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See detailIdentification of the Best 3D Viewpoint within the BIM Model: Application to Visual Tasks Related to Facility Management
Neuville, Romain ULiege; Pouliot, Jacynthe; Billen, Roland ULiege

in Buildings (2019), 9(7), 167

Visualizing building assets within building information modeling (BIM) offers significant opportunities in facility management as it can assist the maintenance and the safety of buildings. Nevertheless ... [more ▼]

Visualizing building assets within building information modeling (BIM) offers significant opportunities in facility management as it can assist the maintenance and the safety of buildings. Nevertheless, taking decisions based on 3D visualization remains a challenge since the high density of spatial information inside the 3D model requires suitable visualization techniques to achieve the visual task. The occlusion is ubiquitous and, whilst solutions already exist such as transparency, none currently solve this issue with an automatic and suitable management of the camera. In this paper, we propose the first RESTful web application implementing a 3D viewpoint management algorithm and we demonstrate its usability in the visualization of assets based on a BIM model for visual counting in facility management. Via an online questionnaire, empirical tests are conducted with architects, the construction industry, engineers, and surveyors. The results show that a 3D viewpoint that maximizes the visibility of 3D geometric objects inside the viewport significantly improves the success rate, the accuracy, and the certainty of a visual counting task compared to the traditional four side points of view (i.e., from the front, back, left, and right viewpoints). Finally, this first validation lays the foundation of future investigations in the 3D viewpoint usability evaluation, both in terms of visual tasks and application domains. [less ▲]

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See detailA Semantic Retrieval System for Remote Sensing Web Platforms
Nys, Gilles-Antoine ULiege; Kasprzyk, Jean-Paul ULiege; Hallot, Pierre ULiege et al

Conference (2019, June 13)

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See detailA Semantic Retrieval System for Remote Sensing Web Platforms
Nys, Gilles-Antoine ULiege; Kasprzyk, Jean-Paul ULiege; Hallot, Pierre ULiege et al

in International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (2019, June 05), XLII-2(W13), 1593-1599

This paper proposes a solution to reduce the semantic gap between final users and data/processing providers in a web market place dedicated to remote sensing products. Nowadays, search engine are common ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a solution to reduce the semantic gap between final users and data/processing providers in a web market place dedicated to remote sensing products. Nowadays, search engine are common tools on the Internet. Users are accustomed to use them and used to get tabular classification of provided answers. These smart agents are set up to answer basic questions using automatic pages redirection or chitchat. In this research, to ensure coherence between user’s requests and platform answers, natural language processing algorithms and knowledge graphs are integrated within a web platform thanks to a NoSQL graph database connected to open thesauri and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Therefore, the most pertinent services can be proposed based on input sentences including non-technical vocabulary but also geographical components (the user interface includes a text area and an interactive map). While processing chains and remote sensing ontologies were presented in one of our previous studies, this article focuses on natural languages algorithms and knowledge mining. [less ▲]

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See detailVoxel-Based 3D Point Cloud Semantic Segmentation: Unsupervised Geometric and Relationship Featuring vs Deep Learning Methods
Poux, Florent ULiege; Billen, Roland ULiege

in ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (2019), 8(5), 213

Automation in point cloud data processing is central in knowledge discovery within decision-making systems. The definition of relevant features is often key for segmentation and classification, with ... [more ▼]

Automation in point cloud data processing is central in knowledge discovery within decision-making systems. The definition of relevant features is often key for segmentation and classification, with automated workflows presenting the main challenges. In this paper, we propose a voxel-based feature engineering that better characterize point clusters and provide strong support to supervised or unsupervised classification. We provide different feature generalization levels to permit interoperable frameworks. First, we recommend a shape-based feature set (SF1) that only leverages the raw X, Y, Z attributes of any point cloud. Afterwards, we derive relationship and topology between voxel entities to obtain a three-dimensional (3D) structural connectivity feature set (SF2). Finally, we provide a knowledge-based decision tree to permit infrastructure-related classification. We study SF1/SF2 synergy on a new semantic segmentation framework for the constitution of a higher semantic representation of point clouds in relevant clusters. Finally, we benchmark the approach against novel and best-performing deep-learning methods while using the full S3DIS dataset. We highlight good performances, easy-integration, and high F1-score (> 85%) for planar-dominant classes that are comparable to state-of-the-art deep learning. [less ▲]

