References of "Belboom, Sandra"
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See detailLife cycle assessment of rail freight transport in Belgium
Merchan Arribas, Angel ULiege; Belboom, Sandra ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

in Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy (2020)

The objective of this paper is to determine the environmental impact of rail freight transport in Belgium using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The study includes the assessment of diesel ... [more ▼]

The objective of this paper is to determine the environmental impact of rail freight transport in Belgium using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The study includes the assessment of diesel trains, electric trains and rail freight transport considering the Belgian traction mix. Moreover, a comparison of the environmental impacts of electric trains using the electricity supply mix of diferent European countries has been performed. The rail freight transport system has been divided into three sub-systems: rail transport operation, rail equipment and rail infrastructure. The system approach of the LCA methodology involves studying both the direct processes connected with the transport activity (e.g. energy consumption or direct emissions), as well as other necessary elements for rail transport such as energy production, rolling stock and railway infrastructure. A comprehensive study of the Belgian railway network has been performed, collecting country-specifc data on the construction, maintenance and disposal of infrastructure. Electric trains present a better environmental performance than diesel trains in Belgium. For example, the use of electric trains (using the Belgian electricity supply mix of 2012) rather than diesel trains represents a reduction of 26% of environmental impact on climate change. The electricity supply mix contributes signifcantly to the environmental performance of electric trains. As the use of electric trains increases in future, the energy split for the electricity generation will be more important in the environmental impacts of goods transport. The increased use of electric trains represents an opportunity to attain a more environmentally and energy-efcient rail freight transport system, especially when they are powered by sustainable electricity. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of heavy metals on human toxicity using LCA: The case study of Walloon corn
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULiege; Van Stappen, Florence; Belboom, Sandra ULiege et al

in Materiaux et Techniques (2019), 107(1),

This paper focuses on potential errors when assessing the human toxicity of corn farming in Wallonia, Belgium. The USEtox method is applied to the farming of 1 hectare of corn. Local data are used for ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on potential errors when assessing the human toxicity of corn farming in Wallonia, Belgium. The USEtox method is applied to the farming of 1 hectare of corn. Local data are used for farming data and GaBi datasets for background data. Field emissions due to farming are calculated by the most prevailing models. The results in human toxicity, cancer effect, underline the large contribution of chromium (Cr) emissions. But when characterizing fertilizer composition, only the total chromium is measured and therefore unspecified chromium is used as emissions. However, it is known that chromium in the natural environment is mostly the non-toxic form Cr (III), which would greatly decrease the impact as the characterization factor for unspecified chromium is, in USEtox, the average of Cr (III) and the toxic form Cr (VI). The impact for human toxicity, non-cancer effect is mostly related to zinc emissions even if zinc is relatively harmless. The impact of pesticides is negligible in both cases. These results show that caution must be taken when examining/interpreting toxicity categories. © 2019 EDP Sciences. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganic or conventional wheat: what is the better choice to limit the environmental impact, especially human toxicity?
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULiege; Van Stappen, Florence; Belboom, Sandra ULiege et al

Conference (2018, September 26)

In the context of biobased materials, the accurate assessment of the environmental impact of the agricultural raw materials is crucial. In this study, the environmental impact of traditional or ... [more ▼]

