References of "Bindelle, Jérôme"
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See detailThe time after feeding alters methane emission kinet- ics in Holstein dry cows fed with various restricted diets
Blaise, Yannick ULiege; Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Livestock Science (in press)

This study aims to investigate shifts in methane (CH4) emission in cattle in relation to the time after feeding, diet composition, and feed allowance. Four non-cannulated dry Holstein cows were equipped ... [more ▼]

This study aims to investigate shifts in methane (CH4) emission in cattle in relation to the time after feeding, diet composition, and feed allowance. Four non-cannulated dry Holstein cows were equipped with activity and infrared sensors to monitor feeding behavior and CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the breath, continuously and at a frequency of 4 Hz. The second goal pursued, was to assess the methane emission estimation (CH4, L/h) by the CO2-method based on the ratio between CH4 and CO2 in the exhaled air, using metabolic CO2 as a marker. All cows were fed twice a day at 12 h intervals with contrasting isoenergy diets in a cross-over design: LIN100 diet (5562 VEM, i.e. Voedereenheid Melk, Dutch energy unit for milk production, 1 VEM = 6.9 kJ net energy for lactation) composed of haylage, linseed and wheat, and HAY100 (5367 VEM) diet containing only haylage. After a 2 week adaptation period to the diets, 3 days were required for the measurements and immediately after, two additional experimental treatments were applied by reducing the feed allowance to 70% with the same diets to evaluate the impact of the dry matter intake, yielding the two additional treatments HAY70 and LIN70. In addition, two other rumen-cannulated cows were used to monitor time after feeding short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the rumen. On a daily basis, all indicators (daily CH4:CO2 ratio, eructation frequency and CH4 emission) followed the same trend and showed that cows on a hay-based diet produced more CH4 and feed restriction induced different production levels for the same type of diet. The average CH4 emission for the different diets were 6.86 L/h for HAY100 > 6.25 L/h for HAY70 > 4.26 L/h for LIN100 > 3.97 L/h LIN70 (P < 0.001). The LIN100 diet produced 38% lower daily CH4 emissions than HAY100 and reduced the eructation frequency by 44%. During feeding, the eructation frequency was higher (P<0.001) for HAY than LIN diets. This work underlines the daily CH4 emission dynamics observed using the CH4:CO2 ratio in the cow's exhaled air. Methane emissions (L/h) are strongly influenced by the time after feeding time (P < 0.001). They increased for up to 2 hours after the distribution of the meal, and then decreased until the next meal, with shifts between the maximum and the minimum emission of more than 100% for LIN100 and 22% for HAY100. Consistently, the acetate:proprionate ratio was smaller for the LIN100 diet between 2 to 5 hours after the meal (P < 0.001). [less ▲]

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See detailDo topography and fruit presence influence occurrence and intensity of crop-raiding by forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis)?
Ngama, Steeve ULiege; Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege; Poulsen, John R. et al

in PLoS ONE (2019), 14(3), 16

Crop damage by forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) and the resulting human-elephant conflict are issues of great concern for both the conservation of the species and the protection of rural ... [more ▼]

Crop damage by forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) and the resulting human-elephant conflict are issues of great concern for both the conservation of the species and the protection of rural livelihoods in Central Africa. Addressing these problems requires identifying the factors that facilitate or impede crop-raiding by forest elephants. Yet to date, the environmental or anthropogenic factors that influence the occurrence and intensity of cropraiding by forest elephants are largely unknown. We used a multivariate approach to investigate conditions under which forest elephants raid some fields and not others in the buffer zone of Monts de Cristal National Park (MCNP), Gabon. We first interviewed 121 farmers from 11 villages situated within 10 km of MCNP regarding the occurrence of elephant cropraiding of their fields. We then collected data on 39 explanatory variables to characterize the agricultural fields. Of these, the most important predictors of elephant raid occurrence of crop damage were presence of fruit trees, elephant deterrents (scarecrows, fire, wire string fences and empty barrels), and field topography. We secondly assessed the effect of stage of crop growth, presence of fruit trees, field topography and presence of elephant deterrents on crop-raiding occurrence and intensity by counting raids and measuring areas of crop damage every week in 17 plantations over 19 weeks in the most elephant-impacted zone of the study area. We found that fruit presence and stage of crop growth led to more intense damage to crops, whereas local deterrents did not inhibit raiding events and crop damage by elephants. We report a tradeoff between non-timber forest products (NTFP) services and crop-raiding by elephants. We show for the first time that steep topography impedes elephant damage to crops with no raids recorded in fields with surrounding slopes greater than 25%. We discuss whether farming on steep fields could be used as a strategy for mitigating crop-raiding to favor human-elephant coexistence and enhance elephant conservation. [less ▲]

