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See detailLes citoyens et stratégies communales à l’ère de la smart city : Echanges et interactions entre sourds ?
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2019, June)

Problématique Le concept de la smart city émerge comme une vision incitant à la créativité, à l’innovation et au changement inclusif. Différents écrits soulignent l’importance de la dynamique d’acteurs ... [more ▼]

Problématique Le concept de la smart city émerge comme une vision incitant à la créativité, à l’innovation et au changement inclusif. Différents écrits soulignent l’importance de la dynamique d’acteurs, et principalement le rôle du citoyen dans le développement de sa commune. Dès lors, différentes initiatives sont développées par les communes afin de renforcer les interactions avec l’écosystème. Toutefois, même si des efforts sont observés, est ce que les stratégies communales développées en vue de répondre aux attentes citoyennes reflètent réellement ce dont le citoyen a besoin ? Objet de recherche Depuis 2010, différentes communes belges s’inscrivent dans des politiques de transition durable et intelligente où la qualité de vie et les besoins du citoyen sont au cœur des stratégies communales. C’est dans ce sens que cette recherche explore si les communes entendent ou écoutent réellement le citoyen. La recherche explore, premièrement, la connaissance de la commune de l’ensemble des initiatives locales développées par l’écosystème, deuxièmement, la concordance entre les besoins du citoyen et les projets développés, et troisièmement, la volonté du citoyen à s’impliquer et interagir avec sa commune. Le but est de proposer un aperçu du potentiel impact « excitateur-résonateur » qui peut émerger des interactions entre ces deux parties. Méthodologie Cette recherche a nécessité la réalisation de deux études quantitatives. A cet effet, un recensement a été fait auprès de 123 communes belges et de 438 citoyens de catégories socioprofessionnelles confondues. Le questionnaire adressé aux communes a nécessité six mois de collecte des données. Les résultats descriptifs illustrent les différences entre les communes rurales et urbaines. Le questionnaire adressé aux citoyens est composé de questions ouvertes afin de récolter les impressions du citoyen rural et urbain. Une analyse sémantique des réponses avec un traitement statistique des mots clés a été réalisé pour extraire les principaux résultats. Résultats Un langage de sourd semble se confirmer entre le citoyen et sa commune. Les besoins des citoyens s’articulent autour de la culture, de la cohésion sociale, de l’écologie et du commerce de proximité, tandis que les communes priorisent la numérisation, la mobilité et la participation citoyenne. Par conséquent, 77% des citoyens se sentent peu entendus et pris en compte, même si 98% d’entre eux expriment une volonté de s’impliquer et d’interagir régulièrement (65,30%) par voie numérique avec leur commune. Ces résultats démontrent qu’il existe une relation d’excitateur-résonateur entre le citoyen et sa commune. Même si différentes initiatives sont implémentées pour renforcer la participation citoyenne, le citoyen ne voit pas à ce stade une volonté communale dans ce sens. Une bonne volonté est observée des deux parties, mais des améliorations doivent être conduites afin de développer des projets smart city répondants aux réels défis des gouvernements locaux et des citoyens afin d’assurer une réelle transition perceptible. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the ability of tomorrow's leaders to support smart city projects
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2019, June)

Purpose: The concept of smart city is more and more explored in different disciplines. The citizen and the community in general are highlighted as the core of a successful smart city transition, in which ... [more ▼]

Purpose: The concept of smart city is more and more explored in different disciplines. The citizen and the community in general are highlighted as the core of a successful smart city transition, in which strategic actors are transforming together a city. However, a dynamic collaborative model is effective only if communities are accepting and supporting the implemented projects. To explore this supportive willingness, this paper focuses on the image that tomorrow’s leaders, which can be categorized as potential smart citizens, build regarding local smart city projects. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research is developed on a sample composed by 215 tomorrow’s leaders in Belgium. A survey was designed and distributed online asking respondents to select uncertainties, opportunities and threats that they associate to smart city projects developed locally. A factor analysis is proposed to analyze the data. Findings: Smart city projects are perceived as an opportunity to reinforce sustainability, quality of life and city digitalization. As a result, tomorrow’s leaders are more supportive if they have a clear vision of potential benefits and consequences induced by local smart city projects. Research/practical implications: This research offers new insights on scholars developed by Jun and Weare. As for innovative programs, smart city projects need to be aligned to global social expectations and to subgroup-based interest (taking into account the age, the gender and the cultural identity) in order to reinforce the capacity of the ecosystem to accept change and to develop an adequate behavior. Originality/value: The paper proposes an original research in the Belgian context, where smart city policies are focusing on human factors. Thus, these findings help Belgian cities in understanding how citizens think and behave in face of a progressive transforming city. [less ▲]