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See detailTerraMosana, l’évolution de notre territoire racontée en 3D
Hallot, Pierre ULiege; Van Ruymbeke, Muriel ULiege; Billen, Roland ULiege

Conference (2019, April 23)

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See detail3D Viewpoint Management and Navigation in Urban Planning: Application to the Exploratory Phase
Neuville, Romain ULiege; Pouliot, Jacynthe; Poux, Florent ULiege et al

in Remote Sensing (2019), 11(3), 236

3D geovisualization is essential in urban planning as it assists the analysis of geospatial data and decision making in the design and development of land use and built environment. However, we noted that ... [more ▼]

3D geovisualization is essential in urban planning as it assists the analysis of geospatial data and decision making in the design and development of land use and built environment. However, we noted that 3D geospatial models are commonly visualized arbitrarily as current 3D viewers often lack of design instructions to assist end users. This is especially the case for the occlusion management in most 3D environments where the high density and diversity of 3D data to be displayed require efficient visualization techniques for extracting all the geoinformation. In this paper, we propose a theoretical and operational solution to manage occlusion by automatically computing best viewpoints. Based on user’s parameters, a viewpoint management algorithm initially calculates optimal camera settings for visualizing a set of 3D objects of interest through parallel projections. Precomputed points of view are then integrated into a flythrough creation algorithm for producing an automatic navigation within the 3D geospatial model. The algorithm’s usability is illustrated within the scope of a fictive exploratory phase for the public transport services access in the European quarter of Brussels. Eventually, the proposed algorithms may also assist additional urban planning phases in achieving their purposes. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatio-temporal reasoning in CIDOC CRM: an hybrid ontology with GeoSPARQL and OWL-Time
Nys, Gilles-Antoine ULiege; Van Ruymbeke, Muriel ULiege; Billen, Roland ULiege

in CEUR Workshop Proceedings (2018, October 13), 2230

Semantic description of cultural heritage information is already widely structured through CIDOC CRM and its different extensions. This shared understanding of cultural heritage information has already ... [more ▼]

Semantic description of cultural heritage information is already widely structured through CIDOC CRM and its different extensions. This shared understanding of cultural heritage information has already proved its usefulness. Until now, despite its spatial and temporal data management proposition, lack standardization limited the possibilities in terms of reasoning and workability. This paper proposes to increase the potentiality offered by the current scheme by including GeoSPARQL and OWL-Time in the framework. The result, as hybrid ontology, allows concurrent spatial and temporal handling. These are used to provide a near-full data management for complex spatio-temporal reasoning and querying through SPARQL queries. Example queries depicting the strength of the approach and allowing knowledge discovery in huge archaeological datasets illustrate its benefits [less ▲]

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See detailTOWARDS AN ONTOLOGY FOR THE STRUCTURING OF REMOTE SENSING OPERATIONS SHARED BY DIFFERENT PROCESSING CHAINS
Nys, Gilles-Antoine ULiege; Kasprzyk, Jean-Paul ULiege; Hallot, Pierre ULiege et al

in International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (2018, September 19), XLII(4), 483-490

This paper proposes an ontology to structure and describe processing chains in the remote sensing field. These chains are made up of elementary elements (operations) organized in collections. The ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes an ontology to structure and describe processing chains in the remote sensing field. These chains are made up of elementary elements (operations) organized in collections. The collection notion, including information about order and repeatability of the elements, is widely defined by using the relations between their constituting items and relations to the whole data store. Applications of the ontology are illustrated with web services provided by a platform for users and providers of processing chains. A graphical interface facilitates data integration in a RDF triple store. Thanks to the management of metadata (ISO19115-3), relevant information can be requested by intelligent search engines. Graph analysis, errors management and consistency rules are computed in order to gather coherent information from the different sources. Results of these analyses are then used by machine learning algorithms for new knowledge discovery. [less ▲]

