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See detailBiostimulant Effects of Bacillus strains on wheat from in vitro towards field conditions are modulated by nitrogen supply
Nguyen, Minh Luan; Glaes, Johann; Spaepen, Stijn et al

in Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science (in press)

Bacillus velezensisstrains, belonging to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), areincreasingly used as microbial biostimulant. However, their field application to winter wheatunder temperate ... [more ▼]

Bacillus velezensisstrains, belonging to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), areincreasingly used as microbial biostimulant. However, their field application to winter wheatunder temperate climate remains poorly documented. Therefore, threeB. velezensisstrainsIT45, FZB24 and FZB42 were tested for their efficacy under these conditions. Two biological in-teraction systems were firstly developed under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions combinedwith sterile or non-sterile soil, respectively, and finally assayed in the field during two yearscoupled with different N fertilization rates. Under gnotobiotic conditions, all three strains signifi-cantly increased root growth of 14 d-old spring and winter wheat seedlings. In the greenhouseusing non-sterile soil, only FZB24 significantly increased root biomass of spring wheat (+31%).The three strains were able to improve nutrient uptake of the spring wheat grown in the green-house, particularly for the micronutrients Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu, but the observed increases innutrient uptake were dependent on the organs and the elements. The root biomass increases ininoculated plants coincided with lowered nutrient concentrations of P and K. In 2014, under fieldconditions and absence of any N fertilizer supply, FZB24 significantly increased grain yields by983 kg ha–1, or 14.9%, in relation to non-inoculated controls. The three strains in the 2015 fieldtrial failed to confirm the previous positive results, likely due to the low temperatures occurringduring and after inoculations. The Zeleny sedimentation value, indicative of flour quality, wasunaffected by the inoculants. The results are discussed in the perspective of bacterial applicationto wheat under temperate agricultural practices [less ▲]

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See detailRestoring a worn-out pasture: what impact on N2O exchanges ?
Lognoul, Margaux ULiege; Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Naiken, Alwin ULiege et al

Poster (2019, April 08)

A paired-flux tower experiment was set up in a 40 y-o grazed pasture managed by a local farmer. A parcel under restoration was compared to a control plot. In addition to N2O flux monitoring, soil mineral ... [more ▼]

A paired-flux tower experiment was set up in a 40 y-o grazed pasture managed by a local farmer. A parcel under restoration was compared to a control plot. In addition to N2O flux monitoring, soil mineral N content (ammonium and nitrate) was measured every 10-15 days. [less ▲]

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See detailHerd position habits can bias net CO2 ecosystem exchange estimates in free range grazed pastures.
Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Dumortier, Pierre ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

Conference (2019, April)

The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been widely used to quantify the net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) of grasslands, which is an important component of grassland carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. In ... [more ▼]

The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been widely used to quantify the net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) of grasslands, which is an important component of grassland carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. In free range grazed pastures, NEE estimations are supposed to also include cattle respiration. However, cattle respiration measurement by an EC system is challenging as animals act as moving points emitting CO2 that are more or less captured by the EC tower depending on their presence in the footprint. Often it is supposed that, over the long term, cattle distribution in the pasture is homogeneous so that fluctuations due to moving sources are averaged and NEE estimates are reasonably representative of cattle respiration. In this study, we test this hypothesis by comparing daily cow respiration rate per livestock unit (LU) estimated by postulating a homogeneous cow repartition over the whole pasture with three other estimates based on animal localization data, animal scale carbon budget and confinement experiments. We applied these methods to an intensively managed free range grassland and showed that the NEE estimate based on a homogeneous cow repartition was systematically lower than the three other estimates. Consequently, in order to allow estimating the validity of this hypothesis but also to improve inter site comparisons, we advocate to compute separately pasture NEE and grazer’s respiration. In the presentation, we will propose a method based on cattle presence detection using CH4 fluxes, elimination of data with cattle and gap filling on the basis of data without cattle. For the second we propose three independent methods (animal localization with GPS, animal scale carbon budget, confinement experiments) to estimate the cattle respiration rate and discuss their use depending on site specificities. [less ▲]

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See detailHerd position habits can bias net CO2 ecosystem exchange estimates in free range grazed pastures.
Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Dumortier, Pierre ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2019), 268