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See detailRepenser la ville de demain: Entre challenges, attractivité et bonnes pratiques
Bounazef, Djida ULiege

Learning material (2019)

Le but de ce cours est de familiariser les étudiants à l'écosystème d'innovation, principalement, le rôle stratégique des entreprises "giants" et des nouvelles startups dans le développement de politiques ... [more ▼]

Le but de ce cours est de familiariser les étudiants à l'écosystème d'innovation, principalement, le rôle stratégique des entreprises "giants" et des nouvelles startups dans le développement de politiques smart city. Le cours revient sur les principales bonnes pratiques en Belgique et à l'étranger, aux stratégies de dynamisation des villes, et des compétences qu'un chef de projet ou un smart city manager doit développer afin de répondre efficacement aux besoins des citoyens. [less ▲]

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See detailState of municipal global strategies and smart initiatives in Belgium
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, October 26)

The emergence of smart city is a tool of governance, digitalization and management An increasing importance dedicated to the formalization of smart city objectives Municipalities develop concrete and ... [more ▼]

The emergence of smart city is a tool of governance, digitalization and management An increasing importance dedicated to the formalization of smart city objectives Municipalities develop concrete and adapted smart initiatives in order to become more liveable and dynamic Values are shared to reinforce creativity, innovation and citizen involvement Different communities are more and more involved in developing smart initiatives Belgian municipalities have the willingness to improve, to digitalize and to involve communities [less ▲]

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See detailBaromètre belge 2018: Stratégies et projets Smart City en Belgique
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege et al

Report (2018)

Après la publication, en février 2017, d’un premier baromètre belge visant à dresser un état des lieux des dynamiques « Smart City » en Belgique, le Smart City Institute a le plaisir de vous présenter son ... [more ▼]

Après la publication, en février 2017, d’un premier baromètre belge visant à dresser un état des lieux des dynamiques « Smart City » en Belgique, le Smart City Institute a le plaisir de vous présenter son second baromètre belge dédié à ce concept. Cette étude, réalisée auprès d’un échantillon de 123 communes belges, propose un état des lieux des stratégies et des projets Smart City développés ou en cours de développement sur le territoire belge. En partant du point de vue des communes, ce baromètre expose la manière dont le concept de Smart City est perçu, les prérequis nécessaires à sa mise en oeuvre ainsi que les thématiques prioritaires développées en Belgique. En outre, il recense les moyens de financement utilisés et les actions développées afin de renforcer la dynamique d’acteurs (acteurs publics et privés ainsi que les citoyens) sur le territoire. Enfin, ce baromètre indique les démarches de suivi et de contrôle ainsi que les obstacles rencontrés par les communes dans l’implémentation et le développement des projets Smart City. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the place of Sustainability and Smart approaches in smart territories The case of 215 business students in Belgium
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2018, June)

New researches on the future of urban life explore potential opportunities and threats generated by the emergence of smart cities. These researches mainly highlight the importance of associating ... [more ▼]