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See detail3D Point Cloud Semantic Modelling: Integrated Framework for Indoor Spaces and Furniture
Poux, Florent ULiege; Neuville, Romain ULiege; Nys, Gilles-Antoine ULiege et al

in Remote Sensing (2018), 10(9), 1412

3D models derived from point clouds are useful in various shapes to optimize the trade-off between precision and geometric complexity. They are defined at different granularity levels according to each ... [more ▼]

3D models derived from point clouds are useful in various shapes to optimize the trade-off between precision and geometric complexity. They are defined at different granularity levels according to each indoor situation. In this article, we present an integrated 3D semantic reconstruction framework that leverages segmented point cloud data and domain ontologies. Our approach follows a part-to-whole conception which models a point cloud in parametric elements usable per instance and aggregated to obtain a global 3D model. We first extract analytic features, object relationships and contextual information to permit better object characterization. Then, we propose a multi-representation modelling mechanism augmented by automatic recognition and fitting from the 3D library ModelNet10 to provide the best candidates for several 3D scans of furniture. Finally, we combine every element to obtain a consistent indoor hybrid 3D model. The method allows a wide range of applications from interior navigation to virtual stores. [less ▲]

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See detailLa transition numérique dans le domaine du patrimoine bâti: un retour d'expériences
Billen, Roland ULiege; Jonlet, Benoît ULiege; Luczfalvy Jancsó, Andrea ULiege et al

in Bulletin de la commission royale des monuments, sites et fouilles - Tome 30 (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 123 (16 ULiège)
See detailSpatio-temporal reasoning in CIDOC CRM: an hybrid ontology with GeoSPARQL and OWL-Time
Nys, Gilles-Antoine ULiege; Van Ruymbeke, Muriel ULiege; Billen, Roland ULiege

Conference (2018, August 28)

Semantic description of cultural heritage information is already widely structured through CIDOC CRM and its different extensions. This shared understanding of cultural heritage information has already ... [more ▼]

Semantic description of cultural heritage information is already widely structured through CIDOC CRM and its different extensions. This shared understanding of cultural heritage information has already proved its usefulness. Until now, despite its spatial and temporal data management proposition, lack standardization limited the possibilities in terms of reasoning and workability. This paper proposes to increase the potentiality offered by the current scheme by including GeoSPARQL and OWL-Time in the framework. The result, as hybrid ontology, allows concurrent spatial and temporal handling. These are used to provide a near-full data management for complex spatio-temporal reasoning and querying through SPARQL queries. Example queries depicting the strength of the approach and allowing knowledge discovery in huge archaeological datasets illustrate its benefits [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (5 ULiège)
See detailComputing Techniques For Spatio-Temporal Data in Archaeology And Cultural Heritage
Belussi, Alberto; Billen, Roland ULiege; Hallot, Pierre ULiege et al

Book published by CEUR - Vol-2230 (2018)

In recent years new techniques have been proposed for the representation and manipulation of spatio-temporal data that can be usefully applied also in the managing of archaeological data and more in ... [more ▼]

