysis use a data set with hydromorphological, topographical, land cover and seasonal variables which come from a LiDAR cover of the study area (16000 km²) for some of them. This data will be used in particular to carry out a model of the riparian vegetation as well as the shadow on Walloon rivers. [less ▲]

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See detailMeat retail conditions within the establishments of Kigali city (Rwanda): bacteriological quality and risk factors for Salmonella occurrence
Niyonzima, Eugene ULiege; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2018), 50(3), 537546

Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within ... [more ▼]

Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within the establishments of Kigali (Rwanda). A questionnaire survey was carried out in 150 retail outlets to characterise meat retail conditions. Additionally, 270 retail meat samples were analysed for the enumeration of hygiene indicator bacteria (total mesophilic bacteria and Escherichia coli) and for the qualitative detection of Salmonella, using conventional culture methods. The results revealed that beef was the predominant meat sold within the retail premises of Kigali city, while meat from non-bovine animal species was mainly sold in large establishments. Salmonella was detected in 19.6% of all the retailed meat samples evaluated, whereas the mean loads for total mesophilic bacteria and E. coli were 7.3 and 3.5 log cfu/g, respectively. Three factors, namely the temperature conditions of the meat under retail, the cleanability of the used meat cutting boards, and the training of personnel in hygienic meat handling practices, were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with the risk of Salmonella occurrence in the retailed meat. The findings from this study highlight the need for improvements in hygienic meat handling practices, particularly, in small and medium meat retail establishments in Kigali. [less ▲]

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See detailThe limited contribution of large trees to annual biomass production in an old-growth tropical forest
Ligot, Gauthier ULiege; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Ouédraogo, Dakis-Yaoba et al

in Ecological Applications (2018)

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See detailSoft Skills: how to make the young engineers aware of their new talents?
Colaux, Catherine ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in Stanzione, Joseph; Savelski, Mariane (Eds.) Creating the holistic engineer (2018)

The competency framework attached to the Life science engineering Master at Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege (Belgium) is composed of technical and scientific skills but also soft skills which ... [more ▼]

The competency framework attached to the Life science engineering Master at Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege (Belgium) is composed of technical and scientific skills but also soft skills which are not connected to academic courses. For the training of these skills, university needs the collaboration of the professional world. Therefore, the role of our teachers evolves towards a guiding or mentoring role. They will help students to analyse their professional experiences in order to shape their professional identity, to bring to light their acquired skills. This article describes how the portfolio, used as internship’s report, will help students to gain the self-confidence about their abilities and how professors can use these reflexive analyses to evaluate the acquisition of these soft skills. [less ▲]

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See detailFourteen years of anthropization dynamics in the Uapaca bojeri Baill. forest of Madagascar
de Haulleville, Thales ULiege; Rakotondrasoa, O. L.; Rakoto Ratsimba, H. et al

in Landscape and Ecological Engineering (2018), 14(1), 135-146

Anthropization of forest landscapes is a major threat to ecosystems and biodiversity. To gather comprehensive information on anthropization dynamics in forest landscapes, fine-scale surveys of ... [more ▼]

Anthropization of forest landscapes is a major threat to ecosystems and biodiversity. To gather comprehensive information on anthropization dynamics in forest landscapes, fine-scale surveys of deforestation are required, coupled with detailed analysis of both spatial transformation processes and forest patch geometry. We conducted such a comprehensive study in a monospecific Uapaca bojeri (Baill.) forest of Madagascar, between 1999 and 2013. A diachronic set of four maps was produced and deforestation rates were calculated. Spatial transformation processes were described using Bogaert et al. (2004) typology. Forest patch geometry was monitored using largest patch index, mean patch size, and squared mean patch size to describe patch size dynamics, mean shape index and area weighted mean shape index to describe patch compactness, and fractal dimension analysis to describe patch outline complexity. For fractal dimension analysis, an innovative segmented regression model (Muggeo 2008) was used to separately quantify fractal dimensions for multiple ranges of patch sizes. Our results showed a growing anthropization of the U. bojeri forest landscape in the area, through a strong yet decelerating deforestation (from − 59.5% year−1 between 1999 and 2005 to − 2.84% year−1 between 2009 and 2013), clear forest fragmentation, and a subtle yet growing-in-scale simplification of patch geometry for small forest patches. Deforestation was artisanal in nature and, in 2013, large patches were withdrawing to less accessible topographic features. Our results forecast a medium-term loss of resilience of the U. bojeri forest in the area, if no direct forest conservation measures are taken. © 2018, International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-Term Effects of Tillage Practices and Crop Residue Exportation on Soil Organic Matter and Earthworm Communities in Silt Loam Arable Soil
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULiege; Colinet, Gilles ULiege; Alabi, Taofic ULiege et al