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See detailIn growing pigs, nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of distillers’ by-products obtained from two varieties of rice
Nguyen Cong, Oanh ULiege; Pham Kim, Dang; Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2019)

In South-East Asia, rice distillers’ by-product (RDP) is a widely abundant feedstuff whose adequate incorporation into pig diets is still questionable. Especially, effects of RDP on nutrient digestibility ... [more ▼]

In South-East Asia, rice distillers’ by-product (RDP) is a widely abundant feedstuff whose adequate incorporation into pig diets is still questionable. Especially, effects of RDP on nutrient digestibility of growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diet are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine nutrient digestibility and energy value of ordinary (ORDP) and glutinous (GRDP) rice distillers’ by-product in growing pigs. Two groups of 12 castrated crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire), about 3 months old, 38 ± 1.04 kg initial body weight, were each allocated to a 15-day experiment in which pigs were divided into three iso-nitrogenous diet-groups. The animals were housed individually in metabolism cages for separated collection of feces and urine. Each diet-group was provided either a control corn-soybean meal diet or a diet in which corn and soybean meal were partly replaced by ORDP or GRDP at 15 or 30% on diet dry matter basis. Glutinous by-product especially showed higher levels in crude protein, neutral/acid detergent fiber, total branched-chain amino acids and butyric acid. When compared to the control diet, ORDP tented to increase DM intake (P = 0.054) but decreased energy (P < 0.001) and crude protein (P < 0.04) digestibility, while GRDP decreased DM intake (P < 0.001). Both GRDP and ORDP products negatively affected digestibility of ether extract. The average digestible and metabolizable energy of ORDP and GRDP were 17.0 and 16.6, and 17.7 and 17.1 MJ/kg DM, respectively. In conclusion, these results show that both RDP, and especially GRDP, are highly valuable protein and energy sources for pig production. [less ▲]

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See detailNitrogen prediction model in smallholder farming system integrating pig and fish farming in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa
Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick ULiege; Dochain, Denis; Kalala Bolokango, Gaetan ULiege et al

in NSABS 2019 (2019)

The modelling of nitrogen flow within integrated farms in aquaculture allows monitoring of the nitrogen evolution, which is one of the limiting elements in the farm production. This is one of the ... [more ▼]

The modelling of nitrogen flow within integrated farms in aquaculture allows monitoring of the nitrogen evolution, which is one of the limiting elements in the farm production. This is one of the important ways to improve production in small integrated agricultural farms in rural and peri-urban areas of Kinshasa with limited financial resources. The model is built in order to use the nitrogen produced by the pig for fertilizing fish farming ponds. The pig module was calibrated, validated and ready to be used, contrary to the fish module which is not validated due to the lack of appropriate experience data. Result of pig module prediction, gives the cumulative N amount of the fattening period to 861.85 gN/pig for fecal nitrogen and 765.39 for urinary production very close to the measured value of 988.68 gN/pig and 887.55 gN/pig for N fecal and N urinary. The model shows that the variation in feed content leads to the variation in the N fecal and urinary production to the farm. Combined to the N from pig, N water in the fish pond is sensitive to N from pig addition and fish biomass. Change in factors that affect pig consumption and pig growing performance lead a variation in both N production by a pig and N water evolution in the pond water column. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of housefly larvae production on pig wastes and brewers’ grains for integrated fish and pig farms in the tropics
Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick ULiege; BWABWA, Denis; Nyongombe, Nathan et al

in Livestock Research for Rural Development (2019)

Lack of appropriate animal waste management methods in many smallholder farms in the tropics often leads to environmental problems, especially in locations with high population density such as urban and ... [more ▼]

Lack of appropriate animal waste management methods in many smallholder farms in the tropics often leads to environmental problems, especially in locations with high population density such as urban and peri-urban areas. On farms integrating pig production to fish farming, manure can be turned into a valuable feed source of high quality protein for fish through housefly larvae and contribute to intensify fish production and reduce cost of fish feed. Three experiments were carried to optimize operating conditions for maggot production on animal wastes and industrial byproducts found in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The comparisons were: (1) production on pure substrates (manure or brewer’s grains) or mixtures with lysine or blood; (2) exposure time to flies for the insemination of the substrates: and (3) dynamics of larvae production. Mixing brewers’ grains with Lysine or manure and/or blood more than doubled the amount of larvae that were harvested. Brewers’ grains are a good source of energy, but are probably deficient in essential amino acids to support the growth of maggots. It also appears that only the first days of laying eggs are important since no difference was observed between temporary and permanent exposure of the substrates to houseflies. The peak of larvae production was reached 6 days after exposure. The addition of cow blood in increasing doses to a mixture of brewers’ grains and manure linearly increased the production of maggots. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of inulin and wheat bran only during the starter period or during the entire rearing life of broilers: effects on growth performance, small intestinal maturation, and cecal microbial colonization until slaughter age.
Li, Bing ULiege; Schroyen, Martine ULiege; Leblois, Julie et al

in Poultry Science (2019)