In the context of biobased materials, the accurate assessment of the environmental impact of the agricultural raw materials is crucial. In this study, the environmental impact of traditional or conventional wheat produced in Wallonia (Belgium) is evaluated. The system boundaries are from field to farm gates and the functional unit is the production of 1 kg of wheat. The ILCD recommended methods are used. Surprisingly, the organic wheat has a higher impact on the environment in all the categories. This is due to its smaller yield and to the higher organic fertilizers used: These organic fertilizers result in higher field emissions because the nutritive elements are less available for plants. A detailed analysis of the human toxicity categories underlines that most of the impact is due to heavy metal emissions: most of the impact in human toxicity, cancer effect, is due to chromium (Cr) emissions due to the use of fertilizers. But during fertilizers composition characterization only the total chromium is measured and therefore, unspecified chromium is used as emissions. However, the chromium in natural environment is most probably Cr (III) and this could decrease the impact as the characterization factor for unspecified chromium, is, the average of the one of Cr (III) (non-toxic) and Cr (VI) (toxic). The chromium emissions are in the same order on magnitude for organic and conventional wheat for one hectare, but, due to the smaller yield are larger for conventional wheat on a mass basis. The impact for human toxicity, non-cancer effect is mostly related to zinc emissions in soil from organic fertilizer, especially pig manure. As more organic fertilizers are used for organic wheat, its impact is more than 10 time higher than the impact of conventional wheat. Nevertheless, the real toxicity of zinc is questionable, indeed, zinc is an important trace element in the human body. Surprisingly, for both toxicity categories, the contribution of pesticide is negligible: this also contributes to the worst results of organic wheat. As this study is from field to farm gate, the potential impact wheat consumption on human health is not included. Moreover, the Belgian case study is not favorable to organic agriculture as the conventional agriculture has very good practice and high yields. This case study also underlines the limitation of the existing tool to asses to toxicity impact. [less ▲]

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See detailIMPACT OF HEAVY METALS ON HUMAN TOXICITY USING LCA: A CASE STUDY FOR WALLOON CORN
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULiege; Van Stappen, Florence; Belboom, Sandra ULiege et al

Conference (2018, May 22)

This paper aims to focus on surprising results when assessing the human toxicity of corn farming in Wallonia, Belgium. The USEtox method is applied to the farming of 1 hec-tare of corn. Local data are ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to focus on surprising results when assessing the human toxicity of corn farming in Wallonia, Belgium. The USEtox method is applied to the farming of 1 hec-tare of corn. Local data are used for farming data and GaBi datasets are used for back-ground data. The field emissions due to farming are calculated by the most used models. The results in human toxicity, cancer effect, underline the large contribution of chromi-um (Cr) emissions due to the use of organic and mineral fertilizers. But during fertilizers composition characterization only the total chromium is measured and therefore, unspeci-fied chromium is used as emissions. However, it is known that the chromium in natural environment is most probably Cr (III) and this could really decrease the impact as the characterization factor for unspecified chromium, is, in USEtox, the average of the one of Cr (III) (non-toxic) and Cr (VI) (toxic), therefore really larger than the one of Cr (III). Therefore, a test is realized where 95% of the Chromium is Cr (III) and the rest is Cr (VI). In this case, score in human toxicity cancer effect is divided by 7, whereas this has no in-fluence on the other results. The impact for human toxicity, non-cancer effect is mostly related to zinc emissions in soil due to the use of organic fertilizer, especially pig manure. However, zinc is abundant and is an important trace element in the human body. It is useful for growth, bone and brain development, etc. and the European Commission recommends the consumption of 7- 10 mg of zinc by person and per day. Moreover, mammals are able to eliminate zinc, therefore they are able to maintain a constant level of zinc independently of the exposure level. Consequently, only the exposure to high doses can have toxic effects. A test was made with the characterization factor of zinc equal to 0 in the USEtox model. In this case, the corn cropping obtains a human toxicity, non-cancer effect divided by 12 compared to the base case and mostly related to lead and mercury emissions in the soil. In both case, the contribution of pesticide is negligible. In conclusion, although the uncertainties about toxicity categories are well-known, this case study underlines the impact of the user hypotheses and shows that a detailed analy-sis of the results is essential for a critical view on the toxicity results. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of heavy metals on human toxicity using LCA: a case study for Walloon corn
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULiege; Van Stappen, Florence; Belboom, Sandra ULiege et al

Poster (2018, May 15)