New researches on the future of urban life explore potential opportunities and threats generated by the emergence of smart cities. These researches mainly highlight the importance of associating sustainability to the emergence of smart cities. They identify several combinations related to how a territory supports both sustainable and smart growth. The corporate citizenship is encouraged by local governments to ensure a sustainable territorial transition, an adequate quality of life and a growing emergence of smart cities. Citizens impact and are impacted by the emergence of sustainability and smart cities. Their understanding of the link between sustainability and smart cities defines the level of their support and engagement towards projects implemented on their territory. The understanding of this link is not well defined in the literature review. Moreover, the association between sustainability, smart cities and citizens is emerging in recent researches only on the improvement of life quality or on strategies to increase corporate citizenship. For this propose, this paper explores how to measure the understanding of the link between sustainability and smart cities. The research explicitly targets 215 business students with a strong interest in sustainability and smart cities to study a specific subcategory of corporate citizens. The paper proposes an explorative quantitative case study based on a factor analysis to measure different understanding between sustainability and smart cities. Based on factors, findings reveal five categories of business students with different understandings: (1) smart city-oriented, (2) sustainability-oriented versus smartness-oriented, (3) discovers, (4) urban development-oriented, and (5) inclusiveness-oriented. Based on axes, sustainability is easily comprehensible comparatively to smart cities. As a result, sustainability is defined as a strategic component in developing smart cities. Moreover, findings highlight that it is necessary to have a direct link between sustainability and smart cities to emerge a sustainable urban development. Key-words: sustainability, smart cities, corporate citizens, understanding, categories [less ▲]

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See detailSupporting smart and sustainable mobility: Analysis of management controls in ten Belgian local governments
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2018, June)

The concept of smart city is increasingly coming to the fore in recent literature review. This concept is mainly associated to the increasing interest dedicated to sustainability and social responsibility ... [more ▼]

The concept of smart city is increasingly coming to the fore in recent literature review. This concept is mainly associated to the increasing interest dedicated to sustainability and social responsibility in local governments. The association between sustainability approach and smart city approach is explored to improve the quality of life, particularly, through the development of urban mobility. To do so, local governments tend to develop adapted management controls to analyse how urban mobility is planned, implemented and developed in the context of an increasing interest of sustainability and smart cities. This paper explores the development of management controls for urban mobility with a focus on sustainability and smart city measures, recently developed in the literature review as a smartainability approach. The paper develops an explorative qualitative study on eight Belgian local governments developing a smartainability overall strategy. The analysis refers to Malmi and Brown’s framework to study management controls for mobility in the context of sustainable and smart city approaches. The study required eight semi-structured interviews with sustainability mobility managers and an in-depth document analysis on sustainability and smart city approaches developed in the studied local governments. Finding shows that the development of smartainability management controls for urban mobility is influenced by the association between sustainability and smart city approaches. Even if all local governments develop a smartainability approach, they mainly set a priority on sustainability or on smart city measurements. Whereas sustainability measurements focus on developing alternative, dynamic and inclusive solutions, smart city measurements focus on developing innovative and digital-oriented solutions. Moreover, smartainability management controls are determined by the ability of local governments: (1) to develop a common vision of mobility challenges, (2) to increase collaboration and communication between involved actors, and (3) to develop flexible adaptations regarding to obsolete procedures. Keywords: urban mobility, management controls, smart cities, sustainability, local governments [less ▲]

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See detailBarometer België 2018: SMART CITIES: STRATEGIEËN EN PROJECTEN IN BELGIË
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege et al

Report (2018)

Nadat in februari 2017 een eerste Belgische barometer werd gepubliceerd met een stand van zaken over de Smart City-dynamiek in België, is het Smart City Institute verheugd u een tweede Belgische barometer ... [more ▼]

Nadat in februari 2017 een eerste Belgische barometer werd gepubliceerd met een stand van zaken over de Smart City-dynamiek in België, is het Smart City Institute verheugd u een tweede Belgische barometer over dit concept te kunnen voorstellen. De studie werd uitgevoerd bij een steekproef van 123 Belgische gemeenten en laat zien hoe het staat met de strategieën en projecten rond Smart Cities die op het Belgische grondgebied werden ontwikkeld of nog ontwikkeld worden. Deze studie onthult, vanuit het standpunt van de gemeenten, hoe het Smart City-concept wordt gezien, welke voorwaarden nodig zijn voor de toepassing ervan en welke thema's prioritair worden ontwikkeld in België. Bovendien geeft de studie een overzicht van de gebruikte financieringsvormen en de acties die worden ondernomen om de dynamiek van de spelers (publieke en private spelers en burgers) te versterken. Tot slot geeft de studie aan welke stappen moeten worden gezet voor de monitoring en de controle en welke obstakels de gemeenten tegenkomen bij de toepassing en de ontwikkeling van de Smart City-projecten. [less ▲]

