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See detailFragmentation du maillage institutionnel local dans les régions urbaines européennes
Breuer, Christophe ULiege; Halleux, Jean-Marie ULiege

Conference (2019, June 20)

The fragmentation of local institutions in urban areas is one of the main features of metropolitan governance systems in Europe. The paper presents a typology of local fragmentation based on absolute and ... [more ▼]

The fragmentation of local institutions in urban areas is one of the main features of metropolitan governance systems in Europe. The paper presents a typology of local fragmentation based on absolute and relative indicators. The methodology is applied to the 257 European urban regions with more than 300,000 inhabitants to carry out the first mapping of this indicator. [less ▲]

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See detailA typology of the fragmentation of local institutions in European urban areas
Breuer, Christophe ULiege

Conference (2018, August 08)

Local institutional fragmentation (communes, districts, etc.) is a central parameter of governance systems in urban regions. The literature establishes its influence on patterns of governance and on the ... [more ▼]

Local institutional fragmentation (communes, districts, etc.) is a central parameter of governance systems in urban regions. The literature establishes its influence on patterns of governance and on the development of urban regions, but empirical research remains incomplete, particularly with regard to European urban regions in Europe. In this context, our research aims to characterize their local institutional fragmentation. Based on the analysis of 257 urban areas of more than 300.000 inhabitants, we developed a typology based on 11 fragmentation indicators. We have used the most recent developments in the European statistical system to develop an original database. This research contributes to the understanding of governance processes and demonstrates the strong heterogeneity of institutional fragmentation contexts in urban regions. This variability is partly dependent on national contexts, demonstrating the weak convergence of governance situations despite European integration. However, this heterogeneity is also subnational, demonstrating the importance of local contexts in the production of territorial appropriation systems. These results can be used for comparative analyses. The statistical analysis of fragmentation indicators and their links with territorial indicators demonstrates the existence of relationships between territorial characteristics and institutional fragmentation. However, these results nuance the scientific results obtained in the North American context, and in particular the existence of relationships between, on the one hand, economic and demographic development and, on the other, local institutional fragmentation. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelles articulations entre gouvernance et spatialité ?
Breuer, Christophe ULiege; Halleux, Jean-Marie ULiege

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2018), 71(2018), 5-8

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See detailGouvernance et spatialité
Breuer, Christophe ULiege; Halleux, Jean-Marie ULiege

Book published by Société Geographique de Liege (2018)

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See detailSpatialité de la gouvernance métropolitaine et changements institutionnels : un modèle analytique appliqué aux frontières de la gouvernance urbaine de Liège (Belgique)
Breuer, Christophe ULiege

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2018), 71

Depuis plusieurs décennies, l’échelle métropolitaine a gagné en importance en raison de l’évolution spatiale des régions urbaines, du positionnement central des métropoles dans l’économie mondialisée et ... [more ▼]

Depuis plusieurs décennies, l’échelle métropolitaine a gagné en importance en raison de l’évolution spatiale des régions urbaines, du positionnement central des métropoles dans l’économie mondialisée et des transformations dans l’organisation des États. Dans ce contexte, le devenir des institutions métropolitaines a gagné en importance auprès des décideurs politiques, des citoyens, des entreprises et des chercheurs. Malgré le rôle central des aspects spatiaux dans les dynamiques de gouvernance urbaine, la littérature scientifique relative aux « recompositions territoriales » et à la « mise à l’échelle métropolitaine » n’offre pas de cadre analytique des facteurs et des processus de transformation de la spatialité des gouvernements métropolitains. Dans cet article, nous suggérons d’adopter un modèle analytique du changement institutionnel pour une meilleure prise en compte de ces évolutions en l’appliquant aux frontières des gouvernements métropolitains. Le modèle analytique prend en considération les pressions exercées par et sur les aspects spatiaux de la gouvernance ainsi que les différentes phases de leurs transformations. L’analyse empirique des processus dans la région urbaine de Liège (Belgique) a vérifié l’utilité et la robustesse de cette grille de lecture. [less ▲]

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See detailLa fabrique des métropoles : questions sociétales et questions de recherche
Breuer, Christophe ULiege; Halleux, Jean-Marie ULiege

in Breuer, Christophe (Ed.) Actes du Colloque « La Fabrique des Métropoles » (2018)

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See detailActes du colloque « La fabrique des métropoles »
Breuer, Christophe ULiege

Book published by Université de Liège (2018)

