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See detailVariétés de pommes de terre pour frites et chips stockées sans CIPC: un défi de taille
Visse-Mansiaux, Margot ULiege; Tallant, Maud; Curty, Fabien et al

in Recherche agronomique suisse (2020), 11

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See detailLooking at trends in high flows at a local scale: The case study of Wallonia (Belgium)
Grandry, Maud ULiege; Gailliez, Sébastien; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies (2020), 31

This study aims at analysing trends in high flows by examining annual maxima (AM), peaks over threshold (POTs) and the number of peaks per year (frequency) in 84 catchments across the Walloon region of ... [more ▼]

This study aims at analysing trends in high flows by examining annual maxima (AM), peaks over threshold (POTs) and the number of peaks per year (frequency) in 84 catchments across the Walloon region of Belgium. Trends were identified using statistical tests (regression analysis, Mann-Kendall and Pettitt tests). Almost 12 % of the sites show a trend in the magnitude of AM and frequency, and 6% show a trend in the magnitude of POTs. Globally, more negative trends have been detected, but the proportion of positive trends is higher in the Scheldt catchment than in the Meuse catchment. The results of nonstationary analysis indicate important changes in the magnitude of the 100-year flood (up to 18 % increase/11 % decrease in 10 years) and the frequency of peak flows (up to 42 % increase/31 % decrease). These changes could therefore impact future flood risk management in Wallonia. However, the time-series are short (30–50 years) and some uncertainty remains. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the trends is essential to obtain better estimates of future flood flows. A first analysis of potential drivers reveals that changes in precipitation match the trends in high flows, and lower snowfall quantities and higher evapotranspiration rate, caused by the increase in temperature, could have contributed to the decrease in high flows in some regions. [less ▲]

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See detailCan water level stations be used for thermal assessment in aquatic ecosystem?
Georges, Blandine ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege; Claessens, Hugues ULiege et al

in River Research and Applications (2020), 36(6), 960-973

Many studies focus on stream water temperature (WT) because it is considered a key ecological factor. However, few of them have investigated the use of WT data from water level monitoring networks, which ... [more ▼]

Many studies focus on stream water temperature (WT) because it is considered a key ecological factor. However, few of them have investigated the use of WT data from water level monitoring networks, which often measure WT as ancillary data. Our study was conducted in southern Belgium at a high temporal resolution with continuous data recorded at intervals of 10 min between 2012 and 2016 and large spatial scale greater than 16,000 km2. This study aimed to assess whether a regional water level network (140 stations) is reliable for continuous WT monitoring based on a Bland–Altman analysis with WT collected through a European monitoring network (Water Framework Directive). This study also investigates whether WT data acquired by water level stations can be used to perform both state‐of‐the‐art visualization of thermal regimes and spatio‐temporal queries for specific ecological monitoring. We found that the water level stations were reliable tools in recording continuous WT in the streams of the study area. The temperature difference between the two WT monitoring networks was −0.57°C on average. Our positive results promote the use of WT from water level stations in order to globally characterize the thermal regime of streams as well as to provide spatial or temporal information on this regime at high frequencies. As an example, our data showed the effectiveness for brown trout (Salmo trutta fario L.) in spatializing thermal risk areas related to the thermal requirement of this fish species; in 2015, 19% of stations located in brown trout fish zone recorded temperatures above 25°C. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimisation of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity extraction conditions of a roasted mix of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schumach & Thonn.) and Aframomum citratum (C. Pereira) fruits using response surface methodology (RSM)
Eyenga, Manga ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege; Ngondi J. L., et al

in Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences (2020)

The therapeutic abilities of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Aframomum citratum fruits used as spices are attributed to their bioactive molecules, including polyphenols. Sometimes used together and heated ... [more ▼]