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See detailHow do smart cities improve the quality of life in Belgian cities?
Bounazef, Djida ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailBAROMÈTRE 2018 : SMART CITIES EN WALLONIE
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege et al

Report (2018)

Ce rapport relate les résultats d’une étude quantitative parmi les communes wallonnes. L’étude se réfère à trois modèles conceptuels : les trois composantes de la Smart City de Nam et Pardo (2011) ; les ... [more ▼]

Ce rapport relate les résultats d’une étude quantitative parmi les communes wallonnes. L’étude se réfère à trois modèles conceptuels : les trois composantes de la Smart City de Nam et Pardo (2011) ; les six dimensions de la Smart City de Giffinger et al. (2007) ; et la norme ISO 37120 : 2014. Echantillon La population de référence de l’étude est l’ensemble des communes wallonnes (262 communes). Un échantillon de 58 communes y ont effectivement répondu (22% des communes wallonnes). Cet échantillon est représentatif en termes de géographie (provinces wallonnes) et de nature (commune rurale/urbaine) . Les résultats sont donc généralisables et peuvent être extrapolés à l’ensemble des communes wallonnes. Collecte des données Un questionnaire en ligne comprenant 20 questions a été envoyé à l’ensemble des communes wallonnes. Divers canaux de communication ont été utilisés pour la diffusion du questionnaire. La collecte de données a duré 3 mois (d’octobre 2017 à janvier 2018). La grande majorité des répondants sont des directeurs généraux (34%). Le temps moyen de réponse au questionnaire est de 23 minutes. Analyse des données Les calculs et les traitements statistiques ont été effectués à l’aide du logiciel Statistica. Les données sont analysées en globalité afin de recenser les grandes tendances pour les communes wallonnes. Deux critères d’analyse principaux ont été retenus. Le premier critère concerne la nature des communes (rurales et urbaines) selon la définition de l'OCDE. La différence entre une commune rurale et une commune urbaine réside dans le nombre d'habitants au kilomètre carré. Lorsqu’une entité compte moins de 150 habitants au km2, cette entité est considérée comme rurale. Le deuxième critère concerne la taille des communes. L’analyse primaire des données souligne d’importantes différences observées au sein des communes de plus de 50.000 habitants (désignées comme grandes communes dans l’étude) comparativement à la moyenne de notre échantillon. Les résultats analysent la compréhension du concept de ville intelligente par les communes wallonnes, la stratégie smart city développée, et finalement, la mise en œuvre et le contrôle des projets smart city développés dans les communes wallonnes. Les résultats présentent les principaux résultats de l’échantillon. Ils développent ensuite les différences significatives entre les communes urbaines et rurales, et entre les communes de moins et de plus de 50.000 habitants. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping Sustainability Mobility Controls: The Case of Four Belgian Local Governments
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Qian, Wei

in Social and Environmental Accountability Journal (2018), 38

Purpose This paper explores the links between management controls, strategy, and sustainability in the context of the public sector. Institutional theory is used as a theoretical lens to explore how ... [more ▼]