The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been widely used to quantify the net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) of grasslands, which is an important component of grassland carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. In ... [more ▼]

The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been widely used to quantify the net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) of grasslands, which is an important component of grassland carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. In free range grazed pastures, NEE estimations are supposed to also include cattle respiration. However, cattle respiration measurement by an EC system is challenging as animals act as moving points emitting CO2 that are more or less captured by the EC tower depending on their presence in the footprint. Often it is supposed that, over the long term, cattle distribution in the pasture is homogeneous so that fluctuations due to moving sources are averaged and NEE estimates are reasonably representative of cattle respiration. In this study, we test this hypothesis by comparing daily cow respiration rate per livestock unit (LU) estimated by postulating a homogeneous cow repartition over the whole pasture with three other estimates based on animal localization data, animal scale carbon budget and confinement experiments. We applied these methods to an intensively managed free range grassland and showed that the NEE estimate based on a homogeneous cow repartition was systematically lower than the three other estimates. The bias was about 60 g C m–2 yr–1, which corresponded to around 40% of the annual NEE. The sign and the importance of this bias is site specific, as it depends on cow location habits in relation to the footprint of the EC measurements which highlight the importance of testing the hypothesis of homogeneity of cattle distribution on each site. Consequently, in order to allow estimating the validity of this hypothesis but also to improve inter site comparisons, we advocate to compute separately pasture NEE and grazer’s respiration. For the former we propose a method based on cattle presence detection using CH4 fluxes, elimination of data with cattle and gap filling on the basis of data without cattle. For the second we present and discuss three independent methods (animal localization with GPS, animal scale carbon budget, confinement experiments) to estimate the cattle respiration rate. [less ▲]

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See detailRotational and continuous grazing does not affect the total net ecosystem exchange of a pasture grazed by cattle but modifies CO2 exchange dynamics
Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Mamadou, Ossenatou; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment (2018), 253

Grassland carbon budgets are known to be greatly dependent on management. In particular, grazing is known to directly affect CO2 exchange through consumption by plants, cattle respiration, natural ... [more ▼]

Grassland carbon budgets are known to be greatly dependent on management. In particular, grazing is known to directly affect CO2 exchange through consumption by plants, cattle respiration, natural fertilisation through excreta, and soil compaction. This study investigates the impact of two grazing methods on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics and carbon balance, by measuring CO2 fluxes using eddy covariance in two adjacent pastures located in southern Belgium during a complete grazing season. Rotational (RG) grazing consists of an alternation of rest periods and short high stock density grazing periods. Continuous grazing (CG) consists of uninterrupted grazing with variable stocking rates. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the impact of these grazing methods on total net ecosystem exchange and CO2 exchange dynamics using eddy covariance. The results showed that NEE dynamics were greatly impacted by the grazing method. Following grazing events on the RG parcel, net CO2 uptake on the RG parcel was reduced compared to the CG parcel. During the following rest periods, this phenomenon progressively shifted towards a higher assimilation for the RG treatment. This behaviour was attributed to sharp biomass changes in the RG treatment and therefore sharp changes in plant photosynthetic capacity. We found that differences in gross primary productivity at high radiation were strongly correlated to differences in standing biomass. In terms of carbon budgets, no significant difference was observed between the two treatments, neither in cumulative NEE, or in terms of estimated biomass production. The results of our study suggest that we should not expect major benefits in terms of CO2 uptake from rotational grazing management when compared to continuous grazing management in intensively managed temperate pastures. [less ▲]

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See detailMesure de la concentration et de la distribution de la leghémoglobine au sein de nodosités de pois protéagineux par imagerie hyperspectrale proche infrarouge
Eylenbosch, Damien ULiege; Baeten, Vincent; Delaplace, Pierre ULiege et al

in Magrini, Marie-Benoît (Ed.) Rencontres Francophones Légumineuses #2 - Livre des Résumés (2018, October)

Courte présentation d'une méthode de quantification de la leghémoglobine au sein de nodosités de pois protéagineux par imagerie hyperspectrale proche infrarouge

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See detailVariétés
Meza, Walter Rodrigo; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Dumont, Benjamin ULiege et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Watillon, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2018, September 13)

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See detailLivre Blanc Céréales - Edition septembre 2018
Bodson, Bernard ULiege; Watillon, Bernard