Inulin and wheat bran were added to broiler diets during the starter period or during the entire rearing period to investigate whether the effects of using these ingredients remained until slaughter age ... [more ▼]

Inulin and wheat bran were added to broiler diets during the starter period or during the entire rearing period to investigate whether the effects of using these ingredients remained until slaughter age. Diets containing no inulin and no wheat bran (CON), 2% inulin (IN), 10% wheat bran (WB), or 2% inulin + 10% wheat bran (IN+WB) were provided until day 11. Thereafter, each dietary treatment was further divided into a continued diet with supplementation or a control diet, resulting in 7 groups (CON, IN/IN, IN/CON, WB/WB, WB/CON, IN+WB/IN+WB, or IN+WB/CON). On day 40, 12 chickens per group were euthanized. The IN/IN group increased the cecal molar ratio of butyrate but had a lower relative abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05). Additionally, the cecal molar ratio of propionate was higher in the IN/CON group compared to the IN/IN group (P = 0.034). The WB/CON group had the best results on BW and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). Only the cecal molar ratio of iso-butyrate was higher in the WB/WB group (P = 0.013). Moreover, compared to the CON group, both WB/WB and WB/CON groups reduced the relative abundances of Bifidobacterium and Escherichia coli, and only the WB/WB group reduced the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05). Both IN+WB/IN+WB and IN+WB/CON groups increased BW until day 21 and lowered the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium (P < 0.05). The IN+WB/IN+WB group increased the cecal molar ratio of butyrate but reduced the molar ratio of propionate with a higher relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the lack of positive effects induced by inulin might be explained by the dose being too high. The beneficial effects on BW, FCR, and microbiota induced by wheat bran during the starter period were lasting when supplementation was stopped, suggesting that wheat bran could be a favorable ingredient during the starter period. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping and Monitoring of Biomass and Grazing in Pasture with an Unmanned Aerial System
Michez, Adrien ULiege; Lejeune, Philippe ULiege; Bauwens, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Remote Sensing (2019), 11(5 473),

The tools available to farmers to manage grazed pastures and adjust forage demand to grass growth are generally rather static. Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) are interesting versatile tools that can ... [more ▼]

The tools available to farmers to manage grazed pastures and adjust forage demand to grass growth are generally rather static. Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) are interesting versatile tools that can provide relevant 3D information, such as sward height (3D structure), or even describe the physical condition of pastures through the use of spectral information. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of UAS to characterize a pasture’s sward height and above-ground biomass at a very fine spatial scale. The pasture height provided by UAS products showed good agreement (R2 = 0.62) with a reference terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) dataset. We tested the ability of UAS imagery to model pasture biomass based on three different combinations: UAS sward height, UAS sward multispectral reflectance/vegetation indices, and a combination of both UAS data types. The mixed approach combining the UAS sward height and spectral data performed the best (adj. R2 = 0.49). This approach reached a quality comparable to that of more conventional non-destructive on-field pasture biomass monitoring tools. As all of the UAS variables used in the model fitting process were extracted from spatial information (raster data), a high spatial resolution map of pasture biomass was derived based on the best fitted model. A sward height differences map was also derived from UAS-based sward height maps before and after grazing. Our results demonstrate the potential of UAS imagery as a tool for precision grazing study applications. The UAS approach to height and biomass monitoring was revealed to be a potential alternative to the widely used but time-consuming field approaches. While reaching a similar level of accuracy to the conventional field sampling approach, the UAS approach provides wall-to-wall pasture characterization through very high spatial resolution maps, opening up a new area of research for precision grazing. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of inulin supplementation to piglets in the suckling period on growth performance, postileal microbial and immunological traits in the suckling period and three weeks after weaning
Li, Bing ULiege; Schroyen, Martine ULiege; Leblois, Julie ULiege et al