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See detailLa géographie humaine et ses cursus au sein des universités belges et européennes
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULiege; Breuer, Christophe ULiege

in Belgeo (2018), 1(2018),

The research synthesized in this article focuses on university education of human geography. It is based on a comparison of the programs of Bachelor in geography in six countries and it helped to ... [more ▼]

The research synthesized in this article focuses on university education of human geography. It is based on a comparison of the programs of Bachelor in geography in six countries and it helped to highlight the co-existence of three distinct models: the teaching of a “geography and planning” in France and the Netherlands; the teaching of a “diverse and autonomous geography against planning” in the UK, Germany and Switzerland; the teaching of a “geography by the basic sciences” in Belgium. Given the considerable weight of basic natural sciences in the latter model, Belgium occupies an original position that is not favorable to the growth of human geography. We therefore conclude that it is opportune to reflect on the evolution of the model in question. [less ▲]

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See detailLa spatialité de la gouvernance des régions urbaines intermédiaires en Europe
Breuer, Christophe ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

The governance of urban regions is a central research topic of urban sciences, and a major challenge for urban actors. In this research, we contribute to the analysis of governance processes by studying ... [more ▼]

The governance of urban regions is a central research topic of urban sciences, and a major challenge for urban actors. In this research, we contribute to the analysis of governance processes by studying the transformation of its spatiality in intermediate European urban regions. Our research postulates the intrinsically spatial nature of urban governance, and is based on three hypotheses: (1) the territorial characteristics of urban regions relate to local politico-administrative fragmentation, (2) the characteristics of politico-administrative fragmentation relate to the construction of a governance scale for urban regions, and (3) governance structures at the level of urban regions relate to territorial characteristics. In order to test these hypotheses, we conducted a research in three complementary parts. The first part is devolted to the state of the art on governance, territorial rescaling and institutional change. The second part analyses quantitatively the politico-administrative fragmentation of 123 intermediate European urban regions, and its links with territorial indicators. The third part analyses qualitatively the processes of transformation of spatial governance in the urban regions of Saint-Étienne (France), Metz (France), Sheffield (United Kingdom) and Liège (Belgium). This complementary research confirms the existence of links between the different aspects of spatiality in the governance of intermediate urban regions in Europe, and concludes that the recomposition processes are intrinsically spatial, territorial and multiscalar. [less ▲]

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See detailEnjeux de gouvernance métropolitaine et fragmentation territoriale
Breuer, Christophe ULiege

Conference (2017, November 24)

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See detailFragmentation politico-administrative des régions intermédiaires en Europe
Breuer, Christophe ULiege

Scientific conference (2016, November 14)

Analyse européenne de la fragmentation politico-administrative locale des régions urbaines intermédiaire : objectifs, méthodologie, indicateurs de fragmentation, lien entre ces indicateurs et le contexte ... [more ▼]

Analyse européenne de la fragmentation politico-administrative locale des régions urbaines intermédiaire : objectifs, méthodologie, indicateurs de fragmentation, lien entre ces indicateurs et le contexte territorial. [less ▲]

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See detailThe spatiality of local governments in European intermediate urban regions: a methodological approach
Breuer, Christophe ULiege; Halleux, Jean-Marie ULiege

in Quaestiones Geographicae (2016), 35(1), 39-58

Local authorities are central actors in the governance of European intermediate urban regions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to analyse the fragmentation of local authorities within 119 urban ... [more ▼]

Local authorities are central actors in the governance of European intermediate urban regions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to analyse the fragmentation of local authorities within 119 urban regions. We tested several European databases to create indicators of fragmentation and to develop a typology of fragmentation within cities. Our results show that the Eurostat Cities programme gives a consistent spatial definition of urban regions and that their fragmentation is mainly influenced by national contexts. The developed methodology is a contribution to the debate on territorial reforms and urban governance transformations. [less ▲]

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See detailMetropolitan governance rescaling in Belgium, France and United Kingdom. Studying boundaries of urban governments through the application of an analytical framework for institutional changes.
Breuer, Christophe ULiege

Conference (2014, August 20)

Second tier European cities (small metropolis or regional cities) are subject to permanent reconfigurations of their governance. These changes are the response to both external and internal ... [more ▼]