The therapeutic abilities of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Aframomum citratum fruits used as spices are attributed to their bioactive molecules, including polyphenols. Sometimes used together and heated, they can undergo denaturation. The aim of the current study is to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of a roasted mix of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Aframomum citratum (95/5: w/w) fruits using RSM in a home food consumption context. The mix of spices was chosen according to the highest content of TPP and preliminary studies were performed to select the influencing variables. Roasting temperatures (130-170°C), roasting times (10-15 min) and brewing times (8-15 min) were investigated with a rotatable central composite design. Experimental results were fitted to the second-order polynomial model where multiple regressions and ANOVA were used to determine the coefficients of the model and the optimal conditions for the considered responses. The two spices are good sources of phenolic compounds, and they also show significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent radical scavenging activities (DPPH assay and inhibition of βcarotene discoloration) and reductive activities (FRAP assay and Phosphomolybdenum method). They significantly inhibit bovine serum albumin and 5-LOX denaturation. Brewing time and roasting time significantly (p<0.05) influence the responses and there is a strong (R2=0.93) correlation between the TPP and TAC of the beverage. The quadratic model fit well and the different factors used to test its accuracy and fitness were in satisfactory ranges. For TPP extraction (38.90 mgGAE/g dw) and TAC (50.75 mg TE/g dw) expression, the optimal conditions were reached at a roasting temperature of 150°C, roasting time of 12.62 min, brewing time of 11.91 min and a desirability of 0.95. The novel information on the optimisation of the process can be further used by scientists, consumers and herbalists for effective handling of fruits during the extraction process. [less ▲]

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See detailComposition, Seasonal Variation and Biological Activities of Lantana camara essential oils from Côte d’Ivoire.
Nea, Fatimata ULiege; Kambiré, Didjour Albert; Genva, Manon ULiege et al

in Molecules (2020)

This work aims to study the variations in the composition of Lantana camara leaf, flower and stem essential oils over two years. L. camara organs were harvested in Bregbo (East Côte d'Ivoire) each month ... [more ▼]

This work aims to study the variations in the composition of Lantana camara leaf, flower and stem essential oils over two years. L. camara organs were harvested in Bregbo (East Côte d'Ivoire) each month from June 2015 to June 2017. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS and 13C NMR. Eighty-four compounds accounting for 84.4 – 99.1% of the essential oils have been identified. The essential oils hydrodistillated from L. camara are dominated by sesquiterpenes such as (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene, which were found in all samples. Some monoterpenes such as thymol, sabinene and α-pinene were also present. Statistical analysis (principal component analysis and clustering) revealed a high variability in essential oil composition between the different organs and also within the studied periods as the thymol proportion was higher during flowering and fruiting months. In addition, the stem, flower, and fruit essential oils were more concentrated in thymol than the leaf essential oils. The proportions of (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene were strictly inverted with the thymol proportion throughout the harvest period or vegetative cycle. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activities of leaves and flowers essential oils were also studied. Results showed that L. camara leaf and flower essential oils displayed high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activities. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategies of the Walloon dairy producersfaced to the uncertain dairy future
Dalcq, Anne-Catherine ULiege; Dogot, Thomas ULiege; Soyeurt, Hélène ULiege et al

Conference (2020, January 31)

This study observes the strategies, and their determinants, of the Walloon dairy producersfaced to the post quota perspective through the realisation of 245 surveys, conducted from November 2014 to ... [more ▼]

This study observes the strategies, and their determinants, of the Walloon dairy producersfaced to the post quota perspective through the realisation of 245 surveys, conducted from November 2014 to February 2015. It highlights how dairy production companies plan to evolve to cope with this great change in the sector and so how will move the production of our dairy products. Three kinds of strategical variables were defined and related to the evolution of milk production (MP) [the producerswho increase MP (HighMP) vs. keep constant MP (ConstantMP) vs. stop MP]; the valorisation of MP [alternative (ValMP)vs. classical] and the diversification of activities [with (DivMP) vs. without such activities]. The relationships between the chosen strategies and the quantitative technical variables were studied using generalised linear models. The independence between qualitative technical variables and the strategical variables was tested using Chi Square test. HighMP and ConstantMP producersrepresent 38.4% and 53.9% of respondents, respectively. HighMP producerswere significantly more declared as legal entity (p-value = 0.03), had more family members on the farm (p-value<0.01), larger agricultural area in property (p-value = 0.03) and higher MP quota(p-value = 0.01)compared to ConstantMP producers. Only 9.8% of respondents decide to valorise differently MP. ValMP producerstend to have more employees (p-value = 0.08) and an agricultural area less fragmented (p-value = 0.07)than classical producers. A total of 7.8% of respondents decide to develop other activities. DivMP producerstend to have more employees (p-value = 0.10), more agricultural area in property (p-value = 0.03) and a more recent year of installation (p-value < 0.01). Finally, 44.9% of ConstantMP producersdo not want to start an alternative valorisation of MP and diversify their activities. In conclusion, a relationship exists between, amongst others, the legal status, workforce available, characteristics of the agricultural area, the dairy production and the strategy chosen by the Walloon dairy producers. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal variation, yield composition and biological activities of essential oils from Lantana camara grown in Côte d’Ivoire
Nea, Fatimata ULiege; Tanoh, Amenan Evelyne ULiege; Genva, Manon ULiege et al

