References of "Bindelle, Jérôme"
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See detailAgroforestry for ruminants: a review of trees and shrubs as fodder in silvopastoral temperate and tropical production systems
Vandermeulen, Sophie; Ramirez Restrepo, Carlos; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Animal production science (in press)

Among the oldest agroforestry systems, silvopastoralism uses shrubs and trees to feed ruminants. The practice is common in extensive livestock production systems, while the intensification of grass-based ... [more ▼]

Among the oldest agroforestry systems, silvopastoralism uses shrubs and trees to feed ruminants. The practice is common in extensive livestock production systems, while the intensification of grass-based systems in the past century has led to the removal of woody species from agricultural temperate landscapes. In Europe however, woody species are promoted again on grasslands through environment-friendly policies due to the ecosystem services they provide such as carbon sequestration, control of soil erosion, limitation of air-borne pollutants and biodiversity conservation. Positive effects of browse on rumen digestion and parasite control have also been documented across different plant species and regions. Under optimal conditions, feeding ruminants from woody fodder sustains animal production. Nonetheless, limitations can restrict the use of woody forage into animal diets, such as the presence of anti-nutritive and toxic compounds. The incorporation of this resource in ruminant feeding systems raises the question of the management of the interface between the plant and the animal. Various management systems are practiced. Temperate species such as Salix spp. and Populus spp. are fed to sheep and cattle in fodder blocks or by pruning trees in New Zealand, and Fraxinus spp. or Corylus avellana in hedgerows supply forage to livestock in Belgium, while Leucaena leucocepahala and Desmanthus spp. browsing is common in Australia. Nowadays, ensiling and pelleting techniques are being developed as a way to store browse forage. As the renewed interest in using shrubs and trees to feed ruminants is recent, especially in temperate regions, additional research about introducing optimally this resource within systems is needed. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of fructans and dietary fibre profiles in raw and steamed vegetables
Kalala Bolokango, Gaetan ULiege; Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu; Everaert, Nadia ULiege et al

in International Journal of Food Sciences & Nutrition (in press)

Dietary fiber (DF) has many positive effects on human health associated with its functionality in the gastrointestinal tract. These benefits vary according to the type of DF. Vegetables can be a natural ... [more ▼]

Dietary fiber (DF) has many positive effects on human health associated with its functionality in the gastrointestinal tract. These benefits vary according to the type of DF. Vegetables can be a natural source of DF in the diet. However, to provide adequate nutritional advice, the content and profile of their various DF types must be characterized. This study aimed to determine the DF profile of 29 vegetables cultivated in Wallonia (Belgium) and the impact of steaming on these profiles. Using a combination of enzymatic, gravimetric and chromatographic methods, fructans, total dietary fiber (TDF), low- and high-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) were analyzed. Results show that the DF content varies considerably among the 29 investigated vegetable varieties and species, but the influence of steaming is limited to a shift from IDF to high-molecular-weight SDF for 18 of the 29 tested vegetables, while fructans are preserved with not actual reduction in the DP. [less ▲]

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See detailReducing agent can be omitted in the incubation medium of the batch in vitro fermentation model of the pig intestines
Poelaert, Christine; Nollevaux, Geraldine; Boudry, Christelle et al

in Animal (in press)

Over the past decade, in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on the digestive physiology and health. In these methods, ingredients are fermented by ... [more ▼]