Purpose This paper explores the links between management controls, strategy, and sustainability in the context of the public sector. Institutional theory is used as a theoretical lens to explore how institutional influences enable or constrain the development of management controls in Belgian local governments, particularly those pertaining to sustainability mobility strategies. Research Method An exploratory case study method was used for the purposes of this study. Further, the package of mobility controls developed by Belgian local governments is explored with reference to the model proposed by Malmi and Brown (2008). The case study utilised semi-structured interviews with mobility managers in four Belgian local governments. To strengthen the analysis, secondary data from these local governments, including reports on mobility, strategy, urban development and infrastructure, were collected and analysed. Findings The four Belgian local governments plan, implement, and control their sustainability mobility strategies differently, depending on their specific practices and routines, and the interactions between relevant actors. Even if sustainability is a strategic component of their urban development, the understanding of the link between sustainability, management controls, and mobility strategy, differs according to local government challenges. Institutional influences are both enabling and constraining the development of management controls in support of sustainability mobility strategies in local governments. More specifically, political support and regulations enable control planning. However, limits in the support of mobility actors, and weak decision power for mobility managers, constrain the monitoring and updating of control indicators. Contribution/Implications This paper contributes to the literature by exploring both institutional enablers and constraints on the development of management controls for sustainability in the public-sector context. More specifically, it explores how practices, routines, and interactions can enable or constrain the potential contribution of management controls to sustainability transitions of local governments. [less ▲]

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See detailSMARTAINABILITY AND MOBILITY STRATEGY: THE CASE OF BELGIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2018)

Abstract Purpose: In order to be smarter and more sustainable, local governments have to face urban mobility challenges. Even if they integrate sustainable and smart approaches, local governments meet ... [more ▼]

Abstract Purpose: In order to be smarter and more sustainable, local governments have to face urban mobility challenges. Even if they integrate sustainable and smart approaches, local governments meet obstacles to define the adapted combination between smart mobility and sustainable mobility. For this propose, this paper aims at understanding the impact of different combinations on the development of mobility strategies in Belgian local governments. The alternative Venn diagrams of urban mobility developed by Lyons (2016) are used as a theoretical lens to explore the link between smartainability and mobility strategy. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory case study was used for the propose of this study. The case study utilised semi-structured interviews with mobility managers in ten Belgian local governments. To strengthen the analysis, documentary analysis with a focus on publicly-available reports on sustainability, smart city strategies and urban mobility were collected before and after the interviews. Further, different mobility projects initiated by start-ups and organisations of local governments have been collected during different mobility meetings in Belgium. Findings: Even if there is different combinations between smart and sustainable mobility, the definition of sustainability as a part of smart mobility contributes to develop mobility strategy. This ““smartainable”” alternative encourages transitions to anticipate future challenges. Citizens are initiated to new solutions and are eager to contribute in the development of mobility strategy. All public, private and civil actors collaborate to face sustainability challenges like pollution and CO2 emission. Mobility strategy is then more oriented towards integrated smart mobility platforms. Research/practical implications: The outcomes for practice of this paper is to identify the best combination between smart and sustainable approaches to facilitate the development of strategies in local governments. Moreover, these exploratory case studies offer new insights for future research on the concept of smartainability in strategic axes of smart city such as mobility. Originality/value: Current researches on urban mobility follow either a sustainable paradigm or a smart paradigm. There is few researches exploring the interdependencies between the two paradigms. In addition, there is no significant researches which explored the link between smartainability and mobility strategy in the context of public sector. Keywords: key word, key word, key word (3-5) Urban mobility, smart city, sustainability, strategy, local governments. JEL Codes: R41, M48, H76. [less ▲]

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See detailSMARTAINABILITY AND MOBILITY STRATEGY: THE CASE OF BELGIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
Bounazef, Djida ULiege

in Bounazef, Djida (Ed.) INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SUSTAINABILITY 2018 Proceedings of the 6th International Conference (2018)

Purpose: In order to be smarter and more sustainable, local governments have to face urban mobility challenges. Even if they integrate sustainable and smart approaches, local governments meet obstacles to ... [more ▼]