Poster (2020, January 31)

Lantana camara is a thorny shrub that goes from 2 to 5 m high. Its ripe fruits are blackish and its flowers are in various colors. It is used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases and has ... [more ▼]

Lantana camara is a thorny shrub that goes from 2 to 5 m high. Its ripe fruits are blackish and its flowers are in various colors. It is used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases and has numerous properties that were chemically described such as antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The aim of this work was to study the variations in L. camara essential oils composition during the vegetative cycle. Leaves, flowers, fruits and stems of L. camara were harvested in Bingerville (East Côte d'Ivoire) each month from June 2015 to June 2017. The essential oil was produced by hydrodistillation and then analyzed by GC-MS and RMN. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activities of leaf and flowers essential oils were also determined. Results showed that essential oils hydrodistillated from L. camara are dominated by sesquiterpenes such as β-caryophyllene and α-humulene. Some monoterpenes such as thymol, sabinene and α-pinene were also present. The oil yield was high during the flowering and fruiting period. According to the chemical composition of L. camara’s oil, there were no significant differences between both harvesting periods defined but there were significant differences from one organ to another. However, within one organ the chemical composition varies under the vegetative cycle. It was found that the proportion of thymol was higher during flowering and fruiting months. The essential oil of stems, flowers, and fruits were more concentrated in thymol than leaf’s oil. E-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene were found in all essential oils. However, their quantity and the thymol content were strictly inverted throughout the harvest period or vegetative cycle. In addition, the essential oil extracted from leaves and flowers of L. camara showed good antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal activities. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating stream water temperature in southern Belgium : environmental drivers and potential impact on a thermal sensitive species (Salmo trutta fario)
Georges, Blandine ULiege; Piégay, Hervé; Lejeune, Philippe ULiege et al

Poster (2020, January 31)

Stream water temperature (WT) is considered as a key ecological factor. Oxygen solubility, organic matter, decomposition rates,… are influenced by WT. Moreover, WT directly influences aquatic species by ... [more ▼]

Stream water temperature (WT) is considered as a key ecological factor. Oxygen solubility, organic matter, decomposition rates,… are influenced by WT. Moreover, WT directly influences aquatic species by interacting with the metabolism, growth and survival of species. In Wallonia (Southern Belgium, 16,000 km²), a water level monitoring network of about 140 stations also measures continuous WT taken at intervals of 10 minutes. Continuous monitoring allows detecting extreme thermal events generally harmful to aquatic organisms and time-limited because of high WT variability. The objectives of this study were : - To study WT evolution between 2012 and 2018, which are still underestimated due to the lack of regular and continuous monitoring over long periods; - To demonstrate the importance of having continuous temperature data for understanding and anticipating thermal damage to the aquatic ecosystem with the example of the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario L.); - To study the influence of land cover, topographical, hydromorphological and seasonal parameters on WT. The results showed a typical yearly sinusoidal evolution of the WT between 2012 and 2018. However, between years, remarkable thermal differences were observed reflecting the meteorological assessment established for the study period. Moreover, our data allowed us to map areas and target periods when temperatures too hot for brown trout are recorded. In addition to this essential information for the management of aquatic environments, the study of environmental factors has shown that shade has a strong impact on river temperature variability. This result provides an objective basis for conservatory management of riparian forest cover. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative Structure-Activity Relationship of Humic-Like Biostimulants Derived From Agro-Industrial Byproducts and Energy Crops
Savy, Davide ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege; Cozzolino, V. et al

in Frontiers in Plant Science (2020), 11

Humic-like substances (HLSs) isolated by alkaline oxidative hydrolysis from lignin-rich agro-industrial residues have been shown to exert biostimulant activity toward maize (Zea mays L.) germination and ... [more ▼]