Over the past decade, in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on the digestive physiology and health. In these methods, ingredients are fermented by a bacterial inoculum diluted in a mineral buffer solution. Generally, a reducing agent such as Na2S or cysteine-HCl generates the required anaerobic environment by releasing metabolites similar to those produced when protein is fermented, possibly inducing a dysbiosis. An experiment was conducted to study the impact of two reducing agents on results yielded by such in vitro fermentation models. Protein (soybean proteins, casein) and carbohydrate (potato starch, cellulose) ingredients were fermented in vitro by bacteria isolated from fresh feces obtained from three sows in three carbonate-based incubation media differing in reducing agent: (i) Na2S, (ii) cysteine-HCl and (iii) control with a mere saturation with CO2 and devoid of reducing agent. The gas production during fermentation was recorded over 72 h. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production after 24 and 72 h and microbial composition of the fermentation broth after 24 h were compared between ingredients and between reducing agents. The fermentation residues after 24 h were also evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Results showed that the effect of the ingredient induced higher differences than the reducing agent. Among the latter, cysteine-HCl induced the strongest differences compared with the control, whereas Na2S was similar to the control for most parameters. For all ingredients, final gas produced per g of substrate was similar ( P>0.10) for the three reducing agents whereas the maximum rate of gas production ( Rmax) was reduced ( P<0.05) when carbohydrate ingredients were fermented with cysteine-HCl in comparison to Na2S and the control. For all ingredients, total SCFA production was similar ( P>0.10) after 24 h of fermentation with Na2S and in the control without reducing agent. Molar ratios of branched chain-fatty acids were higher ( P<0.05) for protein (36.5% and 9.7% for casein and soybean proteins, respectively) than for carbohydrate (<4%) ingredients. Only fermentation residues of casein showed a possible cytotoxic effect regardless of the reducing agent ( P<0.05). Concerning the microbial composition of the fermentation broth, most significant differences in phyla and in genera ascribable to the reducing agent were found with potato starch and casein. In conclusion, saturating the incubation media with CO2 seems sufficient to generate a suitable anaerobic environment for intestinal microbes and the use of a reducing agent can be omitted. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of household cooking techniques on the microbiological load and the nutritional quality of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L. 1758)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Poeleart, Christine; Ernens, Majorie et al

in Food Research International (2018)

Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating ... [more ▼]

Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating process could have deleterious effects on protein and lipid quality. Therefore, this study characterized the effects of different household cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying, vacuum cooking, and oven cooking) on the microbial load and nutritive value of mealworms, with a focus on protein digestibility and fatty acid composition. Boiling and cooking under vacuum were the most efficient techniques to reduce microbial load while maintaining the high levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids of mealworms. Cooking method-related changes were very low on macronutrients content except for pan-fried mealworms which exhibited the highest lipid content. Cooking slightly changed fatty acid composition of mealworms by principally decreasing their level of saturated fatty acids but also increased the in vitro crude protein digestibility of mealworms. [less ▲]

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See detailReview on the effects of potential prebiotics on controlling intestinal enteropathogens Salmonella and Escherichia coli in pig production
Tran, Thi Hanh Tham ULiege; Everaert, Nadia ULiege; Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege

in Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2018), 102

Salmonella enterica serotypes (Salmonella sp.) are the second cause of bacterial foodborne zoonoses in humans after campylobacteriosis. Pork is the third most important cause for outbreak-associated ... [more ▼]

Salmonella enterica serotypes (Salmonella sp.) are the second cause of bacterial foodborne zoonoses in humans after campylobacteriosis. Pork is the third most important cause for outbreak-associated salmonellosis, and colibacillosis is the most important disease in piglets and swine. Attachment to host cells, translocation of effector proteins into host cells, invasion and replication in tissues are the vital virulence steps of these pathogens that help them to thrive in the intestinal environment and invade tissues. Feed contamination is an important source for Salmonella infection in pig production. Many on-farm feeding strategies intervene to avoid the introduction of pathogens onto the farm by contaminated feeds or to reduce infection pressure when pathogens are present. Among the latter, prebiotics could be effective at protecting against these enteric bacterial pathogens. Nowadays, a wide range of molecules can potentially serve as prebiotics. Here, we summarize the prevalence of Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli in pigs, understanding of the mechanisms by which pathogens can cause disease, the feed related to pathogen contamination in pigs and detail the mechanisms on which prebiotics are likely to act in order to fulfil their protective action against these pathogens in pig production. Many different mechanisms involve the inhibition of Salmonella and E. coli by prebiotics such as coating the host surface, modulation of intestinal ecology, downregulating the expression of adhesin factors or virulence genes, reinforcing the host immune system. [less ▲]

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See detailEffet de la cuisson sur le profil en fibres de quelques légumes tropicaux
Kalala Bolokango, Gaetan ULiege; KAMBASHI, Bienvenu; Everaert, Nadia ULiege et al

Poster (2017, December 13)

Outre le monde occidental, les pays africains dont la population a souffert de malnutrition intra-utérine sont également exposés au fléau de l’obésité à l’âge adulte en raison d’effets de programmation de ... [more ▼]