This paper aims to focus on surprising results when assessing the human toxicity of corn farming in Wallonia, Belgium. The USEtox method is applied to the farming of 1 hectare of corn. Local data are used ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to focus on surprising results when assessing the human toxicity of corn farming in Wallonia, Belgium. The USEtox method is applied to the farming of 1 hectare of corn. Local data are used for farming data and GaBi datasets are used for background data. The field emissions due to farming are calculated by the most used models. The results in human toxicity, cancer effect, underline the large contribution of chromium (Cr) emissions due to the use of organic and mineral fertilizers. But during fertilizers composition characterization only the total chromium is measured and therefore, unspecified chromium is used as emissions. However, it is known that the chromium in natural environment is most probably Cr (III) and this could really decrease the impact as the characterization factor for unspecified chromium, is, in USEtox, the average of the one of Cr (III) (non-toxic) and Cr (VI) (toxic), therefore really larger than the one of Cr (III). Therefore, a test is realized where 95% of the Chromium is Cr (III) and the rest is Cr (VI). In this case, score in human toxicity cancer effect is divided by 7, whereas this has no influence on the other results. The impact for human toxicity, non-cancer effect is mostly related to zinc emissions in soil due to the use of organic fertilizer, especially pig manure. However, zinc is abundant and is an important trace element in the human body. It is useful for growth, bone and brain development, etc. and the European Commission recommends the consumption of 7- 10 mg of zinc by person and per day. Moreover, mammals are able to eliminate zinc, therefore they are able to maintain a constant level of zinc independently of the exposure level. Consequently, only the exposure to high doses can have toxic effects. A test was made with the characterization factor of zinc equal to 0 in the USEtox model. In this case, the corn cropping obtains a human toxicity, non-cancer effect divided by 12 compared to the base case and mostly related to lead and mercury emissions in the soil. In both case, the contribution of pesticide is negligible. In conclusion, although the uncertainties about toxicity categories are well-known, this case study underlines the impact of the user hypotheses and shows that a detailed analysis of the results is essential for a critical view on the toxicity results. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of an international intermodal freight route based on an Environmental Life Cycle Assessment perspective
Merchan Arribas, Angel ULiege; Belboom, Sandra ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

in Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Logistics Operations Management (2018, April)

This paper analyses the results obtained from the study of the environmental impacts of the consolidated intermodal freight route from the Port of Antwerp (Belgium) to Ludwigshafen (Germany) using the ... [more ▼]

This paper analyses the results obtained from the study of the environmental impacts of the consolidated intermodal freight route from the Port of Antwerp (Belgium) to Ludwigshafen (Germany) using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. In the framework of our research, we have performed the LCA of rail freight transport (distinguishing between electric and diesel traction), inland waterways transport and road freight transport in Belgium independently. Then, we have used the results obtained previously to carry out a study of the environmental impacts related to the intermodal freight transport. The purpose of this analysis is to compare the environmental impacts of this intermodal route depending of the freight transport mode chosen. [less ▲]

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See detailLife Cycle Assessment of railway infrastructure in Belgium
Merchan Arribas, Angel ULiege; Belboom, Sandra ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

in [avniR] conference. Life Cycle Management, the pathway for ecotransition. 2017 Conference proceedings (2017, November)

In the framework of the BRAIN-TRAINS project, the environmental impact of rail freight transport in Belgium has been analysed using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The rail freight transport ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the BRAIN-TRAINS project, the environmental impact of rail freight transport in Belgium has been analysed using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The rail freight transport system has been divided in three sub-systems: rail transport operation, rail equipment (locomotives and wagons) and rail infrastructure. For the sub-system rail infrastructure, a detailed study of the life cycle phases of construction, maintenance and disposal of infrastructure has been conducted. We have collected specific information related to the Belgian railway infrastructure from both literature sources and directly from Infrabel (the Belgian railway infrastructure manager) through the use of questionnaires. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the methodology used to analyse the LCA of the railway infrastructure in Belgium as a part of the rail freight transport system. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent Evolutions and Trends in the Use of Computer Aided Chemical Engineering for Educational Purposes at the University of Liège
Léonard, Grégoire ULiege; Belboom, Sandra ULiege; Toye, Dominique ULiege et al

in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering (2017)

The present paper addresses the evolution and perspectives in the teaching of CAPE methods in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Liège. The transition that happened in the 90ies ... [more ▼]