Humic-like substances (HLSs) isolated by alkaline oxidative hydrolysis from lignin-rich agro-industrial residues have been shown to exert biostimulant activity toward maize (Zea mays L.) germination and early growth. The definition of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) between HLS and their bioactivity could be useful to predict their biological properties and tailor plant biostimulants for specific agronomic and industrial uses. Here, we created several projection on latent structure (PLS) regression by using published analytical data on the molecular composition of lignin-derived HLS obtained by both 13C-CPMAS-NMR spectra directly on samples and 31P-NMR spectra after derivatization of hydroxyl functions with a P-containing reagent (2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane). These spectral data were used to model the effect of HLS on the elongation of primary root, lateral seminal roots, total root apparatus, and coleoptile of maize. The 13C-CPMAS-NMR data suggested that methoxyl and aromatic moieties positively affected plant growth, while the carboxyl/esterified functions showed a negative impact on the overall seedling development. Alkyl C seems to promote Col elongation while concomitantly reducing that of the root system. Additionally, 31P-NMR-derived spectra revealed that the elongation of roots and Col were enhanced by the occurrence of aliphatic hydroxyl groups, and guaiacyl and p-Hydroxyphenyl lignin monomers. The PLS models based on raw dataset from 13C-CPMAS-NMR spectra explained more than 74% of the variance for the length of lateral seminal roots, total root system and coleoptile, while other parameters derived from 13C-CPMAS-NMR spectra, namely the Hydrophobicity and Hydrophilicity of materials were necessary to explain 83% of the variance of the primary root length. The results from 31P-NMR spectra explained the observed biological variance by 90, 96, 96, and 93% for the length of primary root, lateral seminal roots, total root system and coleoptile, respectively. This work shows that different NMR spectroscopy techniques can be used to build up PLS models which can predict the bioactivity of lignin-derived HLS toward early growth of maize plants. The established QSAR may also be exploited to enhance by chemical techniques the bioactive properties of HLS and enhance their plant stimulation capacity. © Copyright © 2020 Savy, Brostaux, Cozzolino, Delaplace, du Jardin and Piccolo. [less ▲]

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See detailAblation of non-coding RNAs affects bovine leukemia virus B lymphocyte proliferation and abrogates oncogenesis
Safari, Roghaiyeh; Jacques, Jean-Rock; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in PLoS Pathogens (2020)

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See detailEVALUATION OF THE SELF EFFICACY OF LEARNERS DURING INTENSIVE STATISTICAL TRAINING SESSIONS
Colaux, Catherine ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege

in Gómez Chova, L.; López Martinez, A.; Candel Torres, I. (Eds.) INTED 2019 Proceedings (2019, March)

With the growing access to spatial data, through free satellite imagery, cheap drone cameras and GPS on all sort of devices, many applications in agriculture and environmental sciences can benefit from ... [more ▼]

With the growing access to spatial data, through free satellite imagery, cheap drone cameras and GPS on all sort of devices, many applications in agriculture and environmental sciences can benefit from those new sources of data. The importance of this new field justifies the creation of lifelong learning courses. The OpenSpat [1] training course is a European master level course for adult who already have statistical skills and wish to be trained in the spatial data analysis. This course is the result of an Erasmus+ collaboration project between three partners (University of Liege, University of Lisboa and Montpellier SupAgro), and is based on free and open tools like QGIS and R. In order to assess this new course we have evaluated, during a testing session, some parameters (self-efficacy, the task value, the learners’ interest/enjoyment, the acquired competence, the professor’s attitude and the level of commitment to peer learning activities) which are related to the motivation of the learners. [less ▲]

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See detailEngineering of Some Physico-Chemical Properties of Amorphous Spray-Dried Inulin using a Response-Surface Design
Bchir, B.; Ronkart, S. N.; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in American Journal of Food Technology (2019), 17(2), 24-26

The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of some process variables on the physico-chemicalproperties of amorphous inulin. In this context, athree-factor second-order response-surface model ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of some process variables on the physico-chemicalproperties of amorphous inulin. In this context, athree-factor second-order response-surface model wasfitted to five variables. The factors were feedconcentration and temperature and inlet air temperaturewhile the five variables were bulk and tapped density,particles size, moisture content and the glass transitiontemperature. In the feed concentration (10-40%, w/w),feed temperature (40-90°C) and inlet air temperature(120-230°C) range tested, statistical analysis revealed thatphysico-chemical properties of inulin were mainlygoverned by inlet air temperature and the feedconcentration to a lesser extent. The feed temperature wassecondary in comparison with the two first factors. Inregards to the production parameters, a qualitativemicroscopic study allowed to visualize the morphologicalproperty changes and to correlate them to the physico-chemical properties. [less ▲]