Outre le monde occidental, les pays africains dont la population a souffert de malnutrition intra-utérine sont également exposés au fléau de l’obésité à l’âge adulte en raison d’effets de programmation de long terme induits par les carences dans le jeune âge. La consommation de fibres alimentaires (DF) demeure indispensable pour la modulation du microbiote intestinal afin de prévenir cette maladie et les pathologies associées. Les légumes et les fruits sont des principales sources naturelles de DF. . En Afrique tropicale humide et sub-humide, les légumes feuilles sont fortement consommés par les populations rurales, tandis que les populations urbaines modifient leur régime alimentaire en l’ « occidentalisant ». Afin de mieux comprendre comment les changements alimentaires modifient les modes de consommation des fibres alimentaires, face à la déficience d’information dans la littérature à ce sujet, il convient de caractériser le profil en fibres de légumes méconnus et l’impact de la cuisson sur celui-ci. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Pig Diets Containing By-product of Rice Distiller on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality
Nguyen Cong, Oanh ULiege; Do Duc, Luc; Pham Kim, Dang et al

Scientific conference (2017, October 13)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fattening pig diets containing rice distiller’s by-product (RDP) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. A total of 24 ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fattening pig diets containing rice distiller’s by-product (RDP) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. A total of 24 castrated male crossbred pigs ♂Duroc ×♀(Landrace × Yorkshire) were used for the experiment. Pigs were divided randomly by weight and litter into 3 diets, with 4 replications of 2 pigs in each pen. Pigs were fed one of 3 diets including DAR0 (control), DAR15 (15% RDP in dry matter) and DAR30 (30% RDP in dry matter) during 8 weeks. The results showed that the diets with RDP tended to affect average daily gain (P=0.09) and feed conversion ratio (P=0.08), while feed cost was decreased (P<0.001). Carcass traits was not significantly different between the diets, however back fat thickness was increased by RDP levels (P=0.03). Drip loss of Longissimus dorsi muscle at 24 and 48 hours was increased (P<0.05), whereas there were not effect on pH value and meat color at 45 min, 24 and 48 hours postmortem. Muscle lipid content was increased (P<0.01), whereas protein content was not influenced by RDP in diets. This suggests that using diet with 30% RDP for fattening pigs can improve lipid content of Longissimus dorsi muscle and reduce feed costs while not affecting growth performance and meat quality. [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth and carcass performances of guinea fowls reared under intensive system in Benin
Houndonougbo, Pascal ULiege; REIS MOTA, Rodrigo ULiege; Chrysostome, A.A.M. Christophe et al

in Livestock of Research for Rural Development (LRRD) (2017), 29(10),

Several local guinea fowl varieties continued to be reared in extensive systems in Benin, even though productivity remains low. Improving rearing conditions through feeding and housing may enhance local ... [more ▼]

Several local guinea fowl varieties continued to be reared in extensive systems in Benin, even though productivity remains low. Improving rearing conditions through feeding and housing may enhance local guinea fowls productivity in Benin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify growth and carcass performances of five (Common, Bonaparte, Grey, White and Black) local guinea fowl varieties under intensive management conditions. At birth, 36 keets (young guinea fowls) of each identified variety were randomly divided into six batches and reared up to 16 weeks old under the same feeding and housing conditions. Body weights were recorded up to week 15. At week 16, carcass measurements were also taken. Growth performances and carcass measurements (morphological and visceral) differed among guinea fowl varieties. The heaviest body weight was observed in Common (832±24g) and the lowest in Black variety (698±39g). Highest carcass yield was observed in Grey variety. Liver weight, intestine length and caecum length were highest in Bonaparte variety. Gizzard weight and thigh proportion were highest in Common variety. Breast weight and breast proportion were highest in Grey guinea fowls. Body weight was moderately correlated with drumstick length, body length, wing size, tarsus diameter, thigh length and thorax circumference (range r = 0.34-0.60). The phenotypic variability and its impact on the characterization of these varieties implies that they are genetically different strains, supporting the hypothesis that the guinea fowl population in Benin presents opportunities for genetic improvement. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovement of battery life of iPhones Inertial Measurement Unit by using edge computing Application to cattle behavior
Debauche, Olivier ULiege; Mahmoudi, Saïd; Manneback, Pierre et al

Conference (2017, October)

Smartphones, particularly iPhones, can be relevant instruments for researchers widely used around the world in multiple domains of applications such as animal behavior. iPhones are readily available on ... [more ▼]