The present paper addresses the evolution and perspectives in the teaching of CAPE methods in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Liège. The transition that happened in the 90ies with the arrival of commercial software is highlighted, as the learning outcomes evolved from the ability of building programs to solve chemical engineering problems towards the ability to use complex commercial software and to understand their limitations. Moreover, CAPE methods were extended to non-dedicated CAPE courses, which is illustrated here by the goals and challenges of their use in courses like “Reactor Engineering” and “Life Cycle Analysis”. It was observed that students sometimes assume that CAPE softwares provide straightforward and trustworthy solutions without the need of understanding their mathematical bases and assumptions. Thus, solutions to make students aware of these limitations are proposed, including the creation of an integrated project focussing on complex multi-disciplinary issues, evidencing the need for critical input from the operator. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of solar energy in Africa : A challenge in terms of resource availability and recycling.
Pirard, Eric ULiege; Belboom, Sandra ULiege

Conference (2017, October)

Focusing on Africa, sun is a renewable resource, free of charge, without any dependency of supply from other countries but implying technologies to transform this resource into electricity. Photovoltaic ... [more ▼]

Focusing on Africa, sun is a renewable resource, free of charge, without any dependency of supply from other countries but implying technologies to transform this resource into electricity. Photovoltaic panels are dedicated to this goal and present several advantages as the free cost of the fuel and no emissions during the production of electricity. These advantages are counterbalanced by the high amount of mineral resources needed, the lifetime of installations, the decreasing yield during operation years and the very limited recycling potential [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a bio-based binder in the building sector
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULiege; Briard, Vincent; Pigeolet, Jean-Pierre et al

Poster (2017, May 15)

A binder is a material or a substance that holds materials together, like a glue. In the building sector, binders have several applications: they can be used in producing wood panels such as MDF to paste ... [more ▼]

A binder is a material or a substance that holds materials together, like a glue. In the building sector, binders have several applications: they can be used in producing wood panels such as MDF to paste together the wood particles and give the panels their stabil-ity. They are also used in insulation materials, such as glass wool or stone wool to bind the fibers together. Traditional binders are mostly fossil-based (phenol-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, etc.), and previous Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) [1-3] show that these binders, even if they are a minor component on a mass basis, can have a major contribution to the environmental impact of the material, especially in wood panels. In addition, the use of these binders has raised some sanitary questions, especially con-cerning indoor air quality. Therefore alternative binders are being investigated, namely bio-based binders. In this presentation, we focus on the ECOSE binder, developed by Knauf Insulation, a global building insulation manufacturer. It has the particularity of being based on plant starch and it is currently used in glass wool products, while other applications are being developed. We underline that using biomass as raw materials instead of fossil-based ma-terials could have several benefits on the environment, especially fossil resources deple-tion and CO2 emissions, but that this is not necessarily the case for all environmental as-pects, for instance land use, even if only the direct land use is included in this study. The presentation will first underline the differences in term of environmental impact be-tween the traditional binder and ECOSE applied in glass mineral wool. Indeed, a compar-ison on a mass basis is not totally relevant: two binders can have different application conditions; therefore, we can only compare them at the application level. But the main focus of the presentation will be on the hypothesis made in the modeling of the biomass part and their influence on the results. For example, the influence of the use of bio-based raw materials instead of traditional ones will be studied, but also the influence of the dis-tance between farm and factory where the starch is produced. The use of local data will be compared with the use of databases. All these results will highlight the difficulties in studying bio-based products and to compare them with fossil-based ones. The use of LCA and a complete analysis of the results are essential to better understand the chal-lenges related to binder technology modification. ________________________________________ 1. Rivela, B., et al., Life cycle inventory of particleboard: A case study in the wood sector. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2006. 11(2): p. 106-113. 2. Wilson, J.B., Particleboard: A Life-Cycle Inventory of Manufacturing Panels from Resource through Product, in CORRIM: Phase II Final Report. 2008, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University. 3. Silva, D.A.L., et al., Environmental performance assessment of the melamine-urea-formaldehy (MUF) resin manufacture: a case study in Brazil. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2015. 96. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose production: influence of the datasets and of the long term emissions on LCA results
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULiege; Belboom, Sandra ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

Poster (2017, May 08)