In recent years new techniques have been proposed for the representation and manipulation of spatio-temporal data that can be usefully applied also in the managing of archaeological data and more in general of cultural heritage information. Indeed, space and time are two crucial dimensions for supporting the interpretation process in the archaeological domain and constitute the backbone of any analysis of artefacts or constructions belonging to the cultural heritage of any village, town or country. Among the others (including ontologies, graph databases, RDF, spatio-temporal relations, evolution modes, virtual reality, etc.) two new research directions are nowadays emerging in the context of the geospatial information science: (i) the approach based on the Building Information Model (or BIM) that aims to describe any construction during its entire life cycle and (ii) the machine learning techniques that allow one to extract and recognize pieces of information from huge image datasets. Several attempts have been recently performed in order to develop solutions that, exploiting the above listed innovative ideas, aim to support: • the effective representation of spatio-temporal data collections for enhancing integration, usability and in- teroperability; • the processing of raw data in order to identify artefacts and define their allocation in space and time taking into consideration also their uncertainty; • the reconstruction of ancient structures (buildings, walls, castle, etc.) and the representation of their tem- poral evolution also in case of completely destroyed buildings; • the integrated access and querying of the collected data, which are represented in different models and formats. The main motivation for this workshop stems from the increasing need for bringing together researches with a computer science background with geographical information scientists to share their research results and find effective solutions for user needs in archaeology and cultural heritage applications. The workshop proceedings contain three sections. The first section includes the invited keynote papers: (i) Smart heritage: challenges in digitisation and spatial information modelling of historical buildings, by Kourosh Khoshelham (University of Melbourne) and (ii) Mixed Reality for Archeological Data, by Paolo Fogliaroni (Vienna University of Technology). The second one concerns the knowledge discovery topic and is covered by two papers: (i) Deep learning for archaeological object detection in airborne laser scanning data, by Bashir Kazimi et al., and (ii) Spatio-temporal reasoning in CIDOC CRM: an hybrid ontology with GeoSPARQL and OWL-Time, by Gilles-Antoine Nys et al. Finally, the third section deals with the knowledge representation topic and contains the last two papers: (ii) Enhancing CIDOC-CRM models for GeoSPARQL processing with MapReduce, by Sara Migliorini, and (iv) States of knowledge: a basis for a spatiotemporal model of cultural heritage information, by Pierre Hallot et al. We would like to thank the authors of all submitted papers. Their innovation and creativity resulted in an interesting technical program. We are highly indebted to the program committee members, whose reviewing efforts ensured in selecting a competitive set of papers. Finally, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to the invited speakers. [less ▲]

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See detailStates of knowledge: a basis for spatio-temporal model of cultural heritage information
Hallot, Pierre ULiege; Billen, Roland ULiege

in CEUR Workshop Proceedings (2018, August)

Modelling cultural heritage information is a common requirement when considering heritage documentation. The digital documentation is now considered as the first step to heritage conser15 vation. The ... [more ▼]

Modelling cultural heritage information is a common requirement when considering heritage documentation. The digital documentation is now considered as the first step to heritage conser15 vation. The replication of a geographical information model to cultural heritage information is not trivial. Most of proposed spatio-temporal information models do not encompass the diversity of some complex situations encountered in heritage documentation. This diversity remains both on the strong relation of heritage information with time and the necessity for researchers to record not only physical remains but also the planned projects that may never occurred or vir20 tually reconstructed objects for which geometric information is incomplete. In this paper we propose a spatio-temporal information model that considers heritage objects that existed in the past, continue to exist, were planned or planned and never realized. This diversity is of a high importance for heritage research where the relationships between actual space and past states of planned project is their main concern. The developed model is based on the distinction between the existence, the physical realization and the geometrical definition of modelled objects. The proposed model defines the concept of state knowledge which is a cumulative representation of the documented information related to build heritage. 2012 ACM Subject Classification Information systems [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation of multiple interpretation data model concepts in CIDOC CRM and compatible models
Van Ruymbeke, Muriel ULiege; Hallot, Pierre ULiege; Nys, Gilles-Antoine ULiege et al

in Virtual Archaeology Review (2018), 9(19), 50-65

Modelling cultural heritage is a research topic shared by a broad scientific community. Although this subject has been widely studied, it seems that some aspects still have to be tackled. This paper ... [more ▼]

Modelling cultural heritage is a research topic shared by a broad scientific community. Although this subject has been widely studied, it seems that some aspects still have to be tackled. This paper describes two CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) extension proposals (A & B) dedicated to structuring knowledge concerning historical objects and historical events. It focuses on multiple interpretations and sequential reality, this last being a concept which does not exist in CIDOC CRM but was originally developed in another conceptual model, the Multiple Interpretation Data Model (MIDM). To begin, an extensive description of MIDM concepts is given as well as a recall of its main peculiarities. It is followed by a mapping proposed to translate MIDM concepts into ontologies devoted to describe cultural heritage entities and activities, the CIDOC-CRM and compatible models. Unfortunately, some MIDM concepts are not covered by this mapping because they do not match with existing CRM entities and properties, and this paper explains why an extension is necessary. It describes how the two versions of the extension proposal cover the missing MIDM concepts. One of these two versions, the proposal A, has been implemented as an ontology in Protégé and has been tested through an instantiation phase using a real example. This instantiation phase is fully detailed. It shows that proposal A works coherently with CRM ontologies. On another hand, instantiation phase highlights improvements needs such as recording chronology in a structured way. [less ▲]