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See detailVirus Detection by High-Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs: Large-Scale Performance Testing of Sequencing Analysis Strategies
Massart, Sébastien ULiege; Chiumenti, Michela; De Jonghe, Kris et al

in Phytopathology (2019), 109

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See detailEvaluation of lambda Carrageenan, CpG-ODN, glycine Betaine, Spirulina platensis, and Ergosterol as elicitors for control of Zymoseptoria tritici in wheat
Le Mire, Géraldine ULiege; Siah, Ali; Marolleau, Brice et al

in Phytopathology (2019), 109(3), 409-417

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See detailÉvaluation de la capacité à travailler en groupe : Impacts de deux dispositifs d’évaluation par les pairs
Colaux, Catherine ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege; Detroz, Pascal ULiege

Conference (2018, November 15)

Évaluation de la capacité à travailler en groupe : Impacts de deux dispositifs d’évaluation par les pairs La capacité à travailler en groupe joue un rôle majeur dans le métier d’ingénieur (CTI, 2016). Á ... [more ▼]

Évaluation de la capacité à travailler en groupe : Impacts de deux dispositifs d’évaluation par les pairs La capacité à travailler en groupe joue un rôle majeur dans le métier d’ingénieur (CTI, 2016). Á Gembloux Agro Bio Tech, nos étudiants sont amenés, dès leur première année, à travailler par groupes de 6 supervisés par un tuteur. Si l’enseignement basé sur la coopération est souvent qualifié de performant (Johnson, & Johnson, 2005), il est également connu pour ses difficultés liées à l'évaluation (King et Behnke, 2005). Classiquement, deux grandes méthodes se dégagent : L’évaluation par l’enseignant où une note globale et unique est attribuée au groupe (King et Behke, 2005). Ce système peut parfois générer un sentiment d’injustice chez les étudiants (Mentzer et al., 2016). L’évaluation par les pairs attribue une note individuelle calculée à partir des appréciations des pairs. Celle-ci peut toutefois favoriser l’inflation des notes attribuées aux amis, les collusions entre étudiants, l’effet de tendance centrale et l’influence des leaders (Kozanitis, 2005). Conformément à ce que recommande le plus souvent la littérature, notre dispositif d’évaluation utilise simultanément ces deux méthodes. La pondération est conforme à ce que Stevens (2007) propose, à savoir 80 % pour la note de l’enseignant et 20 % la note des pairs. Dans le cadre de cette étude, deux systèmes d’évaluation par les pairs ont été testés. Le premier repose sur une grille d’évaluation descriptive holistique. Chacun des indicateurs est décrit et associé explicitement à un score sur 10. Le second repose sur une grille d’évaluation analytique à 7 critères (engagement, délais, attitude, collaboration, Feedback, qualité du travail), sans qu’un score apparent soit associé aux indicateurs proposés. Lors de cette communication, nous évaluerons l’impact de ces deux systèmes sur la capacité des étudiants à s’autoévaluer mais aussi sur les difficultés rencontrées pour évaluer leurs pairs. Nous nous baserons sur les résultats d'une enquête soumise aux étudiants et sur une analyse de leurs évaluations. [less ▲]

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See detailHow far can consumer grade UAV RGB imagery describe crop production? A 3D and multi-temporal modelling approach applied to Zea mays
Michez, Adrien ULiege; Bauwens, Sébastien ULiege; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in Remote Sensing (2018), 10(11), 1798

In recent decades, remote sensing has increasingly been used to estimate the spatio-temporal evolution of crop biophysical parameters such as the above-ground biomass (AGB). On a local scale, the advent ... [more ▼]

In recent decades, remote sensing has increasingly been used to estimate the spatio-temporal evolution of crop biophysical parameters such as the above-ground biomass (AGB). On a local scale, the advent of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) seems to be a promising trade-off between satellite/airborne and terrestrial remote sensing. This study aims to evaluate the potential of a low-cost UAV RGB solution to predict the final AGB of Zea mays. Besides evaluating the interest of 3D data and multitemporality, our study aims to answer operational questions such as when one should plan a combination of two UAV flights for AGB modeling. In this case, study, final AGB prediction model performance reached 0.55 (R-square) using only UAV information and 0.8 (R-square) when combining UAV information from a single flight with a single-field AGB measurement. The adding of UAV height information to the model improves the quality of the AGB prediction. Performing two flights provides almost systematically an improvement in AGB prediction ability in comparison to most single flights. Our study provides clear insight about how we can counter the low spectral resolution of consumer-grade RGB cameras using height information and multitemporality. Our results highlight the importance of the height information which can be derived from UAV data on one hand, and on the other hand, the lower relative importance of RGB spectral information. [less ▲]