The aim of this study is to have a good understanding of the environmental impact of glucose production. Glucose is generally produced from corn or wheat. Since agricultural processes are known to be ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to have a good understanding of the environmental impact of glucose production. Glucose is generally produced from corn or wheat. Since agricultural processes are known to be difficult to evaluate by LCA, the results obtained with two different LCA databases, Gabi and EcoInvent, are compared in this work. The production of glucose from raw materials can be divided in two steps: the agricultural step allowing the cereal production, and the conversion step including the extraction of the starch from the plant and its hydrolysis into glucose. Preliminary results underline the high impact of the agricultural step, so a special attention has been paid to these data. Specific Belgian data collected by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W) (2014) [1] have been used as primary data (yield, amount of fertilizers, etc.), either using EcoInvent or Gabi datasets background data to model fertilizers, diesel consumption, etc. A third model was built using only data available in Ecoinvent for corn and wheat cultures. For the conversion steps, literature data have been used along with some industrial data. Based on these multiple sources, it is possible to compare the LCA results for the production of 1 kg of glucose for three different cases. The results underlined that the differences between the two databases are smaller than the differences between specific data (Belgium data) or non-specific data (Ecoinvent) for the agricultural steps. Nevertheless, in some impact categories, the differences between the two databases remain high. The presentation will underline where these differences are coming from. This leads to also analyze the differences between background data such as energy generation or fertilizer production. Moreover, special attention has been put on the influence of long-term emissions, in the Ecoinvent database. As these emissions have a large influence in some impact categories, we have to clarify if we should include them or not in view of comparison with GaBi database. Moreover, the Ecoinvent model and the GaBi models have been realized in two different software (Simapro and GaBi, respectively), therefore, some checks have been performed to see if some differences can be induced by the software. In conclusion, this presentation will underline which is the sensibility of the results to parameters not controlled by the LCA practitioner, such as the datasets hypotheses, the software differences, etc. 1. Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W), ALT4CER project. 2014. [less ▲]

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See detailLife Cycle Assessment of freight transport in Belgium
Merchan Arribas, Angel ULiege; Belboom, Sandra ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

in Cools, Mario; Limbourg, Sabine (Eds.) Proceedings of the BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Days 2017 (2017, May)

BRAIN-TRAINS is a project supported by the Belgian Federal Government that deals with the possible development of rail freight intermodality in Belgium, analysing the current situation of the intermodal ... [more ▼]

BRAIN-TRAINS is a project supported by the Belgian Federal Government that deals with the possible development of rail freight intermodality in Belgium, analysing the current situation of the intermodal freight transport from an interdisciplinary perspective. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been chosen to analyse the environmental impact of freight transport in Belgium. In a first stage we have carried out the LCA of rail freight transport, inland waterways transport and road freight transport independently. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the first results obtained from the study of the environmental impacts of inland freight transport using the LCA methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailA road map for explorative scenario creation on Belgian rail freight transport development
Troch, Franck; Vanelslander, Thierry; Sys, Christa et al

in Competition and Regulation in Network Industries (2017)

The starting point of this article is the weak usage of rail freight in Belgium and Europe, both as a sustainable mode of land transportation in itself as well as a part of the intermodal chain. The ... [more ▼]

The starting point of this article is the weak usage of rail freight in Belgium and Europe, both as a sustainable mode of land transportation in itself as well as a part of the intermodal chain. The results are obtained by transversal research on rail freight transport in Belgium, taking into account the European context. This interdisciplinary research develops a road map for the creation of three integrated scenarios: a best case, medium case and worst case scenario for rail freight development, based on a detailed SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities, threats) analysis. It includes the most probable future developments for rail freight transport and hinterland connections. These developments are obtained from literature review and discussions with a heterogeneous panel of experts in the fields of (i) optimal corridor and hub development, (ii) macroeconomic impact, (iii) sustainability, (iv) effective market regulation and (v) governance and organization for a well-functioning intermodality. The Delphi approach is used in combination with a survey analysis. Frequency tables and the H-index allow defining a ranking and selection of SWOT elements. The obtained scenarios allow future research to quantify and measure the impact of future developments and decisions towards the Belgian rail freight market. [less ▲]