in Angeles Munoz, Maria; Zornoza, Raul (Eds.) SOIL MANAGEMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE : EFFECTS ON ORGANIC CARBON, NITROGEN DYNAMICS, AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS (2018)

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See detailThe role of large trees in the biomass production of heterogeneous forest
Ligot, Gauthier ULiege; Ouedraogo; Bauwens, Sébastien ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September)

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See detailIdeal future dairy farm: a Walloon breeders’ point of view
Dalcq, Anne-Catherine ULiege; Soyeurt, Hélène ULiege; Dogot, Thomas ULiege et al

Conference (2017, August 30)

This research aims to characterize the dairy breeders regarding their idea of the ideal future farm ensuring them an income, in order to highlight their present situation and the ways to advise them ... [more ▼]

This research aims to characterize the dairy breeders regarding their idea of the ideal future farm ensuring them an income, in order to highlight their present situation and the ways to advise them towards their wished dairy model. The 245 answers to a survey of breeders, conducted between November 2014 and February 2015 provided information about, amongst others, their wishes concerning the intensification, the specialization, the technological innovation, the kind of workforce, structure, market and milk production (standard vs. differentiated quality milk). Based on this information, a Multiple Correspondence Analysis allowed to create 4 groups of breeders with a similar view of their ideal farm: global-based intensive (GBIb), local-based extensive (LBEb), intermediate and no-opinion breeders. The relationships between these groups and the other recorded qualitative variables as formation needed, obstacles and advantages of breeders organization, of diversification and so forth w ere studied using Chi Square tests and Correspondence Canonical Analysis. A moderate link was observed between the ideal future farm and the current situation of the respondent. This suggested that not all the breeders were in the production system that they considered as most profitable. As a brake to the transformation and diversification, GBIb tended to be more numerous to speak about the uncertainty of the customer loyalty (p-value = 0.07) and LBEb pointed out the size of the investments (p-value = 0.05). LBEb asked more for administrative (p-value = 0.04) and transformation and diversification formations (p-value = 0.03) while GBIb looked more for finance and management formation (p-value = 0.02). In conclusion, there were different ideal dairy farm models considered by the breeders. Their needs were not similar and indicated which tools must be developed and which domain must be studied to support them. [less ▲]

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See detailOpenSpat, spread the spatial wor(l)d
Brostaux, Yves ULiege

Conference (2017, July 06)

The availability of spatial data is increasing every year, with the growing access to free satellite imagery, to cheap drone cameras and the omnipresence of GPS on all sort of devices, from our phones to ... [more ▼]

The availability of spatial data is increasing every year, with the growing access to free satellite imagery, to cheap drone cameras and the omnipresence of GPS on all sort of devices, from our phones to farm tractors. Many applications in agriculture and environmental sciences, which are often dealing with the organization of space and territories, can profit from those new sources of data, like precision farming, land-use use planning, environmental monitoring,etc. Those information can be extracted, analysed and turned into models to support better decisions: apply the right amount of fertilizer at the right place in the field, predict the future extension of an urban zone, draw a map of the flooding or fire risks. But to do that, people need skills and tools to access, extract, explore and analyse such data. That's why we started a project to design a lifelong learning course on spatial data analysis at the european level, with three partners (University of Liege, University of Lisboa and Montpellier SupAgro), based on free and open tools like *QGIS* and *R* so that everybody can install and use them, because knowledge access shouldn't be restricted to organizations which can afford costly licenses. We will present the construction of the program and the pedagogical approach we'll use. Blended learning will be tested for a european master level course for adult learning. [less ▲]

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See detailDistance-independent tree basal area growth models for Norway spruce, Douglas-fir and Japanese larch in Southern Belgium
Perin, Jérôme ULiege; Claessens, Hugues ULiege; Lejeune, Philippe ULiege et al

in European Journal of Forest Research (2017), 136(2),

This paper presents new harmonized distance independent individual tree basal area growth models for Norway spruce, Douglas-fir and Japanese larch in pure even-aged stands in Southern Belgium. The ... [more ▼]

