References of "Beckers, Yves"
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See detailThe time after feeding alters methane emission kinet- ics in Holstein dry cows fed with various restricted diets
Blaise, Yannick ULiege; Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Livestock Science (in press)

This study aims to investigate shifts in methane (CH4) emission in cattle in relation to the time after feeding, diet composition, and feed allowance. Four non-cannulated dry Holstein cows were equipped ... [more ▼]

This study aims to investigate shifts in methane (CH4) emission in cattle in relation to the time after feeding, diet composition, and feed allowance. Four non-cannulated dry Holstein cows were equipped with activity and infrared sensors to monitor feeding behavior and CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the breath, continuously and at a frequency of 4 Hz. The second goal pursued, was to assess the methane emission estimation (CH4, L/h) by the CO2-method based on the ratio between CH4 and CO2 in the exhaled air, using metabolic CO2 as a marker. All cows were fed twice a day at 12 h intervals with contrasting isoenergy diets in a cross-over design: LIN100 diet (5562 VEM, i.e. Voedereenheid Melk, Dutch energy unit for milk production, 1 VEM = 6.9 kJ net energy for lactation) composed of haylage, linseed and wheat, and HAY100 (5367 VEM) diet containing only haylage. After a 2 week adaptation period to the diets, 3 days were required for the measurements and immediately after, two additional experimental treatments were applied by reducing the feed allowance to 70% with the same diets to evaluate the impact of the dry matter intake, yielding the two additional treatments HAY70 and LIN70. In addition, two other rumen-cannulated cows were used to monitor time after feeding short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the rumen. On a daily basis, all indicators (daily CH4:CO2 ratio, eructation frequency and CH4 emission) followed the same trend and showed that cows on a hay-based diet produced more CH4 and feed restriction induced different production levels for the same type of diet. The average CH4 emission for the different diets were 6.86 L/h for HAY100 > 6.25 L/h for HAY70 > 4.26 L/h for LIN100 > 3.97 L/h LIN70 (P < 0.001). The LIN100 diet produced 38% lower daily CH4 emissions than HAY100 and reduced the eructation frequency by 44%. During feeding, the eructation frequency was higher (P<0.001) for HAY than LIN diets. This work underlines the daily CH4 emission dynamics observed using the CH4:CO2 ratio in the cow's exhaled air. Methane emissions (L/h) are strongly influenced by the time after feeding time (P < 0.001). They increased for up to 2 hours after the distribution of the meal, and then decreased until the next meal, with shifts between the maximum and the minimum emission of more than 100% for LIN100 and 22% for HAY100. Consistently, the acetate:proprionate ratio was smaller for the LIN100 diet between 2 to 5 hours after the meal (P < 0.001). [less ▲]

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See detailRestoring a worn-out pasture: what impact on N2O exchanges ?
Lognoul, Margaux ULiege; Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Naiken, Alwin ULiege et al

Poster (2019, April 08)

A paired-flux tower experiment was set up in a 40 y-o grazed pasture managed by a local farmer. A parcel under restoration was compared to a control plot. In addition to N2O flux monitoring, soil mineral ... [more ▼]

A paired-flux tower experiment was set up in a 40 y-o grazed pasture managed by a local farmer. A parcel under restoration was compared to a control plot. In addition to N2O flux monitoring, soil mineral N content (ammonium and nitrate) was measured every 10-15 days. [less ▲]

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See detailHerd position habits can bias net CO2 ecosystem exchange estimates in free range grazed pastures.
Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Dumortier, Pierre ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

Conference (2019, April)

The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been widely used to quantify the net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) of grasslands, which is an important component of grassland carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. In ... [more ▼]

The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been widely used to quantify the net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) of grasslands, which is an important component of grassland carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. In free range grazed pastures, NEE estimations are supposed to also include cattle respiration. However, cattle respiration measurement by an EC system is challenging as animals act as moving points emitting CO2 that are more or less captured by the EC tower depending on their presence in the footprint. Often it is supposed that, over the long term, cattle distribution in the pasture is homogeneous so that fluctuations due to moving sources are averaged and NEE estimates are reasonably representative of cattle respiration. In this study, we test this hypothesis by comparing daily cow respiration rate per livestock unit (LU) estimated by postulating a homogeneous cow repartition over the whole pasture with three other estimates based on animal localization data, animal scale carbon budget and confinement experiments. We applied these methods to an intensively managed free range grassland and showed that the NEE estimate based on a homogeneous cow repartition was systematically lower than the three other estimates. Consequently, in order to allow estimating the validity of this hypothesis but also to improve inter site comparisons, we advocate to compute separately pasture NEE and grazer’s respiration. In the presentation, we will propose a method based on cattle presence detection using CH4 fluxes, elimination of data with cattle and gap filling on the basis of data without cattle. For the second we propose three independent methods (animal localization with GPS, animal scale carbon budget, confinement experiments) to estimate the cattle respiration rate and discuss their use depending on site specificities. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of adding fibrolytic enzymes on the ruminal fermentation of date palm by-products
Abid, Khalil; Jabri, Jihene; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Archiv für Tierzucht (2019), 62

