References of "Borges, Alberto"
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See detailDiffusive emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from a cascade of tropical hydropower reservoirs in Kenya
Okuku, Eric O.; Bouillon, Steven; Tole, Mwakio et al

in Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management (2019), 0(0),

Abstract The present study investigated diffusive emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere from three relatively small (3–120 km2) reservoirs (Masinga, Kamburu and Gitaru) on ... [more ▼]

Abstract The present study investigated diffusive emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere from three relatively small (3–120 km2) reservoirs (Masinga, Kamburu and Gitaru) on the Tana River (Kenya). Sampling was conducted biweekly in 2011, 2012 and 2013, at sampling sites upstream and downstream of these reservoirs while five sampling campaigns were carried out in 2011, 2012 and 2013 for different sites within each of the reservoirs. The dissolved CH4 (range: 19–2101 nmol/L) and N2O (range: 6.2–11.5 nmol/L) concentrations in the surface waters were generally very low in the three reservoirs, compared with other reservoirs globally. The lower diffusive emissions of CH4 (20–216 µmol/m2 day−1) and N2O (1.0–1.6 µmol/m2 day−1) from these reservoirs, compared with other tropical reservoirs, are probably related to their age (30–40 years), and lower vegetation biomass (savannah) originally present and submerged during their commissioning. The reservoirs with longer water residence times were characterized by higher diffusive CH4 fluxes (216 ± 666 µmol/m2 day−1) and slightly lower N2O fluxes (1.0 ± 1.5 µmol/m2 day−1). The relative contribution of turbine fluxes of CH4 and N2O, compared to diffusive fluxes, was also highly variable among the three dams, being lower in Masinga Reservoir and higher in Gitaru Reservoir. [less ▲]

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See detailIdeas and perspectives: Carbon leaks from flooded land: do we need to replumb the inland water active pipe?
Abril, G.; Borges, Alberto ULiege

in Biogeosciences (2019), 16(3), 769-784

At the global scale, inland waters are a significant source of atmospheric carbon (C), particularly in the tropics. The active pipe concept predicts that C emissions from streams, lakes and rivers are ... [more ▼]

At the global scale, inland waters are a significant source of atmospheric carbon (C), particularly in the tropics. The active pipe concept predicts that C emissions from streams, lakes and rivers are largely fuelled by terrestrial ecosystems. The traditionally recognized C transfer mechanisms from terrestrial to aquatic systems are surface runoff and groundwater drainage. We present here a series of arguments that support the idea that land flooding is an additional significant process that fuels inland waters with C at the global scale. Whether the majority of CO2 emitted by rivers comes from floodable land (approximately 10% of the continents) or from well-drained land is a fundamental question that impacts our capacity to predict how these C fluxes might change in the future. Using classical concepts in ecology, we propose, as a necessary step forward, an update of the active pipe concept that differentiates floodable land from drained land. Contrarily to well-drained land, many wetlands (in particular riparian and littoral wetlands) combine strong hydrological connectivity with inland waters, high productivity assimilating CO2 from the atmosphere, direct transfer of litter and exudation products to water and waterlogged soils, a generally dominant allocation of ecosystem respiration (ER) below the water surface and a slow gas-exchange rate at the water–air interface. These properties force plants to pump atmospheric C to wetland waters and, when hydrology is favourable, to inland waters as organic C and dissolved CO2. This wetland CO2 pump may contribute disproportionately to CO2 emissions from inland waters, particularly in the tropics where 80% of the global CO2 emissions to the atmosphere atmosphere occur. In future studies, more care must be taken in the way that vertical and horizontal C fluxes are conceptualized along watersheds, and 2-D models that adequately account for the hydrological export of all C species are necessary. In flooded ecosystems, significant effort should be dedicated to quantifying the components of primary production and respiration by the submerged and emerged part of the ecosystem community and to using these metabolic rates in coupled hydrological–biogeochemical models. The construction of a global typology of wetlands that includes productivity, gas fluxes and hydrological connectivity with inland waters also appears necessary to adequately integrate continental C fluxes at the global scale. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-annual variations over a decade of primary production of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica
Champenois, Willy ULiege; Borges, Alberto ULiege

in Limnology and Oceanography (2019), 64(1), 32-45

We acquired quasi-continuous measurements of community gross primary production (GPP) by mass balanceof O2 measured on a mooring, from August 2006 to October 2016 over a Posidonia oceanica meadow (10 m ... [more ▼]