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See detailA Formalized 3D Geovisualization Illustrated to Selectivity Purpose of Virtual 3D City Model
Neuville, Romain ULiege; Pouliot, Jacynthe; Poux, Florent ULiege et al

in ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (2018), 7(5),

Virtual 3D city models act as valuable central information hubs supporting many aspects of cities, from management to planning and simulation. However, we noted that 3D city models are still ... [more ▼]

Virtual 3D city models act as valuable central information hubs supporting many aspects of cities, from management to planning and simulation. However, we noted that 3D city models are still underexploited and believe that this is partly due to inefficient visual communication channels across 3D model producers and the end-user. With the development of a formalized 3D geovisualization approach, this paper aims to support and make the visual identification and recognition of specific objects in the 3D models more efficient and useful. The foundation of the proposed solution is a knowledge network of the visualization of 3D geospatial data that gathers and links mapping and rendering techniques. To formalize this knowledge base and make it usable as a decision-making system for the selection of styles, second-order logic is used. It provides a first set of efficient graphic design guidelines, avoiding the creation of graphical conflicts and thus improving visual communication. An interactive tool is implemented and lays the foundation for a suitable solution for assisting the visualization process of 3D geospatial models within CAD and GIS-oriented software. Ultimately, we propose an extension to OGC Symbology Encoding in order to provide suitable graphic design guidelines to web mapping services. [less ▲]

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See detailNumérisation 3D par lasergrammétrie et photogrammétrie: applications à la Réalité Virtuelle
Poux, Florent ULiege; Luczfalvy Jancsó, Andrea ULiege; Jonlet, Benoît ULiege et al

Conference (2018, March 08)

Alors que les copies virtuelles du monde réel ont tendance à être créées plus rapidement que jamais sous forme de nuages de points et produits dérivés, leur utilisation par tous les professionnels demande ... [more ▼]

Alors que les copies virtuelles du monde réel ont tendance à être créées plus rapidement que jamais sous forme de nuages de points et produits dérivés, leur utilisation par tous les professionnels demande de nouveaux outils pour faciliter la diffusion des connaissances. Les analyses numériques changent la manière dont les chercheurs, les archéologues et les conservateurs du patrimoine travaillent et collaborent pour combiner progressivement leur expertise grâce à une plate-forme commune. Néanmoins, l’adjonction d'information sémantique pour compléter les nuages de points est essentielle pour permettre une utilisation complète comme donnée de référence. Les concepts et les outils qui simplifient ce processus sont rares, ce qui complique la mise en commun des analyses. Différentes méthodes seront présentées permettant d'extraire des informations archéologiques aux nuages de points et créer une connexion avec les connaissances structurées sous forme d'ontologie. Les outils de communication et de visualisation 3D développés pour permettre plusieurs interactions seront illustrées sur le château de Jehay. Un partenariat a été établi entre cette association et l’Unité de Géomatique de l’Université de Liège. Il porte non seulement sur l’acquisition de données 3D mais aussi sur l’accompagnement de l’association dans ses projets de recherches archéologiques, de réhabilitation du site et de valorisation. Plusieurs campagnes de mesures ont été réalisées à différents stades de la rénovation. De nouvelles missions sont prévues notamment par des étudiants de l’Université. Outre plusieurs vidéos promotionnelles et quelques produits dérivés utiles à la rénovation, une exploitation en réalité virtuelle retient pour le moment l’attention de nos développeurs. En effet, le Château étant actuellement en grande partie fermé au public, il est prévu cet été d’offrir sur le site des visites en réalité virtuelle basées sur des levés lasergrammétriques et photogrammétriques. À plus long terme, il est prévu d’établir un système d’information spatialisée dédié au Château ; les bases conceptuelles de ce système ont déjà été dressées lors d’une récente étude. [less ▲]