This study was conducted in order to assess the influence of four doses (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg (g dry matter)􀀀1 of commercial fibrolytic enzymes (MAXFIBER-Ir, SHAUMANN GmbH, Wahlstedt, Germany) on in vitro ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted in order to assess the influence of four doses (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg (g dry matter)􀀀1 of commercial fibrolytic enzymes (MAXFIBER-Ir, SHAUMANN GmbH, Wahlstedt, Germany) on in vitro fermentation of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) by-products: date kernels, wasted dates, floral stems, and palm fronds. Rumen contents were obtained from two non-lactating Holstein cows. Enzyme supplementation to by-products was carried out 12 h prior to incubation. Compared to the control, the enzymatic supplementation quadratically increased the extent but not the gasproduction rate of date kernel fermentation. Indeed, the potential gas production increased notably by 14.8% with the lowest enzymes dose following recorded gas production after 48, 72, and 96 h of incubation. The estimated organic-matter digestibility, metabolisable energy, and total volatile fatty acids in the incubation fluid tended to be increased with the lowest dose by 7.8 %, 8.4 %, and 13.9% respectively. For the wasted dates, this feed additive tended to linearly increase the gas production rate of fermentation with the highest dose. On the other hand, this supplementation had no effect on the ruminal fermentation of the floral stems and palm fronds. The exogenous fibrolytic enzymes were more effective on fibrous but not on lignified date palm by-products. [less ▲]

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See detailOak or chestnut tannin dose responses on silage pH, proteolysis and in vitro digestibility in laboratory-scale silos
Herremans, Sophie ULiege; Decruyenaere, Virginie; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement (2019), 23(2), 59-62

Description of the subject. This short note documents the use of hydrolyzable tannins as silage additives to reduce proteolysis thanks to a laboratory-scale ensiling method. Objectives. To study oak (OTE ... [more ▼]

Description of the subject. This short note documents the use of hydrolyzable tannins as silage additives to reduce proteolysis thanks to a laboratory-scale ensiling method. Objectives. To study oak (OTE) and chestnut tannin extract (CTE) dose responses on chemical composition, pH and ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3) content of silage. Method. A mixture of cocksfoot, white and red clovers was ensiled in vacuum packs, with OTE or CTE at doses of 0, 10, 30, 50 and 70 g.kg-1 DM. Results. Hydrolyzable tannin extracts decreased N-NH3 content of silage up to 18% (p < 0.05). For the investigated range of doses, OTE induced a linear decrease of N-NH3 content (R² = 0.76) whereas CTE resulted in a quadratic decrease (R² = 0.68). High doses of tannin extracts reduced in vitro organic matter digestibility (OMD) by 3% (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Both tannins reduced proteolysis in silos but highest doses induced a decrease in OMD. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of inulin and wheat bran only during the starter period or during the entire rearing life of broilers: effects on growth performance, small intestinal maturation, and cecal microbial colonization until slaughter age.
Li, Bing ULiege; Schroyen, Martine ULiege; Leblois, Julie et al

in Poultry Science (2019)

Inulin and wheat bran were added to broiler diets during the starter period or during the entire rearing period to investigate whether the effects of using these ingredients remained until slaughter age ... [more ▼]