We acquired quasi-continuous measurements of community gross primary production (GPP) by mass balanceof O2 measured on a mooring, from August 2006 to October 2016 over a Posidonia oceanica meadow (10 m depth) in the Bay of Revelleta (Corsica). Over the 2006–2016 period, annual GPP averaged 88 molO2 m−2 yr−1 and ranged from 61 to 108 molO2 m−2 yr−1 . The 2 yr with the lowest annual GPP (2007 and 2015) were characterized by a low occurrence of fall–winter storms, probably leading to the accumulation of leaf litter in fall and early winter; we hypothesize this might have led to occultation of benthic macro-algae. Among the other years, the inter-annual variability of GPP was related to changes during the February–August period, as GPP was repeatable among years during the September–January period. For the February–August period, inter-annual variations of GPP were correlated to chlorophyll a (Chl a), solar radiation and water temperature. Computed phytoplankton GPP corresponded to a small fraction of community GPP, so the relation between GPP and Chl a probably reflected inter-annual variations of a common driver that we hypothesize to be nutrient inputs. The correlation of GPP with solar radiation shows that light availability contributed to inter-annual variations of the development of P. oceanica. The positive relation between GPP and temperature was consistent with the fact that the observed temperatures in the Bay of Revelleta were during the study period within the comfort range for the growth of P. oceanica. [less ▲]

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See detailGHGs in African Inland waters
Borges, Alberto ULiege

Scientific conference (2019, January 15)

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See detailDetermination of dimethylsulfoniopropionate and dimethylsulfoxide in Posidonia oceanica leaf tissue
Champenois, Willy ULiege; Borges, Alberto ULiege

in MethodsX (2019), 6

In order to investigate the possible use of the dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) ratio as a stress indicator of Posidonia oceanica a method for the determination of these ... [more ▼]

In order to investigate the possible use of the dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) ratio as a stress indicator of Posidonia oceanica a method for the determination of these quantities was developed for this type of material. The method relies on gas chromatography with headspace technique, instead of the purge-and-trap technique commonly used. The method allows the determination of both DMSP and DMSO on the same sample. This method allows to quantify DMSP, DMSO and DMSP:DMSO ratio for calibration curves with a coefficient of variation around 2% and a relative error around 2% and within the ranges natural variability of DMSP and DMSO in P. oceanica leaf tissue. Preliminary tests showed that DMSP in P. oceanica leaf tissue ranged from 20 to 200 mmol g 1 of fresh weight (FW) and 2 to 5 mmol gfw 1 for DMSO. The DMSP:DMSO ratio ranged from 2 to 40. The quantifications were conducted with different mixtures of DMSP and DMSO by measurements of DMSP and DMSO in the same sample of P. oceanica leaf tissue. [less ▲]

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See detailSalinity and growth effects on dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) cell quotas of Skeletonema costatum, Phaeocystis globosa and Heterocapsa triquetra
Speeckaert, G; Borges, Alberto ULiege; Gypens, N

in Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science (2019)

The effects of growth stage and salinity on dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) cellular content were investigated in laboratory batch cultures of three phytoplankton species ... [more ▼]