Smartphones, particularly iPhones, can be relevant instruments for researchers widely used around the world in multiple domains of applications such as animal behavior. iPhones are readily available on the planet, contain many sensors and require no hardware development. They are equipped with high performance inertial measurement units (IMU) and absolute positioning systems analyzing users movements, but they can easily be diverted to analyze likewise the behaviors of domestic animals such as cattle. Using smartphones to study animal behavior requires the improvement of the autonomy to allow the acquisition of many variables at a high frequency over long periods of time on a large number of individuals for their further processing through various models and decision-making tools. Storing, treating data at the iPhone level with an optimal consumption of energy to maximize battery life was achieved by using edge computing on the iPhone. It reduced the size of the raw data by 42% on average by eliminating redundancies. The decrease in sampling frequency, the selection of the most important variables and postponing calculations to the cloud allowed also an increase in battery life by reducing of amount of data to transmit. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristic of Guinea Fowl breeding in West Africa: Review
Houndonougbo, Pascal ULiege; Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege; Chrysostome, A.A.M. Christophe et al

in Tropicultura (2017), 35(3), 222-230

Guinea fowl production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is generally practiced under family and traditional rearing systems mainly for consumption and income generation, but this species plays also a major ... [more ▼]

Guinea fowl production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is generally practiced under family and traditional rearing systems mainly for consumption and income generation, but this species plays also a major socio-cultural role in specific ceremonies. Birds are kept in free range or in confinement with outdoor access and fed on grain cereals, vegetables, edible termites and kitchen residues found in nature or occasionally supplied by the farmers. Several Guinea fowl varieties are observed and all are characterized by slow growth, high mortality of young and a relatively wild instinct. Although this avian species is less sensitive to some poultry diseases (Newcastle disease, Marek disease, Gumboro disease, etc), local guinea fowl are very sensitive to other poorly controlled diseases that require further study. These varieties differ greatly by their feather color, their morphological characteristics and growth performance, but further thorough and sustained research is needed to quantify these differences. Several researches established the nutritional requirements of local Guinea fowl but in terms of breeding, little works were done compared to chicken. Some recessive and dominant genes as well as genotypic differences were highlighted between varieties. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluences of feeding behaviour and forage quality on diurnal methane emission dynamics of grazing cows
Blaise, Yannick ULiege; Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Heinesch, Bernard ULiege et al

in Berckmans, Daniel; Keita, Keita (Eds.) Precision Livestock Farming ‘17 (2017, September 12)

This study aimed to evaluate diurnal methane (CH4) emission dynamics of grazing cattle and highlight their relationships with biotic factors such as the feeding behaviour as well as seasonal changes in ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to evaluate diurnal methane (CH4) emission dynamics of grazing cattle and highlight their relationships with biotic factors such as the feeding behaviour as well as seasonal changes in pasture characteristics. Existing methods to assess grazing ruminants’ daily CH4 emissions provide useful insights to investigate mitigation strategies relying on feeding and genetic selection. Nonetheless such methods based on tracer gases (SF6) or feeding bins equipped with sniffers (e.g. GreenFeed) can hardly cover diurnal CH4 emission fluctuations which can influence the accuracy of total CH4 production estimations. Previous studies in barns showed that emission dynamics strongly vary during post feeding time, leading to a possible bias in estimates of daily CH4 emissions as high as 100%. To investigate whether such fluctuations are also taking place on pasture, a portable device was designed with infrared CH4 and CO2 sensors measuring concentrations in the exhaled air at a high sampling rate (4 Hz). Six grazing dry red-pied cows were equipped with the device and motion sensors during runs of 24h to monitor CH4 and CO2 emissions and detect their feeding behaviours (grazing, rumination and other behaviours), respectively. This experiment was performed in summer and fall in order to cover seasonal changes in pasture forage quality. Methane emission was estimated from the CH4:CO2 concentration ratio and the metabolic CO2 production of the cows. As for barn studies, variations were observed in total daily CH4 emission due to the seasons and diurnal variations were also observed due to animal behaviours. Relationships between animal feeding behaviour and CH4 emissions patterns on pasture were also unravelled. [less ▲]

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See detailDietary inulin supplementation promotes weight loss in obese individuals
Hiel, Sophie; Rodriguez, Julie; Gianfrancesco, Marco ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September)

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See detailDifferentiating pre- and post-grazing pasture heights using a 3D camera: a prospective approach
Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Castro Muñoz, Eloy ULiege; Blaise, Yannick ULiege et al

in Berckmans, Daniel; Keita, Alassane (Eds.) Precision Livestock Farming ‘17 (2017, September)