Inulin and wheat bran were added to broiler diets during the starter period or during the entire rearing period to investigate whether the effects of using these ingredients remained until slaughter age. Diets containing no inulin and no wheat bran (CON), 2% inulin (IN), 10% wheat bran (WB), or 2% inulin + 10% wheat bran (IN+WB) were provided until day 11. Thereafter, each dietary treatment was further divided into a continued diet with supplementation or a control diet, resulting in 7 groups (CON, IN/IN, IN/CON, WB/WB, WB/CON, IN+WB/IN+WB, or IN+WB/CON). On day 40, 12 chickens per group were euthanized. The IN/IN group increased the cecal molar ratio of butyrate but had a lower relative abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05). Additionally, the cecal molar ratio of propionate was higher in the IN/CON group compared to the IN/IN group (P = 0.034). The WB/CON group had the best results on BW and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). Only the cecal molar ratio of iso-butyrate was higher in the WB/WB group (P = 0.013). Moreover, compared to the CON group, both WB/WB and WB/CON groups reduced the relative abundances of Bifidobacterium and Escherichia coli, and only the WB/WB group reduced the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05). Both IN+WB/IN+WB and IN+WB/CON groups increased BW until day 21 and lowered the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium (P < 0.05). The IN+WB/IN+WB group increased the cecal molar ratio of butyrate but reduced the molar ratio of propionate with a higher relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the lack of positive effects induced by inulin might be explained by the dose being too high. The beneficial effects on BW, FCR, and microbiota induced by wheat bran during the starter period were lasting when supplementation was stopped, suggesting that wheat bran could be a favorable ingredient during the starter period. [less ▲]

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See detailHerd position habits can bias net CO2 ecosystem exchange estimates in free range grazed pastures.
Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Dumortier, Pierre ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2019), 268

The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been widely used to quantify the net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) of grasslands, which is an important component of grassland carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. In ... [more ▼]

The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been widely used to quantify the net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) of grasslands, which is an important component of grassland carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. In free range grazed pastures, NEE estimations are supposed to also include cattle respiration. However, cattle respiration measurement by an EC system is challenging as animals act as moving points emitting CO2 that are more or less captured by the EC tower depending on their presence in the footprint. Often it is supposed that, over the long term, cattle distribution in the pasture is homogeneous so that fluctuations due to moving sources are averaged and NEE estimates are reasonably representative of cattle respiration. In this study, we test this hypothesis by comparing daily cow respiration rate per livestock unit (LU) estimated by postulating a homogeneous cow repartition over the whole pasture with three other estimates based on animal localization data, animal scale carbon budget and confinement experiments. We applied these methods to an intensively managed free range grassland and showed that the NEE estimate based on a homogeneous cow repartition was systematically lower than the three other estimates. The bias was about 60 g C m–2 yr–1, which corresponded to around 40% of the annual NEE. The sign and the importance of this bias is site specific, as it depends on cow location habits in relation to the footprint of the EC measurements which highlight the importance of testing the hypothesis of homogeneity of cattle distribution on each site. Consequently, in order to allow estimating the validity of this hypothesis but also to improve inter site comparisons, we advocate to compute separately pasture NEE and grazer’s respiration. For the former we propose a method based on cattle presence detection using CH4 fluxes, elimination of data with cattle and gap filling on the basis of data without cattle. For the second we present and discuss three independent methods (animal localization with GPS, animal scale carbon budget, confinement experiments) to estimate the cattle respiration rate. [less ▲]

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See detailSilage additives to reduce protein degradation during ensiling and evaluation of in vitro ruminal nitrogen degradability
Herremans, Sophie ULiege; Decruyenaere, Virginie; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Grass and Forage Science (2018)

Despite the high degradability of their proteins, grass and legume silages represent an important option to reach more sustainable livestock systems. To improve the nitrogen use efficiency of these crops ... [more ▼]

Despite the high degradability of their proteins, grass and legume silages represent an important option to reach more sustainable livestock systems. To improve the nitrogen use efficiency of these crops, this study assessed the potential of several additives (chestnut tannins, oak tannins, zeolite, erythritol by-product solution and wood molasses) to reduce proteolysis in the silo and in vitro nitrogen degradability. Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) were ensiled in varying proportions in laboratory-scale silos made of vacuum-packed plastic bags. Dry-matter content, chemical composition, pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids content were analysed after 34 days of ensiling. Ruminal nitrogen degradability was assessed in vitro (Aufrère & Cartailler, 1988). We observed that the proportion of ammonia in silage was reduced by the addition of oak tannin (−12%) and zeolite (−16%). The addition of zeolite lowered in vitro organic matter digestibility. Rapidly degradable nitrogen (1-hr degradability) was reduced in vitro by both tannins (−6.8% for chestnut and −6.6% for oak) and zeolite (−5.8%), but total degradable nitrogen (24-hr degradability) was only reduced by oak (−6.5%) and chestnut tannins (−7.3%). It suggests that tannins protected proteins from plant and bacterial enzymes by forming a complex that better resists silage fermentations and in vitro protease action. The reduction effects on proteolysis in the silo and on in vitro ruminal nitrogen degradability are limited individually but could be cumulative. Erythritol by-product solution and wood molasses had no effect on silo or in vitro proteolysis. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes in vitro protocol predict the nutritional value of thermally treated cereals?
Huart, François ULiege; Bera, François ULiege; Blecker, Christophe ULiege et al