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See detailGorilla @ work! Why should loggers take care of their gorillas?
Haurez, Barbara ULiege; Petre, Charles-Albert; Vermeulen, Cédric ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2018, November 05)

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See detailFrom crop fields to baker's shop, data science at every step
Brostaux, Yves ULiege

Conference (2018, October 21)

If "data science" is a recent expression, one of its parents, experimental statistics, lies back to the early 20th century. And from the beginning, it has been deeply linked to cereal science, thanks to ... [more ▼]

If "data science" is a recent expression, one of its parents, experimental statistics, lies back to the early 20th century. And from the beginning, it has been deeply linked to cereal science, thanks to the work of Ronald A. Fisher at the Rothamsted Experimental Station where he developed some of the fundamentals of experimental designs and data analyses, still widely used in every field of sciences, like the maximum likelihood principle, and the analysis of variance. As the time passed, new challenges arose. With the industrialisation came the need for optimisation of the processes, standardisation and quality control of the products, ... ; the digital revolution introduced real time monitoring in the fields and in the factories, massification of the data collection, access to aerial imagery, ...; and the -omics breakthrough recently opened the pandora box of the billions of jigsaw pieces which build each living individual. Each of these (r)evolution came with their own questions, their own new problems to solve, their own data to process, resulting in new advances in the toolbox of data analysis methods. We'll take a quick trip through time and processes to illustrate how, from crop fields to baker's shop, now more then ever, data science is everywhere. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing gauging network for regional monitoring of stream water temperature (Wallonia, Belgium)
Georges, Blandine ULiege; Hervé, Piégay; Huylenbroeck, Léo ULiege et al

Poster (2018, June)

Stream water temperature is recognized as a primary factor for the aquatic ecosystem. This factor is influenced by many environmental variables. Wallonia (Southern Belgium) has a water level monitoring ... [more ▼]

Stream water temperature is recognized as a primary factor for the aquatic ecosystem. This factor is influenced by many environmental variables. Wallonia (Southern Belgium) has a water level monitoring network of about 140 stations that also measure continuous water temperature data taken at intervals of 10 minutes. The aim of this presentation is firstly to better understand the thermal phenomenon of Wallonia's rivers between 2012 and 2016, and secondly to highlight the main environmental factors influencing stream water temperature. The analysis use a data set with hydromorphological, topographical, land cover and seasonal variables which come from a LiDAR cover of the study area (16000 km²) for some of them. This data will be used in particular to carry out a model of the riparian vegetation as well as the shadow on Walloon rivers. [less ▲]

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See detailMeat retail conditions within the establishments of Kigali city (Rwanda): bacteriological quality and risk factors for Salmonella occurrence
Niyonzima, Eugene ULiege; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Brostaux, Yves ULiege et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2018), 50(3), 537546

Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within ... [more ▼]

Meat constitutes one of the major vehicles for human foodborne infections. This study aimed to assess the retail conditions and to determine the microbiological quality and safety of meat retailed within the establishments of Kigali (Rwanda). A questionnaire survey was carried out in 150 retail outlets to characterise meat retail conditions. Additionally, 270 retail meat samples were analysed for the enumeration of hygiene indicator bacteria (total mesophilic bacteria and Escherichia coli) and for the qualitative detection of Salmonella, using conventional culture methods. The results revealed that beef was the predominant meat sold within the retail premises of Kigali city, while meat from non-bovine animal species was mainly sold in large establishments. Salmonella was detected in 19.6% of all the retailed meat samples evaluated, whereas the mean loads for total mesophilic bacteria and E. coli were 7.3 and 3.5 log cfu/g, respectively. Three factors, namely the temperature conditions of the meat under retail, the cleanability of the used meat cutting boards, and the training of personnel in hygienic meat handling practices, were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with the risk of Salmonella occurrence in the retailed meat. The findings from this study highlight the need for improvements in hygienic meat handling practices, particularly, in small and medium meat retail establishments in Kigali. [less ▲]

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