Purpose: In order to be smarter and more sustainable, local governments have to face urban mobility challenges. Even if they integrate sustainable and smart approaches, local governments meet obstacles to define the adapted combination between smart mobility and sustainable mobility. For this propose, this paper aims at understanding the impact of different combinations on the development of mobility strategies in Belgian local governments. The alternative Venn diagrams of urban mobility developed by Lyons (2016) are used as a theoretical lens to explore the link between smartainability and mobility strategy. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory case study was used for the propose of this study. The case study utilised semi-structured interviews with mobility managers in ten Belgian local governments. To strengthen the analysis, documentary analysis with a focus on publicly-available reports on sustainability, smart city strategies and urban mobility were collected before and after the interviews. Further, different mobility projects initiated by start-ups and organisations of local governments have been collected during different mobility meetings in Belgium. Findings: Even if there are different combinations between smart and sustainable mobility, the definition of sustainability as a part of smart mobility contributes to develop mobility strategy. This ““smartainable”” alternative encourages transitions to anticipate future challenges. Citizens are initiated to new solutions and are eager to contribute in the development of mobility strategy. All public, private and civil actors collaborate to face sustainability challenges like pollution and CO2 emission. Mobility strategy is then more oriented towards integrated smart mobility platforms. Research/practical implications: The outcomes for practice of this paper is to identify the best combination between smart and sustainable approaches to facilitate the development of strategies in local governments. Moreover, these exploratory case studies offer new insights for future research on the concept of smartainability in strategic axes of smart city such as mobility. Originality/value: Current researches on urban mobility follow either a sustainable paradigm or a smart paradigm. There are few researches exploring the interdependencies between the two paradigms. In addition, there is no significant researches which explored the link between smartainability and mobility strategy in the context of public sector. Keywords: Urban mobility, smart city, sustainability, strategy, local governments [less ▲]

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See detaildevenir un acteur de la Smart City : comment basculer d’une stratégie digitale à une démarche smart city dans mon entreprise ?
Bounazef, Djida ULiege

Learning material (2018)

Faire connaissance avec le concept de la smart city La smart city en Belgique Lancer une démarche Smart City dans mon entreprise Devenir un acteur de la smart city grâce à ma stratégie digitale

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See detailLa force de la sous-culture de responsabilité comme condition d’amélioration continue dans l’hôpital
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Van Caillie, Didier ULiege; Salaouatchi et al

Conference (2017, September)

Ce papier positionne la sous-culture de responsabilité comme facteur d’amélioration continue à travers le renforcement des valeurs et pratiques. Il analyse les valeurs, les comportements, les facteurs de ... [more ▼]

Ce papier positionne la sous-culture de responsabilité comme facteur d’amélioration continue à travers le renforcement des valeurs et pratiques. Il analyse les valeurs, les comportements, les facteurs de motivation/démotivation à l’engagement et la perception du leadership de 380 médecins dans des hôpitaux algériens. Les résultats montrent des corrélations significatives entre le niveau d’implication de l’équipe dirigeante, le poids des contre-cultures, la perception des sous-cultures, l’appartenance aux groupes catégoriels et la normalisation des comportements et valeurs partagées des médecins. Ces interactions représentent un facteur déterminant dans les processus d’amélioration continue. [less ▲]

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See detailThe development of sustainable mobility strategy in Belgian cities
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Qian, Wei; Bounazef, Djida ULiege

Conference (2017, June)