Poster (2018, November 06)

Several in vitro protocols were proposed to rapidly evaluate the nutritional value of cereal and food ingredients. These In vitro protocols are based on restricted parameters and may involve results ... [more ▼]

Several in vitro protocols were proposed to rapidly evaluate the nutritional value of cereal and food ingredients. These In vitro protocols are based on restricted parameters and may involve results differing to the reality once assessed in vivo. Moreover, information about some in vitro parameters is sometimes insufficiently described. In the present study, a three steps in vitro digestion simulation developed by Tervila-Wilo et al. (1996) to mimic digestion in poultry digestive tract was assessed and compared with in vivo digestibility of corn grain harvest at two moisture contents and dried at three temperatures. In vitro digestion simulation showed that increasing drying temperature led to an increase in in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) while in vivo digestibility of dry matter (DM) measured on force fed broilers chickens decreased in the same conditions. To improve this in vitro digestion model, the effect of amylase activity of pancreatin, substrate concentration, corn flour particles reduction and agitation were investigated. Results showed that increasing amylase activity of pancreatin and decreasing substrate concentration improved DM digestibility through starch digestibility while corn flour particles reduction had little effect on its final DM digestibility. Rotational agitation greatly improved starch digestibility and therefore DM digestibility, even at low speed. This increase in DM digestibility reached 20% and was attributed to the better contact between substrate and enzymes and a reduction in solution viscosity under constant agitation. A good adjustment of these parameters would improve the ability of in vitro digestion simulation to accurately predict nutritional value of thermally treated cereals. They have to be taken into account on the implementation of in vitro digestion simulation aiming to predict in vivo performances of consumers. [less ▲]

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See detailRotational and continuous grazing does not affect the total net ecosystem exchange of a pasture grazed by cattle but modifies CO2 exchange dynamics
Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Mamadou, Ossenatou; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

in Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment (2018), 253

Grassland carbon budgets are known to be greatly dependent on management. In particular, grazing is known to directly affect CO2 exchange through consumption by plants, cattle respiration, natural ... [more ▼]

Grassland carbon budgets are known to be greatly dependent on management. In particular, grazing is known to directly affect CO2 exchange through consumption by plants, cattle respiration, natural fertilisation through excreta, and soil compaction. This study investigates the impact of two grazing methods on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics and carbon balance, by measuring CO2 fluxes using eddy covariance in two adjacent pastures located in southern Belgium during a complete grazing season. Rotational (RG) grazing consists of an alternation of rest periods and short high stock density grazing periods. Continuous grazing (CG) consists of uninterrupted grazing with variable stocking rates. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the impact of these grazing methods on total net ecosystem exchange and CO2 exchange dynamics using eddy covariance. The results showed that NEE dynamics were greatly impacted by the grazing method. Following grazing events on the RG parcel, net CO2 uptake on the RG parcel was reduced compared to the CG parcel. During the following rest periods, this phenomenon progressively shifted towards a higher assimilation for the RG treatment. This behaviour was attributed to sharp biomass changes in the RG treatment and therefore sharp changes in plant photosynthetic capacity. We found that differences in gross primary productivity at high radiation were strongly correlated to differences in standing biomass. In terms of carbon budgets, no significant difference was observed between the two treatments, neither in cumulative NEE, or in terms of estimated biomass production. The results of our study suggest that we should not expect major benefits in terms of CO2 uptake from rotational grazing management when compared to continuous grazing management in intensively managed temperate pastures. [less ▲]

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See detailQuel fourrage pour quelle autonomie ?
Beckers, Yves ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailRestoring a worn-out pasture : What impact on greenhouse gas exchanges ?
Lognoul, Margaux ULiege; Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Debacq, Alain ULiege et al

Poster (2018, September 12)

The restoration of permanent pastures is often required in order to restore a productive state and the palatability of the grass. The restoration process consists on destroying the former vegetation using ... [more ▼]