The effects of growth stage and salinity on dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) cellular content were investigated in laboratory batch cultures of three phytoplankton species (Skeletonema costatum, Phaeocystis globosa and Heterocapsa triquetra). DMSP and DMSO cell quotas of the three microalgae were measured at three salinities (20, 27, 35) and in three growth phases at salinity 35. DMSP and DMSO cell quotas varied along the growth for all species with an increase of DMSP for S. costatum and a decrease of the DMSP to DMSO ratio (DMSP/DMSO) for P. globosa and H. triquetra in late exponential-stationary phase. We hypothesized that the oxidative stress caused by light and/or nutrients limitation induced the oxidation of DMS or DMSP to DMSO. DMSP cell quotas increased with salinity, mostly in S. costatum and H. triquetra, for which DMSP is supposed to be an osmoregulator. In H. triquetra, DMSO cell quotas stayed constant with increasing salinity. DMSO was near detection limits in S. costatum experiments. In P. globosa, DMSP and DMSO concentrations increased at low and high salinity. DMSO showed higher increase at low salinity presumably as the result of a salinity-induced oxidative stress which caused DMSP oxidation into DMSO in hyposaline conditions. We concluded that DMSP acts as an osmoregulator for the three studied species and DMSO acts as an antioxidant for P. globosa at low salinity. In P. globosa and H. triquetra, DMSP/DMSO increase with salinity in response to salinity stress. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of greenhouse gases in groundwater: hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical controls
Nikolenko, Olha ULiege; Orban, Philippe ULiege; Jurado, Anna et al

in Applied Geochemistry (2019), 105

In this study the variability of greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentrations along lateral and vertical dimensions of the chalk aquifer located in the eastern part of Belgium was examined in order to ... [more ▼]

In this study the variability of greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentrations along lateral and vertical dimensions of the chalk aquifer located in the eastern part of Belgium was examined in order to understand its dependence on hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical conditions. Groundwater samples from 29 wells/piezometers were analyzed for concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), major and minor elements and stable isotopes of nitrate (NO3−), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfate (SO42−) and boron (B). For lateral investigations, four zones with different environmental settings were identified (southern, central, north-eastern and northern). Groundwater was oversaturated with GHGs with respect to its equilibrium concentrations with the atmosphere in all zones, except the northern one, undersaturated in N2O (0.07 ± 0.08 μgN/L vs. 0.3 μgN/L). Vertical dimension studies showed the decrease in CO2 concentration and significant changes in both isotope signatures and concentration of N2O with depth. The production of N2O could be attributed to a combination of nitrification and denitrification processes occurring at different depths. CO2 concentration is controlled by the process of dissolution of carbonate minerals which constitute aquifer geology. CH4 is produced due to methanogenesis in deeper parts of the aquifer, though its thermogenic origin is also possible. Differences in hydrogeochemical settings and changing intensity of biogeochemical processes across the area and with depth have considerable effect on GHGs concentrations. Thus, before estimating GHGs fluxes at the groundwater–river interface insights obtained from larger-scale investigations are required in order to identify the representative spatial zones which govern GHGs emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe roles of climate and human land-use in the late Holocene rainforest crisis of Central Africa
Bayon, Germain; Schefuß, Enno; Dupont, Lydie et al

in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2019), 505

There is increasing evidence that abrupt vegetation shifts and large-scale erosive phases occurred in Central Africa during the third millennium before present. Debate exists as to whether these events ... [more ▼]