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See detailFusion de données lasergrammétriques/photogrammétriques et techniques d'extraction d'information archéologique sur base de nuage de points 3D
Poux, Florent ULiege; Billen, Roland ULiege; Hallot, Pierre ULiege et al

Conference (2018, March 08)

While virtual copies of the real world tend to be created faster than ever in the form of point clouds and derived products, their use by all professionals requires new tools to facilitate the ... [more ▼]

While virtual copies of the real world tend to be created faster than ever in the form of point clouds and derived products, their use by all professionals requires new tools to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge. Digital analyses are changing the way researchers, archaeologists and heritage curators work and collaborate to gradually combine their expertise through a common platform. Nevertheless, the addition of semantic information to complete the point clouds is essential to allow a complete use as reference data. There are few concepts and tools that simplify this process, making it difficult to share analyses. Different methods will be presented to extract archaeological information from the point clouds and create a connection with the structured knowledge in the form of ontology. Classification and structuring procedures for reasoning from the data will be discussed. These methodologies will be illustrated at the Germigny-des-prés (France) and Château de Jehay (Belgium) sites. The communication and 3D visualization tools developed to allow several interactions will also be presented. While the Germigny-des-prés site (France) is almost exclusively dedicated to research, the same is not true for the Jehay site. This exceptional site belongs to the Province of Liège and is managed by a non-profit association. A partnership has been established between this association and the Geomatics Unit of the University of Liège. It concerns not only the acquisition of 3D data but also the support of the association in its archaeological research, site rehabilitation and enhancement projects. Several measurement campaigns were carried out at different stages of the renovation. New missions are planned, notably by students from the University. In addition to several promotional videos and a few derivative products useful for renovation, a virtual reality operation is currently attracting the attention of our developers. Indeed, the Castle is currently largely closed to the public, it is planned this summer to offer virtual reality tours based on lasergrammetric and photogrammetric surveys. In the longer term, it is planned to establish a spatialized information system dedicated to the Castle; the conceptual bases of this system have already been established during a recent study. [less ▲]

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See detailUNITÉ DE RECHERCHE LIÈGE – QUÉBEC SUR LE NUMÉRIQUE EN SANTÉ GLOBALE, EN ENSEIGNEMENT ET EN FORMATION CONTINUE UNIVERSITAIRE
Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege; Bouchard, Stéphane; Billen, Roland ULiege et al

Speech/Talk (2018)

The promoters of the project are the University of Liège, represented by Rector Albert CORHAY, and the Université du Québec en Outaouais, represented by Rector Denis HARRISSON. The academic leaders are ... [more ▼]

The promoters of the project are the University of Liège, represented by Rector Albert CORHAY, and the Université du Québec en Outaouais, represented by Rector Denis HARRISSON. The academic leaders are: for the University of Liège, Anne-Marie ETIENNE, Professor and Vice-Dean for Education and for the Université du Québec en Outaouais, Stéphane BOUCHARD, Professor and Holder of the Canada Research Chair in Cyberpsychology Clinical. As part of the strategic plan of the University of Liège, the global project of digital use is part of two major societal challenges namely education and digital technology, health and society. This global digital use project focuses on teaching, research and citizenship missions and on the individual, his community and the society in which he lives. The specific objectives of this collaboration are to (1) Develop support tools for the university community, (2) Offer awakening or support workshops in complementarity with the community and (3) Ensure a monitoring mandate and knowledge sharing. Exchanges between the two partners can be carried out along different axes, namely initial training and continuing training; the development of joint research projects or mobility through exchanges of students, teachers, researchers, technicians and experts. [less ▲]

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See detailEO_Regions_Science: Basic Research in support of EO_Regions!
Orban, Anne ULiege; Barbier, Christian ULiege; Billen, Roland ULiege et al

Conference (2018, January)

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (10 ULiège)