Grasslands management involves the monitoring of both animal and plant components. Recent precision livestock farming developments have focused on high-rate monitoring of grazing animals to enhance ... [more ▼]

Grasslands management involves the monitoring of both animal and plant components. Recent precision livestock farming developments have focused on high-rate monitoring of grazing animals to enhance livestock productivity and welfare. The evolution of grass resource during the grazing process is not being overlooked by graziers and researchers, but grass characteristics, such as height, dry matter content, productivity or density, are still measured using low frequency and sometimes destructive and time-consuming methods; such as quadrat, sward-sticks, rising plate meters. This study investigated the potential of using 3D cameras to assess sward physical characteristics. Main objectives were: (1) to define the correct way to capture images, particularly the camera position above the ground and, (2) to assess if differences in sward height were detectable. Couples of images differing in grass height were captured on the same spot with a 3D camera at different above-ground heights (30, 40, 50 cm) on a ryegrass-white clover pasture. Pregrazing height was 15cm and post-grazing sward was simulated by cutting at 2 cm. Histograms of intensity performed on greyscale images showed differences between pre- and post-grazing sward. As expected, overall darker pixels were observed for pre-grazing images (p<0.01) and whiter pixels for post-grazing images (p<0.01), indicating longer distances consistent with lower forage biomass. Images taken at a distance of 30 and 40 cm could identify these differences. Further developments require improving the calibration of the camera and developing image analysis method to estimate more plant characteristics such as density or dry matter content. [less ▲]

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See detailVideo and camera traps to investigate animal ecophysiology and enhance wildlife management: case study on bees and elephants interactions in Gabon.
Ngama, Steeve ULiege; Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege; Vermeulen, Cédric ULiege

Conference (2017, August 23)

Crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation ... [more ▼]

Crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become “problem animals”. To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa while providing honey for the farmers. Whether such a technique could work on forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) in Central Africa is still unknown. An ecophysiology-based trial consisting on bees and elephants interactions assessment was conducted in Gabon. It aimed to evaluate whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants from feeding on experimental wild fruit trees. We suspected that bee physiology matters on bee defensive behavior and monitoring it through measuring bee activities can help better understand bees and elephants interactions. For this purpose video cameras were used to record activities of bees in fourteen beehives hung on seven wild trees (4 Irvingia gabonensis and 3 Sacoglottis gabonensis trees) each equipped with a camera trap to record elephants feeding behaviors on those trees. This experimental apparatus was monitored during 70 consecutive weeks from 2012 to 2013. We captured 8151 photos representing 4h31min42s of time spent by elephants at experimental trees and more than 75 videos of bees activities from where we extracted genuine results. Our results show a significant correlation between the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants and bee activity. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not inhibit honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. More interestingly, to best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus Apis mellifera adansonii bees can effectively deter elephants but beehives must be actively managed to maintain bees’ colonies at the optimum activity level. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenotypic, socio-economic and growth features of Guinea fowls raised under different village systems in West Africa
Houndonougbo, Pascal ULiege; Chrysostome, A. A. M. Christophe; REIS MOTA, Rodrigo ULiege et al

in African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR) (2017), 12(26), 2232-2241

In Benin, family poultry farming has become an important activity in economic and social aspects that contribute to food security, poverty reduction and well-being. However, current information about ... [more ▼]

In Benin, family poultry farming has become an important activity in economic and social aspects that contribute to food security, poverty reduction and well-being. However, current information about poultry production and consumption is still limited. This information would be useful to improve the sustainable exploitation of agricultural and commercial genetic resources. We aimed to identify and assess the socio-economic and phenotypic features as well as to investigate phenotypic variability and growth performance of guinea fowls raised under different environments. Growth performance and survival rates of local guinea fowl varieties were recorded in three zones of Benin: Collines, Atacora and Borgou. Seven varieties, Gray, Common, Bonaparte, White, Black, Isabelle and Multicolored, were identified in Benin. The farmers choose a variety to be raised based on breeding system, agro-ecological zone, disease resistance, market price and production purpose. Bonaparte, Common and Gray varieties emerged as the most resistant whereas White, Black and Gray outperformed in growth and may be used for breeding purposes. The semi-confinement system could be recommended for startup as a temporary solution to improve production of local guinea fowls in Benin. The existence of several varieties on farms does not encourage genetic conservation and improvement of these resources. Establishing selection or crossbreeding programs in controlled environments would be more appropriate for guinea fowls raised in Benin. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of an open-source algorithm based on inertial measurement units (IMU) of a smartphone to detect cattle grass intake and ruminating behaviors
Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Lebeau, Frédéric ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Computers & Electronics in Agriculture (2017), 139