Book published by Gembloux Agro Bio Tech - Février 2018 (2018)

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See detail5. Froment 2018: une récolte particulièrement précoce sans problèmes particuliers
Sinnaeve, Georges; Gofflot, Sébastien; Chandelier, Anne et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Watillon, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2018, September 13)

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See detail1. Implantation des cultures
Blanchard, Remy ULiege; Meza, Walter Rodrigo; Jacquemin, Guillaume et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Watillon, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2018, September 13)

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See detailRestoring a worn-out pasture : What impact on greenhouse gas exchanges ?
Lognoul, Margaux ULiege; Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Debacq, Alain ULiege et al

Poster (2018, September 12)

The restoration of permanent pastures is often required in order to restore a productive state and the palatability of the grass. The restoration process consists on destroying the former vegetation using ... [more ▼]

The restoration of permanent pastures is often required in order to restore a productive state and the palatability of the grass. The restoration process consists on destroying the former vegetation using herbicides followed by tillage and reseed. The short term and long term impacts of such operations on the carbon cycle and N2O emissions are not well defined for old permanent pastures. Therefore, a paired flux tower measurement campaign was started in March 2018 at the Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory in Southern Belgium, with the aim to study the impact of pasture restoration on CO2 and N2O fluxes exchanged by the ecosystem. The site is a 100-year-old intensively managed grassland which last restoration was performed more than 40 years ago. It is grazed by Belgian blue beef cattle and fertilized with around 120 kgN ha-1 per year on average, reflecting common practices in the area. A former study carried out at the same site, showed that the pasture acted as significant carbon sink before the start of experiment. Two adjacent parcels belonging to the same farm were both equipped with identical instrumentation including eddy covariance measurements of CO2 (LICOR 7000) and N2O/CH4 (Aerodyne Inc. quantum cascade laser) exchanges to allow the comparison between a control and a restored plot subject to identical pedo-climatic conditions. Preliminary results of greenhouse gas fluxes will be presented in relation to climatic conditions and management operations and the evolution of soil ammonium and nitrate. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantification of leghaemoglobin content in pea nodules based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy and chemometrics
Eylenbosch, Damien ULiege; Dumont, Benjamin ULiege; Baeten, Vincent et al

in Journal of Spectral Imaging (2018), 7

Leghemoglobin content in nodules is closely related with the amount of nitrogen fixed by the legume-rhizobium symbiosis. It is therefore commonly measured in order to assess the effect of growth-promoting ... [more ▼]

Leghemoglobin content in nodules is closely related with the amount of nitrogen fixed by the legume-rhizobium symbiosis. It is therefore commonly measured in order to assess the effect of growth-promoting parameters such as fertilization on the symbiotic nitrogen fixation efficiency of legumes. The cyanmethemoglobin method is a reference method in leghemoglobin content quantification, but this method is time-consuming, requires accurate and careful technical operations and uses cyanide, a toxic reagent. As a quicker, simpler and nondestructive alternative, a method based on near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging was tested to quantify leghemoglobin in dried nodules. Two approaches were evaluated: (i) the PLS approach was applied to the full spectrum acquired with the hyperspectral device, and (ii) the potential of multispectral imaging was also tested through the preselection of the most relevant wavelengths and the building of a multiple linear regression model. The PLS approach was tested on mean spectra acquired from samples containing several nodules and acquired separately from individual nodules. Peas (Pisum sativum L.) were cultivated in the greenhouse. The nodules were harvested on four different dates in order to obtain variations in leghemoglobin content. The leghemoglobin content measured with the cyanmethemoglobin method in fresh nodules ranged between 1.4 and 4.2 mg leghemoglobin.g-1 fresh nodule. A partial least square (PLS) regression model was calibrated on leghemoglobin content measured with the reference method and mean NIR spectra of dried nodules acquired with a hyperspectral imaging device. On a validation dataset, the PLS model predicted well the leghemoglobin content in nodule samples (R² = 0.90, RMSEP = 0.26). The multispectral approach showed similar performance. Applied to individual nodules, the PLS model highlighted a wide variability of leghemoglobin content in nodules harvested from the same plant. These results show that NIR hyperspectral imaging could be used as a rapid and safe method to quantify leghemoglobin in pea nodules. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of crop residue management on crop production and soil chemistry after seven years of crop rotation in temperate climate, loamy soils
Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULiege; Barbieux, Sophie; Pierreux, Jérome ULiege et al

in PeerJ (2018), 6(e4836),

Society is increasingly demanding a more sustainable management of agro-ecosystems in a context of climate change and an ever growing global population. The fate of crop residues is one of the important ... [more ▼]