Second tier European cities (small metropolis or regional cities) are subject to permanent reconfigurations of their governance. These changes are the response to both external and internal transformations. On the one side, they are facing external pressures as increased competition between cities, European integration, legislative evolution or paradigm switch. On the other side, cities are dealing with internal problems: urban sprawl, socio-spatial segregation, actors’ fragmentation, financial issues, etc. These tensions renew themselves and take various shapes. They are wondering cities governance and ways to manage them. To cope with new challenges in a new context, cities are trying to reconfigure their collective action in a new spatiality and with new coordination modes. In this context, inherited institutional boundaries – that could be seen as obsolete or inadequate in a changing World – are particularly under pressure. Cities governments and their spatial limits are a central issue for researchers, politicians and urban actors, and a major component of the urban or metropolitan governance. Although second-tier cities are an essential part of the “polycentric system of European cities”, attention has essentially been focused on large metropolis and capital cities, where the problem occurred earlier. Furthermore, there is an extended literature on institutional change and the “rescaling”, but research mainly focused on the response of cities to economic changes; few analysis offer a good comprehension of particular trajectories and evolution of cities limits which are highly embedded in local context. These shortcomings make the reading of contemporary mutations particularly complex for local actors. Our paper presents our research on the development and the validation of an analytical framework to interpret changes in cities’ governments boundaries. We improved and used a framework based on institutional change and social change, which combined both institutional design theories and self-organization theories. The analytical framework had been tested on the last decades government limits changes of regional cities and small metropolis in France (Saint-Étienne, Metz), United Kingdom (Sheffield) and Belgium (Liège, Brussels). The research was carried on with historical and geographical data collected during research stays in each of these cities: historical evolution of cities limits, legislation’ development, urbanization trajectory, etc. The research leads to some conclusions. Firstly, it is possible to develop a generic analytical framework to identify and interpret mutations of city government limits. This framework helps to make a systematic identification of actors’ dynamics, internal or external pressure and spatial changes, and go ahead apparent dichotomy between quick adjustment and high stability of some governance configuration. Secondly, the analytical model shows there is a common scheme of city limits evolution, which is driven among others things by European common dynamics (specifically economic and political dynamic). Thirdly, despite similarities in cities government boundaries changes, the analytical model demonstrates the importance of local contexts to understand individual evolutions and the specific trajectory of a city’ limits. [less ▲]

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See detailMetropolitan governance of European medium-size cities. Linking cities trajectories and mode of governance.
Breuer, Christophe ULiege

Conference (2014, August 16)

In the past few years, an increased attention has been paid to the effect of governance on regional development and trajectories. It is commonly argued by scholars and practitioners that governance is a ... [more ▼]

In the past few years, an increased attention has been paid to the effect of governance on regional development and trajectories. It is commonly argued by scholars and practitioners that governance is a key factor of regional competitiveness and differentiation. In this context, some institutions as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the United Nations (UN) or the European Commission (EC) claim that a better governance (or actually “good governance”) leads to better places to live, enhanced competitiveness and less segregation. In the same time, research, public efforts and investments has been focused on metropolitan regions as lever for economic development. If there is a consensus on the role of governance on metropolitan and urban development, researches mainly focused on cases analysis and bigger metropolis regions. Few empirical studies tried to link metropolitan governance and metropolitan trajectories in European Union, particularly for medium-size cities and metropolitan area (100.000 - 1.000.000 inhabitants), which represents a significant proportion of the European population and economy. Nowadays, some exploratory researches based on the Urban Audit (European Commission) and complementary surveys give us additional information on governance of such cities. In our research, we aimed to explore the link between metropolitan governance of medium-sized cities and their trajectories. We used latest data from the European Commission (Urban Audit, Perception survey, Regional Statistic Database - Eurostat) and additional sources for socio-economic, environmental and governance indicators (especially metropolitan governance typology). We integrated in our work previous researches on this topic. Our exploratory research pointed out pattern and similarities in European medium-sized cities governance and trajectories. Despite some difficulties to distinguish governance effects to other determinants of well-being and competitiveness, it opens questions on “governance matters” leitmotiv, public policy adequacy and innovation capacity in European cities. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between wind speed observed at 100m height and wind speeds simulated by the WRF and MAR models
Doutreloup, Sébastien ULiege; Fettweis, Xavier ULiege; Erpicum, Michel ULiege et al

Poster (2014, June 06)

In the context of FLEXIPAC project funded by "RELIABLE" program of Walloon Region (Belgium), the Laboratory of Climatology and Topoclimatology (LCT) of the University of Liège (Belgium) aims to adjust the ... [more ▼]