In this paper, an open algorithm was developed for the detection of cattle’s grass intake and rumination activities. This was done using the widely available inertial measurement unit (IMU) from a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, an open algorithm was developed for the detection of cattle’s grass intake and rumination activities. This was done using the widely available inertial measurement unit (IMU) from a smartphone, which contains an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a magnetometer and location sensors signals sampled at 100 Hz. This equipment was mounted on 19 grazing cows of different breeds and daily video sequences were recorded on pasture of different forage allowances. After visually analyzing the cows’ movements on a calibration database, signal combinations were selected and thresholds were determined based on 1-s time windows, since increasing the time window did not increase the accuracy of detection. The final algorithm uses the average value and standard deviation of two signals in a two-step discrimination tree: the gravitational acceleration on x-axis (Gx) expressing the cows’ head movements and the rotation rate on the same x-axis (Rx) expressing jaw movements. Threshold values encompassing 95% of the normalized calibrated data gave the best results. Validation on an independent database resulted in an average detection accuracy of 92% with a better detection for rumination (95%) than for grass intake (91%). The detection algorithm also allows for characterization of the diurnal feeding activities of cattle at pasture. Any user can make further improvements, for data collected at the same way as the iPhone’s IMU has done, since the algorithm codes are open and provided as supplementary data. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity of farming systems integrating fish pond aquaculture in the province of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick ULiege; Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULiege; Dogot, Thomas ULiege et al

in Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (2017), Vol 118(No 1), 149-160

Agriculture and aquaculture systems are used by many farmers in various tropical countries of Asia, America and Africa. They have proven their relevancy to increase the productivity of farms by optimising ... [more ▼]

Agriculture and aquaculture systems are used by many farmers in various tropical countries of Asia, America and Africa. They have proven their relevancy to increase the productivity of farms by optimising nutrient fluxes and reducing requirements for external fertilisers. This article analysed the current state of fish farming and the way it is integrated with other farm subsystems in the urban/peri-urban and rural areas of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. More precisely, it examined the allocation of resources at the farm level, the recovery of helophytes plants, and the fate of fish production choices and it explored the possibility of intensifying these existing integrated farming systems. After a census of ponds in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa, an on-site survey was conducted on 150 fish pond farms to assess the different activities practiced on farms, the impact of integrating crops and livestock to fish pond aquaculture and the constraints of the system. A total of three thousand and twenty (3020) fish ponds were recorded in the urban and rural areas of Kinshasa. Among these farms integrated aquaculture-agriculture systems exist with a wide diversity of practices (about 79% of farms combined fish with livestock and/or vegetable production). No striking differences between fish farms according to the allocation of resources, fish production method such as monoculture or polyculture, the recovery of helophytes plants and the fate of fish production choice were found depending on the location. However, fish farms were differently managed when combined with agriculture and/or livestock. Regarding the integration of the different subsystems through nutrient fluxes, 11 different movements of material between subsystems were found in integrated farms. However, not all fluxes are equally used in all farms and therefore improvements cannot be generalised. Improvements to be explored are such as making better use of manure pond mud and helophyte plants. For this purpose, proper training of farmers might be critical. Finally, bringing farmers together in cooperatives could also contribute to reduce the cost of purchase and transportation of fish fry and feed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa terre ferme
Favre, Juliette; Beckers, Yves ULiege; Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege et al

Article for general public (2017)

Drones, GPS, robots, QR codes et autres lampes LED gagnent du terrain dans les fermes belges. Tandis que certains agriculteurs se réjouissent de cette vague technologique et voient déjà pointer une ... [more ▼]

Drones, GPS, robots, QR codes et autres lampes LED gagnent du terrain dans les fermes belges. Tandis que certains agriculteurs se réjouissent de cette vague technologique et voient déjà pointer une troisième révolution agricole, d’autres craignent de se transformer en de simples « presse-boutons ». Smartphone dans une main, joystick dans l’autre… Les agriculteurs touchent-ils encore seulement la terre ? [less ▲]

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