This paper presents new harmonized distance independent individual tree basal area growth models for Norway spruce, Douglas-fir and Japanese larch in pure even-aged stands in Southern Belgium. The selected model was originally developed for Norway spruce and Douglas-fir in neighbouring France. New formulations are proposed for some of the model components in order to lower the number of fitted parameters and facilitate the fitting procedure. The resulting models integrate the most recent corresponding top-height growth models and use 4 simple and usually collected explanatory variables : stand age, top-height, total basal area and tree girth at breast height. The modified formulations maintain similar fitting performances and make it easier to interpret the influence of the explanatory variables on tree growth. Parameters estimates were fitted on thousands of growth measurements gathered from several monitoring plots, forest management inventories and silvicultural field experiments that represent the wide range of site conditions and of forest management scenarios applied to coniferous stands in Southern Belgium. Cross-validation of the models revealed no bias and highlighted their consistent behaviour over the entire range of girth at breast height, age, top-height, site index and density represented in our dataset. Combining utility and robust performances, these models represent useful forest management tools, purposely ideal for forest simulation software development. Moreover, the flexibility and generic capabilities of the model formulation should make it easily adjustable for other species in even-aged stands. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the importance of large trees to biomass productivity in heterogeneous forests?
Ligot, Gauthier ULiege; Ouedraogo, Dakis-Yaoba ULiege; Gourlet, Sylvie et al

Conference (2017)

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See detailSeed dispersal effectiveness of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Gabon
Haurez, Barbara ULiege; Tagg, N.; Petre, C.-A. et al

in African Journal of Ecology (2017)

The quantitative and qualitative aspects of seed dispersal by the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) were investigated in Gabon. Fresh faeces were collected and washed to identify and count ... [more ▼]

The quantitative and qualitative aspects of seed dispersal by the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) were investigated in Gabon. Fresh faeces were collected and washed to identify and count the seeds. Seed germinability after gut passage was estimated with trials in a nursery at the study site. To assess the impact of gut passage on germination success and delay, comparative trials were run with four treatments: (i) gut passed seeds cleaned of faeces, (ii) gut passed seeds within a faecal matrix, (iii) seeds from fresh fruits surrounded by pulp, and (iv) seeds from fresh fruits cleaned of pulp. The analysis of 180 faecal units resulted in the identification of 58 species of seed. Germination trials were realized for 55 species and the mean germination success reached 46%. The impact of gut passage was investigated for Santiria trimera and Chrysophyllum lacourtianum; both species displayed higher germination success after ingestion. This study shows that gorillas effectively disperse seeds of numerous plant species, many of which provide timber or nontimber forest products or are typical of Gabonese forests. Considering the high-quality of gorilla deposition sites, gorillas is thought to play a unique role in the dynamics of Central African forest. 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of large trees in the biomass production of heterogeous forest
Ligot, Gauthier ULiege; Gourlet-Fleury; Ouedraogo, Dakis-Yaoba ULiege et al

Poster (2017)

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See detailCould new information influence attitudes to foods supplemented with edible insects?
Barsics, Fanny; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in British Food Journal (2017)

Purpose: Broader acceptance of entomophagy (i.e. human consumption of insects) will depend on factors that impact consumers’ perceptions of edible insects. The purpose of this study was to examine how a ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Broader acceptance of entomophagy (i.e. human consumption of insects) will depend on factors that impact consumers’ perceptions of edible insects. The purpose of this study was to examine how a broad-based information session would affect consumers’ perceptions and attitudes about an edible insect product. Design: During a taste testing session, preceded or followed by an information session about entomophagy, participants rated the organoleptic characteristics of two bread samples on 9-point hedonic scales. The two bread samples were identical, though one was faux-labelled as containing an insect product. Findings: General Linear Model (GLM) analysis showed effects of gender, information session exposure, entomophagy familiarity, and entomophagy experience on participants’ ratings of the samples. Wilcoxon‑Mann-Whitney ranked sum tests showed that appearance, flavour, and overall liking were significantly better rated for the bread sample labelled as insect-free by participants who attended the presentation a priori. Potential ways to improve information content and delivery in favour of encouraging dietary shifts are discussed. Practical applications: This study shows that information about insect-based products could change consumers’ perceptions of such products. The results provide clues regarding how the food industry can adapt communication for target audiences. Originality: Actual edible insect products were not used in this study. Paradoxically, it is the first to show the impact of an information session on the acceptability of edible insect products, by revealing participants’ perceptual expectations. [less ▲]