There is increasing evidence that abrupt vegetation shifts and large-scale erosive phases occurred in Central Africa during the third millennium before present. Debate exists as to whether these events were caused by climate change and/or intensifying human activities related to the Bantu expansion. In this study, we report on a multi-proxy investigation of a sediment core (KZR-23) recovered from the Congo submarine canyon. Our aim was to reconstruct climate, erosion and vegetation patterns in the Congo Basin for the last 10,000 yrs, with a particular emphasis on the late Holocene period. Samples of modern riverine suspended particulates were also analyzed to characterize sediment source geochemical signatures from across the Congo watershed. We find that a sudden increase of bulk sediment aluminium-to-potassium (Al/K) ratios and initial radiocarbon ages of bulk organic matter occurred after 2,200 yrs ago, coincident with a pollen-inferred vegetation change suggesting forest retreat and development of savannas. Although hydrogen isotope compositions of plant waxes (δDwax) do not reveal a substantial hydroclimate shift during this period, neodymium isotopes and rare earth elements in detrital fractions indicate provenance changes for the sediment exported from the Congo Basin at that time, hence suggesting a reorganization of spatial rainfall patterns across Central Africa during this event. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for changing landscapes in Central Africa from about 2,200 yrs ago, associated with synchronous events of vegetation changes and enhanced erosion of pre-aged and highly weathered soils. These events coincided remarkably well with the arrival of Iron Age communities into the rainforest, as inferred from comparison to regional archaeological syntheses. While the human impact on the environment remains difficult to quantify at the scale of the vast Congo Basin, we tentatively propose that strengthening of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability at that time played a key role in triggering the observed environmental changes, and possibly acted as a driver for the eastward migration of Bantu-speaking peoples across Central Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailAnaerobic methane oxidation and aerobic methane production in an east African great lake (Lake Kivu)
Roland, Fleur ULiege; Morana, Cédric; Darchambeau, François et al

in Journal of Great Lakes Research (2018)

We investigated CH4 oxidation in the water column of Lake Kivu, a deep meromictic tropical lake with CH4-rich anoxic deep waters. Depth profiles of dissolved gases (CH4 and N2O) and a diversity of ... [more ▼]

We investigated CH4 oxidation in the water column of Lake Kivu, a deep meromictic tropical lake with CH4-rich anoxic deep waters. Depth profiles of dissolved gases (CH4 and N2O) and a diversity of potential electron acceptors for anaerobic CH4 oxidation (NO3−, SO4 2−, Fe and Mn oxides) were determined during six field campaigns between June 2011 and August 2014. Denitrification measurements based on stable isotope labelling experiments were performed twice. In addition, we quantified aerobic and anaerobic CH4 oxidation, NO3− and SO4 2− consumption rates,with and without the presence of an inhibitor of SO4 2−-reducing bacteria activity. Aerobic CH4 production was also measured in parallel incubations with the addition of an inhibitor of aerobic CH4 oxidation. Themaximu m aerobic and anaerobic CH4 oxidation rates were estimated to be 27±2 and 16±8 μmol/L/d, respectively. We observed a difference in the relative importance of aerobic and anaerobic CH4 oxidation during the rainy and the dry season, with a greater role for aerobic oxidation during the dry season. Lower anaerobic CH4 oxidation rates were measured in presence of molybdate in half of the measurements, suggesting the occurrence of linkage between SO4 2− reduction and anaerobic CH4 oxidation. NO3− consumption and dissolved Mn production rates were never high enough to sustain themeasured anaerobic CH4 oxidation, reinforcing the idea of a coupling between SO4 2− reduction and CH4 oxidation in the anoxic waters of Lake Kivu. Finally, significant rates (up to 0.37 μmol/L/d) of pelagic CH4 production were also measured in oxygenated waters. [less ▲]

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See detailAn intercomparison of oceanic methane and nitrous oxide measurements
Wilson, ST; Bange, HW; Arévalo-Martínez, DL et al

in Biogeosciences (2018), 15

Large-scale climatic forcing is impacting oceanic biogeochemical cycles and is expected to influence the water-column distribution of trace gases, including methane and nitrous oxide. Our ability as a ... [more ▼]