In the context of FLEXIPAC project funded by "RELIABLE" program of Walloon Region (Belgium), the Laboratory of Climatology and Topoclimatology (LCT) of the University of Liège (Belgium) aims to adjust the WRF regional model (v.3.4.) forced by ERA-Interim model. Our analysis shows that wind speeds at 100m height simulated by WRF are systematically overestimated compared to wind speeds extracted from wind productions of two wind farms. In order to identify this problem, four comparisons were performed in this contribution. Firstly, we compare WRF model with reanalysis based forcing model. Secondly, we compare two WRF simulations, where one of them has a more precise spatial resolution. Thirdly, we smooth WRF outputs in time (6-hr running mean) in order to study the accuracy of the 30-min variability generated by WRF model. Finally, we comp compare the WRF model with the MAR (v3.3.) regional model using the same forcing at its lateral boundaries. This last one seems to suggest that the MAR model better simulates wind speeds at 10m and at 100m than WRF model and then that wind speed underestimation by WRF is well linked to the WRF physics itself. [less ▲]

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See detailUrban governance adaptation in an old industrial city: Liège (Belgium)
Breuer, Christophe ULiege; Halleux, Jean-Marie ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege

in Lucarelli, A.; Francese, D. (Eds.) Napoli Citta Metropolitana (2014)

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See detailLa bonne gouvernance urbaine est-elle utile ? Exploiter un concept équivoque
Breuer, Christophe ULiege; Halleux, Jean-Marie ULiege

Poster (2013, November 26)

La bonne gouvernance est un concept construit et équivoque, qui renvoie aux paradigmes sociétaux et transcrit en l'espèce plusieurs tendances contradictoires. Dans le champ des études urbaines, il est ... [more ▼]

La bonne gouvernance est un concept construit et équivoque, qui renvoie aux paradigmes sociétaux et transcrit en l'espèce plusieurs tendances contradictoires. Dans le champ des études urbaines, il est exploité politiquement pour infléchir des tendances et imprimer une réorganisation des acteurs. Cette communication examine deux questions centrales : comment les villes intègrent-elles le concept de bonne gouvernance et quels en sont les impacts ; comment le concept peut-il être exploité par les chercheurs en sciences urbaines. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganiser les entités territoriales wallonnes en structures porteuses de projets et de solidarité pour répondre aux besoins (Dynamique "Horizon 2022" : Mobilisation du territoire, les communautés de territoire et leur organisation)
Breuer, Christophe ULiege; Hanin, Yves

Report (2013)

Le rapport trace les enjeux d'une réorganisation du territoire wallon autour d'une nouvelle structuration infrarégionale de l'espace régional. Il dresse succinctement l'évolution récente des coopérations ... [more ▼]

Le rapport trace les enjeux d'une réorganisation du territoire wallon autour d'une nouvelle structuration infrarégionale de l'espace régional. Il dresse succinctement l'évolution récente des coopérations supracommunales et interrégionales, notamment autour des villes. [less ▲]

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See detailValoriser les recherches du Groupe de Recherches Aériennes du Sud belge. Mise en oeuvre d'un site internet collaboratif de diffusion et d'interprétation.
Breuer, Christophe ULiege

Scientific conference (2012, August 26)

L'archéologie aérienne est à un tournant stratégique de son évolution. Confrontée à l'émergence de nouvelles technologies bouleversant la discipline, celle-ci doit proposer des outils innovants pour ... [more ▼]

L'archéologie aérienne est à un tournant stratégique de son évolution. Confrontée à l'émergence de nouvelles technologies bouleversant la discipline, celle-ci doit proposer des outils innovants pour pérenniser les bases de données photographiques et transformer cette information originale en connaissance scientifique. L'article présente un projet pilote du Groupe de Recherche Aérienne du Sud Belge qui souhaite mettre en œuvre une plateforme collaborative de diffusion et d'interprétation des clichés. [less ▲]

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See detailL'intelligence territoriale appliquée au service de la Province de Liège
Breuer, Christophe ULiege; Marek, Allyson ULiege; Devillet, Guénaël ULiege

Report (2012)

Actes du colloque "Comment être acteur du développement de sa région ? : Un colloque international sur le thème de l’intelligence territoriale " (1) Nouvelle culture du développement (2) Outils et ... [more ▼]

Actes du colloque "Comment être acteur du développement de sa région ? : Un colloque international sur le thème de l’intelligence territoriale " (1) Nouvelle culture du développement (2) Outils et méthodes pour l’observation territoriale (3) Pistes d’actions concrètes pour tout territoire (4) Une appropriation indispensable par les acteurs [less ▲]

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