in Archives of Animal Nutrition (2018), 72(6), 425-442

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inulin (IN) supplementation to suckling piglets at and 3 weeks post-weaning. A total of 72 newborn piglets were used. Twenty-four piglets per group ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inulin (IN) supplementation to suckling piglets at and 3 weeks post-weaning. A total of 72 newborn piglets were used. Twenty-four piglets per group received different amounts of IN during the suckling period: (a) CON: no IN; (b) IN-0.5: 0.5 g IN/d on the 1st week, 1 g IN/d on the 2nd week, 1.5 g IN/d on the 3rd week and 2 g IN/d on the 4th week, or (c) IN-0.75: 0.75 g IN/d on the 1st week, 1.5 g IN/d on the 2nd week, 2.25 g IN/d on the 3rd week and 3 g IN/d on the 4th week. Starting at 28 d of age, piglets were weaned and received a postweaning diet without inulin during the following 3 weeks. At both 28 d and 49 d of age, piglets were euthanised for sampling. Piglets of group IN-0.5 had the highest body weight starting from the 3rd week (p < 0.05), concomitant with the highest villus height and the ratio of villus height/crypt depth in the jejunum and ileum on both sampling days (p < 0.05). At 28 d of age, an increased concentration of propionate, iso-butyrate or total short chain fatty acids was observed between treatment IN-0.5 and the other groups in the caecum or colon (p < 0.05). Moreover, the relative abundance of Escherichia coli (p = 0.05) and Enterobacteriaceae (p = 0.01) in colonic digesta were reduced in IN-0.5-treated piglets, and in both INsupplemented groups, colonic interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor- α and toll-like receptor-4 mRNA abundance were decreased compared to the CON group (p < 0.05). However, at 49 d of age, most of these differences disappeared. In conclusion, treatment IN- 0.5 improved during the suckling period of piglets development of intestine, but these beneficial effects were not lasting after weaning, when IN supplementation was terminated. Treatment IN-0.75, however, did not display a prebiotic effect. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing camera traps and digital video to investigate the impact of Aethina tumida pest on honey bee (Apis mellifera adansonii) reproduction and ability to keep away elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in Gamba, Gabon.
Ngama, Steeve ULiege; Korte, Lisa; Johnson, Mireille et al

in Nature Conservation Research (2018), 3(2),

Bees and elephant interactions are the core of a conservation curiosity since it has been demonstrated that bees, one of the smallest domesticated animals, can keep away elephants, the largest terrestrial ... [more ▼]

Bees and elephant interactions are the core of a conservation curiosity since it has been demonstrated that bees, one of the smallest domesticated animals, can keep away elephants, the largest terrestrial animals. Yet, insects’ parasites can impact the fitness and activity of the bees. Since their activity is critical to the repellent ability against elephants, this study assessed the impact of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) on bee (Apis mellifera adansonii) reproduction and ability to keep forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) away. Because interspecies interactions are not easy to investigate, we have used camera traps and digital video to observe the activity of bees and their interactions with wild forest elephants under varying conditions of hive infestation with the small hive beetle, a common bee pest. Our results show that queen cells are good visual indicators of colony efficiency on keeping away forest elephants. We give evidences that small hive beetles are equivalently present in large and small bee colonies. Yet, results show no worries about the use of bees as elephant deterrents because of parasitism due to small hive beetles. Apis mellifera adansonii bees seem to effectively cope with small hive beetles showing no significant influence on its reproduction and ability to keep elephants away. This study also reports for the first time the presence of Aethina tumida as a constant beekeeping pest that needs to be addressed in Gabon. [less ▲]

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See detailCloud Services Integration For Farm Animals’ Behavior Studies Based On Smartphones As Activity Sensors
Debauche, Olivier ULiege; Mahmoudi, Saïd; Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro Lalaina Herinaina et al

in Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing (2018)

Smartphones, particularly iPhone, can be relevant instruments for researchers in animal behavior because they are readily available on the planet, contain many sensors and require no hardware development ... [more ▼]