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See detailBRAIN-TRAINS: Integrating the LCA methodology in and interdisciplinary project
Merchan Arribas, Angel ULiege; Belboom, Sandra ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

in Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Life Cycle approaches (2016, November 09)

BRAIN-TRAINS is a project supported by the Belgian Federal Government that deals with the possible development of rail freight intermodality in Belgium, approaching this transport issue from an ... [more ▼]

BRAIN-TRAINS is a project supported by the Belgian Federal Government that deals with the possible development of rail freight intermodality in Belgium, approaching this transport issue from an interdisciplinary perspective. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to analyse the sustainability impact of rail freight intermodality. The rail freight system has been divided in three sub-systems: rail transport operation, rail infrastructure and rail transport equipment (locomotives and wagons). First, a SWOT analysis of the intermodal rail freight transport has been performed to identify internal characteristics and possible external trends of the intermodal rail freight transport. The most important elements identified in the SWOT analysis have been selected through a Delphi-technique with the collaboration of a panel of expert. Thirdly, the selected elements have been translated into clear and measurable parameters, defining for every parameter an input value to quantify the scenarios. The parameters are measured in “tonne-kilometre”. Finally, three divergent Belgian scenarios with a time horizon set in 2030 have been built for further analysis. These scenarios are directly linked to the third strategic goal of the European Commission’s White Paper on transport (2011), which aims to shift the 30% of road freight over 300 km to other modes such as rail transport by 2030. As a result, a best, worst and medium case scenarios have been developed, depending on whether the 30% shift has been successfully accomplished, the status quo has been maintained or the goal has not been completely reached by 2030, respectively. The direct transport emissions and energy consumption during the rail transport activity have been determined using the LCA methodology. These LCA results have been used to improve the accuracy of existing commercial databases as Ecoinvent for the Belgian situation. [less ▲]

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See detailINFLUENCE OF THE DATASETS CHOICE ON LCA RESULTS: EXAMPLE OF GLUCOSE PRODUCTION
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULiege; Belboom, Sandra ULiege; Léonard, Angélique ULiege

Conference (2016, October 27)

The aim of this study is to have a good understanding of the environmental impact of glucose production to be able to study material produce from glucose. Glucose is general-ly produced from corn or wheat ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to have a good understanding of the environmental impact of glucose production to be able to study material produce from glucose. Glucose is general-ly produced from corn or wheat. Since agricultural processes are known to be difficult to evaluate by LCA, the results obtained with two different LCA databases, Gabi and EcoIn-vent, are compared in this work. The production of glucose from raw materials can be divided in two steps: the agricul-tural step allowing the plant production, and the conversion step including the extraction of the starch from the plant and its hydrolysis into glucose. Preliminary results underline the high impact of the agricultural step, so a special attention has been paid to these data. Specific Belgian data collected by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W) (2014) [1] have been used as primary data (yield, amount of fertilizers, etc.), either using EcoInvent or Gabi datasets background data to model fertilizers, diesel consumption, etc. A third model was built using only data available in Ecoinvent for corn and wheat cultures. For the conversion step, literature data have been used along with some industrial data. As few studies are available in the literature concerning starch hydrolysis, the focus has been placed on data validation (mass balance checks, cross-reference information, etc.). Based on these multiple sources, it is possible to compare the LCA results for the pro-duction of 1 kg of glucose for three different cases, summarized in the following table. Table 1: Summary of modelled cases Agricultural step Conversion steps Primary data Dataset Primary data Dataset Case 1 Belgian GaBi Literature + Industry GaBi Case 2 Belgian Ecoinvent Literature + Industry Ecoinvent Case 2 Ecoinvent Literature + Industry Ecoinvent The results obtained using these three models will be presented, at both the inventory and impact assessment steps. They show significant differences and highlight the need to understand in depth the involved assumptions when developing the datasets, in addition to the ones adopted for the inventory. These differences in results lead to higher uncer-tainties, allowing only to have a range of possible values as a result. We make the choice to only communicate this range of value and not an absolute value when communicating the results of this study but this leads to some disadvantages such as difficulties in com-parison, etc. [less ▲]

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