Large-scale climatic forcing is impacting oceanic biogeochemical cycles and is expected to influence the water-column distribution of trace gases, including methane and nitrous oxide. Our ability as a scientific community to evaluate changes in the water-column inventories of methane and nitrous oxide depends largely on our capacity to obtain robust and accurate concentration measurements that can be validated across different laboratory groups. This study represents the first formal international intercomparison of oceanic methane and nitrous oxide measurements whereby participating laboratories received batches of seawater samples from the subtropical Pacific Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Additionally, compressed gas standards from the same calibration scale were distributed to the majority of participating laboratories to improve the analytical accuracy of the gas measurements. The computations used by each laboratory to derive the dissolved gas concentrations were also evaluated for inconsistencies (e.g., pressure and temperature corrections, solubility constants). The results from the intercomparison and intercalibration provided invaluable insights into methane and nitrous oxide measurements. It was observed that analyses of seawater samples with the lowest concentrations of methane and nitrous oxide had the lowest precisions. In comparison, while the analytical precision for samples with the highest concentrations of trace gases was better, the variability between the different laboratories was higher: 36% for methane and 27% for nitrous oxide. In addition, the comparison of different batches of seawater samples with methane and nitrous oxide concentrations that ranged over an order of magnitude revealed the ramifications of different calibration procedures for each trace gas. Finally, this study builds upon the intercomparison results to develop recommendations for improving oceanic methane and nitrous oxide measurements, with the aim of precluding future analytical discrepancies between laboratories. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman Impacts on ecosystem health and resources of Lake Edward (HIPE): the phytoplankton study
Stoyneva-Gärtner, MP; Descy, J-P; Morana, Cédric ULiege et al

Conference (2018, September 25)

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See detailSeasonal and spatial variability of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the human-impacted Seine River in France
Marescaux, A; Thieu, V; Borges, Alberto ULiege et al

in Scientific Reports (2018), 8

Seasonal and spatial variability of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the human-impacted Seine River in France JO - Scientific Reports SP - 13961 VL - 8 IS - 1 AB - Carbon evasion from rivers is ... [more ▼]

Seasonal and spatial variability of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the human-impacted Seine River in France JO - Scientific Reports SP - 13961 VL - 8 IS - 1 AB - Carbon evasion from rivers is an important component of the global carbon cycle. The intensification of anthropogenic pressures on hydrosystems requires studies of human-impacted rivers to identify and quantify the main drivers of carbon evasion. In 2016 and 2017, four field campaigns were conducted in the Seine River network characterized by an intensively cropped and highly populated basin. We measured partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in streams or rivers draining land under different uses at different seasons. We also computed pCO2 from an existing data set (pH, water temperature and total alkalinity) going back until 1970. Here we report factors controlling pCO2 that operate at different time and space scales. In our study, the Seine River was shown to be supersaturated in CO2 with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium, as well as a source of CO2. Our results suggest an increase in pCO2 from winter to summer in small streams draining forests (from 1670 to 2480 ppm), croplands (from 1010 to 1550 ppm), and at the outlet of the basin (from 2490 to 3630 ppm). The main driver of pCO2 was shown to be dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (R2 = 0.56, n = 119, p < 0.05) that are modulated by hydro-climatic conditions and groundwater discharges. DOC sources were linked to land use and soil, mainly leaching into small upstream streams, but also to organic pollution, mainly found downstream in larger rivers. Our long-term analysis of the main stream suggests that pCO2 closely mirrors the pattern of urban water pollution over time. These results suggest that factors controlling pCO2 operate differently upstream and downstream depending on the physical characteristics of the river basin and on the intensity and location of the main anthropogenic pressures. The influence of these controlling factors may also differ over time, according to the seasons, and mirror long term changes in these anthropogenic pressures. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of greenhouse gases in the aquifers of two agricultural catchments of Belgium
Jurado, Anna; Nikolenko, Olha ULiege; Orban, Philippe ULiege et al

Conference (2018, September 10)

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are an environmental problem because their concentrations in the atmosphere are continuously increasing. Agricultural practices represented up to one third of anthropogenic ... [more ▼]