Smartphones, particularly iPhone, can be relevant instruments for researchers in animal behavior because they are readily available on the planet, contain many sensors and require no hardware development. They are equipped with high performance Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and absolute positioning systems analyzing users’ movements, but they can easily be diverted to analyze likewise the behaviors of domestic animals such as cattle. The study of animal behavior using smartphones requires the storage of many high frequency variables from a large number of individuals and their processing through various relevant variables combinations for modeling and decision-making. Transferring, storing, treating and sharing such an amount of data is a big challenge. In this paper, a lambda cloud architecture innovatively coupled to a scientific sharing platform used to archive, and process high-frequency data are proposed to integrate future developments of the Internet of Things applied to the monitoring of domestic animals. An application to the study of cattle behavior on pasture based on the data recorded with the IMU of iPhone 4s is exemplified. Performances comparison between iPhone 4s and iPhone 5s is also achieved. The package comes also with a web interface to encode the actual behavior observed on videos and to synchronize observations with the sensor signals. Finally, the use of Edge computing on the iPhone reduced by 43.5% on average the size of the raw data by eliminating redundancies. The limitation of the number of digits on individual variable can reduce data redundancy up to 98.5%. [less ▲]

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See detailSteps towards precision grazing management
Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, May 08)

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See detailCamera traps to study the forest elephant’s (Loxodonta cyclotis) response to chilli pepper repellent devices in Gamba, Gabon
Ngama, Steeve ULiege; Korte, Lisa; Johnson, Mireille et al

in Nature Conservation Research (2018), 3(2), 26-35

In Central Africa, Gabon is a forested country with a rich biodiversity where conflict between wild animals and humans is common and causes innumerable damage to crops. The worst crop raiders are ... [more ▼]

In Central Africa, Gabon is a forested country with a rich biodiversity where conflict between wild animals and humans is common and causes innumerable damage to crops. The worst crop raiders are elephants, which can destroy an entire crop in a single night. These raids threaten people’s livelihoods as well as elephants because angry farmers often retaliate with killing campaigns against crop raiding elephants. To keep elephants out of farms the use of chilli pepper is recommended as a non-lethal method. But only a few studies have tested methods to use chilli pepper to deter elephants in Gabon. Results from this study give a starting point for understanding how forest elephants react to devices using chilli pepper as a deterrent based on sequential camera trap photos. A chilli pepper device that resulted in splashing concentrate on the elephant face proved to be the most effective at deterring elephants. Surprisingly, chilli pepper concentrate directly applied to mango fruits did not deter elephants from eating the fruits, although it probably caused some discomfort. To make effective deterrent devices with chilli pepper future works need to focus on exploring practices to reach the elephant face with the least, safe quantity of chilli pepper and which will have enough strong deterrent effect. [less ▲]

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See detailPastoreo de precision
Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege

Conference (2018)

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See detailIn vitro assessment of ruminal fermentation, digestibility and methane production of three species of Desmanthus for application in northern Australian grazing systems
Vandermeulen, Sophie ULiege; Singh, S.; Ramírez-Restrepo, C. A. et al

in Crop and Pasture Science (2018), 69(8), 797-807

Three species of Desmanthus adapted to the heavy clay soils of northern Australia were studied to determine their nutritive value and effects on in vitro fermentation with rumen fluid, compared with ... [more ▼]

Three species of Desmanthus adapted to the heavy clay soils of northern Australia were studied to determine their nutritive value and effects on in vitro fermentation with rumen fluid, compared with Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay. Leaves and stems of D. leptophyllus cv. JCU 1, D. virgatus cv. JCU 2 and D. bicornutus cv. JCU 4 were collected in summer, winter and spring of 2014 and analysed for chemical composition. Apparent digestibility as in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVD-OM) and fermentation parameters including methane (CH4) production were measured during 72-h fermentations using rumen fluid from steer donors grazing tropical grasses and legumes. Desmanthus bicornutus was on average more digestible than both D. leptophyllus and D. virgatus at 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. This species also demonstrated an anti-methanogenic potential, in particular when harvested in summer with a reduction in CH4 production of 26% compared with Rhodes grass hay after 72 h of incubation. At this time point, D. leptophyllus produced higher volatile fatty acids (VFA per g of organic matter fermented) compared with the other forages. This legume also reduced the CH4 production up to 36%comparedwith the Rhodes grass hay reference. However, D. leptophyllus showed lower IVD-OM. Overall, Desmanthus species produced lower in vitro CH4 and lower volatile fatty acids concentration compared with the reference grass hay. These effects may be due to presence of secondary compounds such as hydrolysable tannins, condensed tannins and/or their combination in Desmanthus species. The IVD-OM was influenced by the season after 72 h of incubation; the digestibility was higher in plants collected in spring. This study suggests that contrasting fermentative profiles in Desmanthus cultivars may offer the opportunity to reduce the greenhouse gas contribution of the beef industry. The next step in demonstration of these promising in vitro results is demonstration of Desmanthus in vivo as proof of concept confirming the productivity and CH4 reduction ability of these legumes in the pastoral systems of northern Australia. © CSIRO 2018. [less ▲]

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