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See detailHow does forest cover impact water flows and ecosystem services? Insights from real-life catchments in Wallonia (Belgium)
Brogna, Delphine; Vincke, Caroline; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in Ecological Indicators (2017), 72

While planet boundaries are being crossed and ecosystems degraded, the Ecosystem Service (ES) conceptrepresents a potential decision-making tool for improved natural resources management. The main aimof ... [more ▼]

While planet boundaries are being crossed and ecosystems degraded, the Ecosystem Service (ES) conceptrepresents a potential decision-making tool for improved natural resources management. The main aimof this paper is to assess the impact of forest cover on water related ES in Wallonia (Belgium) in termsof quantity and timing. We developed an approach based on easily accessible data, monitored in severalcountries and using straightforward statistical methods. This led us to study ES at “real-life” catchmentsscale: 22 catchments – from 30 to 250 km2– with mixed land covers were studied. We approached thewater supply and flood protection services through 5 indicators extracted from 10 hydrological years(2005–2014) discharge data series. These were computed annually and seasonally (vegetation periodfrom March to September and “non-vegetation” period the rest of the year). The water supply wasassessed through the specific volume Vs, the baseflow index BFI and the specific discharge exceeded95% of the time Q95s whereas the flood protection service was approached through the specific dis-charge exceeded 5% of the time Q05s and the flashiness index FI. Our study gives two main insights. First,statistical analyses show that forest cover negatively impact water supply when studying annual and“non-vegetation” period flows in general (Vs) but positively when studying low flows (Q95s). Regardingflood protection a slightly negative impact of forest cover on high flows (Q05s) was highlighted in the“non-vegetation” period. Results also show a negative impact of forests annually and in the vegetationperiod on the flashy behaviour of the catchment thus a positive impact on the flood protection ES. The“year” effect is overall highly significant testifying the importance of climatic factors. Rainfall is oftensignificant and can be considered as a main driver of these ES. Secondly, analyzing the quality of themodels produced and the results overall we assume that other variables characterizing the catchmentssuch as topography or soil types do play a significant role in the delivery of these ES. This questions theuse of land cover proxies in assessing and mapping of hydrological ES at a complex landscape scale. Wethus recommend further research to keep improving land cover proxies if they are used. [less ▲]

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See detailConsumption patterns, bacteriological quality and risk factors for Salmonella contamination in meat-based meals consumed outside the home in Kigali, Rwanda
Niyonzima, Eugene ULiege; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in Food Control (2016)

Meat-based meals are consumed as a source of animal proteins and constitute one of the leading vehicles for food borne infections in humans. The main objective of this study was to determine the ... [more ▼]

Meat-based meals are consumed as a source of animal proteins and constitute one of the leading vehicles for food borne infections in humans. The main objective of this study was to determine the consumption pattern and the bacteriological quality of meat-based meals consumed outside households in Kigali. A survey on meat consumption patterns was carried out in 400 households by using a questionnaire, whereas different meat-based meals were sampled from 150 snack bars and restaurants. Enumeration of hygiene indicator bacteria (total mesophilic bacteria and Escherichia coli) and the qualitative detection of Salmonella were carried out by using conventional culture methods. The results indicated that goat was the type of meat that was consumed the most outside the home in Kigali and the meat intake varied significantly (p ≤0.05) with the social category of the household. The average levels of total aerobic bacteria and E. coli in meat-based meals were found to be 4.7 and 1.4 log cfu/g, respectively, whereas Salmonella was detected in 11.7% of all meat-based meals. Eight factors mostly linked to the cooking treatments and hygienic handling practices for cooked meals were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with the risk of Salmonella occurrence in meat-based meals consumed outside the home in Kigali. The findings from this study strongly suggest the need for proper cooking and/or improvements in hygiene in the establishments selling ready-to-eat meat-based meals in Kigali, particularly those located in rural localities. [less ▲]

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