Society is increasingly demanding a more sustainable management of agro-ecosystems in a context of climate change and an ever growing global population. The fate of crop residues is one of the important management aspects under debate, since it represents an unneglectable quantity of organic matter which can be kept in or removed from the agro-ecosystem. The topic of residue management is not new, but the need for global conclusion on the impact of crop residue management on the agro-ecosystem linked to local pedo-climatic conditions has become apparent with an increasing amount of studies showing a diversity of conclusions. This study specifically focusses on temperate climate and loamy soil using a seven-year data set. Between 2008 and 2016, we compared four contrasting residue management strategies differing in the amount of crop residues returned to the soil (incorporation vs. exportation of residues) and in the type of tillage (reduced tillage (10 cm depth) vs. conventional tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth)) in a field experiment. We assessed the impact of the crop residue management on crop production (three crops—winter wheat, faba bean and maize—cultivated over six cropping seasons), soil organic carbon content, nitrate (NO−3), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) soil content and uptake by the crops. The main differences came primarily from the tillage practice and less from the restitution or removal of residues. All years and crops combined, conventional tillage resulted in a yield advantage of 3.4% as compared to reduced tillage, which can be partly explained by a lower germination rate observed under reduced tillage, especially during drier years. On average, only small differences were observed for total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil, but reduced tillage resulted in a very clear stratification of TOC and also of P and K content as compared to conventional tillage. We observed no effect of residue management on the NO−3 content, since the effect of fertilization dominated the effect of residue management. To confirm the results and enhance early tendencies, we believe that the experiment should be followed up in the future to observe whether more consistent changes in the whole agro-ecosystem functioning are present on the long term when managing residues with contrasted strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailRotational and continuous grazing does not affect the total net ecosystem exchange of a pasture grazed by cattle but modifies CO2 exchange dynamics
Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege; Bodson, Bernard ULiege et al

Conference (2018, April)

Grassland carbon budgets are known to be greatly dependent on management. In particular, grazing is known to directly affect CO2 exchange through consumption by plants, cattle respiration, natural ... [more ▼]

Grassland carbon budgets are known to be greatly dependent on management. In particular, grazing is known to directly affect CO2 exchange through consumption by plants, cattle respiration, natural fertilisation through excreta, and soil compaction. This study investigates the impact of two grazing methods on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics and carbon balance, by measuring CO2 fluxes using eddy covariance in two adjacent pastures located in southern Belgium during a complete grazing season. Rotational (RG) grazing consists of an alternation of rest periods and short high stock density grazing periods. Continuous grazing (CG) consists of uninterrupted grazing with variable stocking rates. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the impact of these grazing methods on total net ecosystem exchange and CO2 exchange dynamics using eddy covariance. The results showed that NEE dynamics were greatly impacted by the grazing method. Following grazing events on the RG parcel, net CO2 uptake on the RG parcel was reduced compared to the CG parcel. During the following rest periods, this phenomenon progressively shifted towards a higher assimilation for the RG treatment. This behaviour was attributed to sharp biomass changes in the RG treatment and therefore sharp changes in plant photosynthetic capacity. We found that differences in gross primary productivity at high radiation were strongly correlated to differences in standing biomass. In terms of carbon budgets, no significant difference was observed between the two treatments, neither in cumulative NEE, or in terms of estimated biomass production. The results of our study suggest that we should not expect major benefits in terms of CO2 uptake from rotational grazing management when compared to continuous grazing management in intensively managed temperate pastures. [less ▲]

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See detailLivre Blanc Céréales
Bodson, Bernard ULiege; De Proft, Michel; Watillon, Bernard

Book published by Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech - Edition février 2018 (2018)

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See detail4. Les régulateurs de croissance
Meza Morales, Walter ULiege; Monfort, Bruno; Henriet, François et al

in Bodson, Bernard; De Proft, Michel; Watillon, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2018, February 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (7 ULiège)