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are an environmental problem because their concentrations in the atmosphere are continuously increasing. Agricultural practices represented up to one third of anthropogenic emissions of GHGs such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), which all contribute to climate change and N2O to stratospheric ozone destruction. This study presents recent case studies in two different agricultural areas of the Walloon Region (Belgium). To this end, the dynamics of CO2, CH4 and N2O were studied in the aquifers of the Triffoy and Geer catchments. In order to get an insight into GHGs production/consumption processes, the results of the stable isotope analyses of NO3-, N2O, SO42-, B, DOC and 3H along with the hydrogeochemical data were used. Our study attempts to acquire additional evidence about (1) the processes that consume and produce GHGs in groundwater in these two catchments (2) the spatial variability of N2O along the lateral and vertical dimensions of the Geer aquifers and (3) the dynamics of GHGs in the river-groundwater interface in the Triffoy catchment. Results indicate that groundwater is oversaturated in N2O and CO2 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium but only marginally for CH4, suggesting that groundwater can be a source of these GHGs to the atmosphere. Nitrification and nitrifier-denitrification seems to be the main process for the accumulation of N2O in groundwater of the two catchments and the oxic conditions prevailing in the aquifers are not prone to the accumulation of CH4. Groundwater is probably an important source of N2O and CO2 into the river but when the measures are scaled at catchment scale, these fluxes are probably relatively modest. Nevertheless, their quantification would better constrain nitrogen and carbon budgets in natural systems. [less ▲]

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See detailAnaerobic methane oxidation and aerobic methane production in Lake Kivu
Roland, Fleur ULiege; Morana, Cédric ULiege; Darchambeau, François et al

Conference (2018, September)

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See detailMethane cycling in a ferruginous tropical lake (Kabuno Bay, East Africa)
Roland, Fleur ULiege; Borges, Alberto ULiege; Darchambeau, François et al

Poster (2018, September)

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See detailInfluence of plankton metabolism and mixing depth on CO2 dynamics in an Amazon floodplain lake
Amaral, JH; Borges, Alberto ULiege; Melack, JM et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2018), 630

We investigated plankton metabolism and its influence on carbon dioxide (CO2) dynamics in a central Amazon floodplain lake (Janauacá, 3°23′ S, 60°18′ W) from September 2015 to May 2016, including a period ... [more ▼]

We investigated plankton metabolism and its influence on carbon dioxide (CO2) dynamics in a central Amazon floodplain lake (Janauacá, 3°23′ S, 60°18′ W) from September 2015 to May 2016, including a period with exceptional drought. We made diel measurements of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere with floating chambers and depth profiles of temperature and CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) at two sites with differing wind exposure and proximity to vegetated habitats. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were monitored continuously during day and night in clear and dark chambers with autonomous optical sensors to evaluate plankton metabolism. Overnight community respiration (CR), and gross primary production (GPP) rates were higher in clear chambers and positively correlated with chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). CO2 air-water fluxes varied over 24-h periods with changes in thermal structure and metabolism. Most net daily CO2 fluxes during low water and mid-rising water at the wind exposed site were into the lake as a result of high rates of photosynthesis. All other measurements indicated net daily release to the atmosphere. Average GPP rates (6.8 gC m−2 d−1) were high compared with other studies in Amazon floodplain lakes. The growth of herbaceous plants on exposed sediment during an exceptional drought led to large carbon inputs when these areas were flooded, enhancing CR, pCO2, and CO2 fluxes. During the period when the submerged herbaceous vegetation decayed phytoplankton abundance increased and photosynthetic uptake of CO2 occurred. While planktonic metabolism was often autotrophic (GPP:CR > 1), CO2 out-gassing occurred during most periods investigated indicating other inputs of carbon such as sediments or soils and wetland plants. [less ▲]

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See detailOcean acidification in the Belgian coastal zone, a contribution to the BELSPO project “4 decades of Belgian marine monitoring” (4Demon)
Borges, Alberto ULiege; Vandenberghe, Thomas; Strobbe, Francis et al

Poster (2018, May 29)

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