Nowadays, city local governments focus their strategic vision on the development of the urban sustainability. For this, they develop drivers, strategies, structures on green local improvements. To be ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, city local governments focus their strategic vision on the development of the urban sustainability. For this, they develop drivers, strategies, structures on green local improvements. To be sustainable, cities reinforce actions and plans on resource management, mobility, climate, building and public spaces. In order to be sustainable and smart, challenges are set to ensure successful implementation of sustainable mobility strategies through the development of appropriate policies, actions, decisions and controls. The development of sustainable mobility strategy requires the involvement of strategic actors, infrastructures, funding and socio-demographic parameters. To ensure this, sustainable mobility strategy has to be strengthen by an efficient management control system and a real measurement of institutional factors’ risk. The development of mobility controls ensures homogeneity between behaviours, decisions, objectives and strategies for mobility issues. In order to make the link between control, strategy and sustainability, new researches propose new frameworks and systems. These frameworks reinforce the strategic contribution of values, rules, monitoring and enhancing awareness and interactions. Based on that, the management control framework of Malmi and Brown is more and more associated with the implementation of sustainable strategies. This paper explores the development of sustainable mobility strategies in two Belgian cities (Namur and Leuven). To analyse how cilty local governments implement, control and develop mobility strategies and plans, this paper refers to Malmi and Brown’s model. The research proposes two hypotheses that set the importance of the integration of an adequate sustainable mobility control system and the institutional factors on the design and the use of mobility strategy control. This paper proposes a new conceptual model to support the development of sustainable mobility strategy. For this, the choice of two Belgian cities is made according to similarities (population size, explicit will to develop sustainable mobility strategy, focus on sustainable transport, initiation period of mobility issues’ implementation, number of person in charge of mobility, level of willingness to develop mobility system, focus on car free and strategic mobility challenges) and differences (region, language, regulative factors, normative factors and cognitive factors). To test our conceptual framework, an explorative qualitative case study is done in these two Belgian city local governments. The data collection requires a fieldwork of 12 weeks, 54 internal and external documents, and 20 semi-structured interviews (mobility managers, politicians, sustainability managers, policemen and administrative workers). Results shows differences between the implementation and development of Namur and Leuven. Leuven has an average quality of sustainable mobility control system. Leuven requires developing new adapted indicators to face new city challenges and more effective collaborations between involved departments and actors. The case of Namur shows that its sustainable mobility control system is weak because of the non-adapted indicators to strategy and the weakness of the formal structure of mobility strategy. Results identify different institutional factors that have a significant impact on the development of sustainable mobility strategy; the most relevant are formal regulations, political power, local cultures, support of direct and indirect actors and the sensitiveness on sustainable culture. The proposed conceptual model also highlights if the impact of mobility strategy controls and institutional influences have a weak, medium or strong impact on the development of mobility strategy. Results validate our proposed conceptual model. However, this model has to be tested on other sustainability issues (energy, green building, green housing, green and neutral climate), cities and regions. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart cities et la participation des citoyens
Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Bleus, Hélène ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailImpact de l'influence sociale de l'équipe dirigeante sur la culture de responsabilité des médecins dans les Centres Hospitaliers Universitaires Algériens
Bounazef, Djida ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

This research analyses the impact of leaders’ social influence on physicians’ culture of accountability through the study of organisational values and practices in hospitals. It analyses the impact of ... [more ▼]

This research analyses the impact of leaders’ social influence on physicians’ culture of accountability through the study of organisational values and practices in hospitals. It analyses the impact of social identity, values normalisation, conformism, practices of post-new public management and quality of interactional climate on the sensitization of social values, behaviours and actions. The research model refers to the works of Tajfel/Turner, Lewin and Schein/Hofstede. It analyses strength of hospital culture, existence of sub-cultures, importance of informal authority and power pressures’ perception between leaders and physicians. Results highlight strength of social values, level of attachment, culture of accountability’s perception and strength of motivation to shared accountability’s factors of 380 physicians in 5 different University Hospitals. [less ▲]

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See detailLa satisfaction des conditions de travail des médecins comme facteur déterminant des réussites médicales
Bounazef, Djida ULiege; Van Caillie, Didier ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2017)

Quality of workplace health and safety conditions of medical doctors has a strategic role in their availability for patients’ care, risk reduction of medical errors and rate of medical successes. The ... [more ▼]

Quality of workplace health and safety conditions of medical doctors has a strategic role in their availability for patients’ care, risk reduction of medical errors and rate of medical successes. The improvement of these conditions represents an opportunity of internal improvement that optimizes better medical services. The case study examines the quality of workplace health and safety conditions of 200 medical doctors belonging to different Algerian UHCs. It analyses its correlation with the daily time devoted to the care of patients, with the rate of risk reduction of medical errors, and with the rate of medical successes. Multiple regression analyses the interaction effect of the three first variables on the rate of medical successes. Results determine a strong causal factor between medical doctors’ availability – quality of workplace conditions and medical successes. Results also highlight a strong correlation between quality of workplace conditions and risk reduction of medical errors. [less ▲]

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