The restoration of permanent pastures is often required in order to restore a productive state and the palatability of the grass. The restoration process consists on destroying the former vegetation using herbicides followed by tillage and reseed. The short term and long term impacts of such operations on the carbon cycle and N2O emissions are not well defined for old permanent pastures. Therefore, a paired flux tower measurement campaign was started in March 2018 at the Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory in Southern Belgium, with the aim to study the impact of pasture restoration on CO2 and N2O fluxes exchanged by the ecosystem. The site is a 100-year-old intensively managed grassland which last restoration was performed more than 40 years ago. It is grazed by Belgian blue beef cattle and fertilized with around 120 kgN ha-1 per year on average, reflecting common practices in the area. A former study carried out at the same site, showed that the pasture acted as significant carbon sink before the start of experiment. Two adjacent parcels belonging to the same farm were both equipped with identical instrumentation including eddy covariance measurements of CO2 (LICOR 7000) and N2O/CH4 (Aerodyne Inc. quantum cascade laser) exchanges to allow the comparison between a control and a restored plot subject to identical pedo-climatic conditions. Preliminary results of greenhouse gas fluxes will be presented in relation to climatic conditions and management operations and the evolution of soil ammonium and nitrate. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of chestnut tannins on in vitro crude protein rumen degradability kinetics of red clover silage
Herremans, Sophie ULiege; Decruyenaere, Virginie; Beckers, Yves ULiege et al

Poster (2018, September)

Chestnut tannins in red clover silage reduce rumen dry matter and crude protein degradation. Adding tannins to silage could lead to better nitrogen use efficiency in ruminants.

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See detailBehavior patterns to the intensification vary differently within dairy producers
Dalcq, Anne-Catherine ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege; Wyzen, Benoit et al

Conference (2018, August 27)

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See detailIn vitro and in vivo assessment of the effect of initial moisture content and drying temperature on the feeding value of maize grain
Huart, François ULiege; Malumba Kamba, Paul ULiege; Odjo, Sylvanus et al

in British Poultry Science (2018)

1. This study assessed the impact of drying temperature (54, 90, and 130°C) and maize grain moisture content at harvest (36% and 29%) on in vitro digestibility, the growth performance and ileal ... [more ▼]

1. This study assessed the impact of drying temperature (54, 90, and 130°C) and maize grain moisture content at harvest (36% and 29%) on in vitro digestibility, the growth performance and ileal digestibility of broiler chickens. 2. In contrast to the results from the in vitro digestibility, apparent ileal digestibility of starch and energy decreased when the drying temperature was raised from 54 to 130°C, and this effect was more pronounced in maize grain harvested at high initial moisture content (36%). Ileal protein digestibility of maize grain decreased significantly when dried at the intermediate temperature (90°C) and with a high harvest moisture content (36%). Drying temperature and initial moisture content did not significantly affect AMEn. 3. When maize was dried at 130°C, the particle sizes of flour recovered after standard milling procedures decreased significantly, which would influence animal growth performance and in vivo digestibility through animal feed selection. [less ▲]

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See detailRotational and continuous grazing does not affect the total net ecosystem exchange of a pasture grazed by cattle but modifies CO2 exchange dynamics
Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULiege; Beckers, Yves ULiege; Bodson, Bernard ULiege et al

Conference (2018, April)

Grassland carbon budgets are known to be greatly dependent on management. In particular, grazing is known to directly affect CO2 exchange through consumption by plants, cattle respiration, natural ... [more ▼]

Grassland carbon budgets are known to be greatly dependent on management. In particular, grazing is known to directly affect CO2 exchange through consumption by plants, cattle respiration, natural fertilisation through excreta, and soil compaction. This study investigates the impact of two grazing methods on the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) dynamics and carbon balance, by measuring CO2 fluxes using eddy covariance in two adjacent pastures located in southern Belgium during a complete grazing season. Rotational (RG) grazing consists of an alternation of rest periods and short high stock density grazing periods. Continuous grazing (CG) consists of uninterrupted grazing with variable stocking rates. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the impact of these grazing methods on total net ecosystem exchange and CO2 exchange dynamics using eddy covariance. The results showed that NEE dynamics were greatly impacted by the grazing method. Following grazing events on the RG parcel, net CO2 uptake on the RG parcel was reduced compared to the CG parcel. During the following rest periods, this phenomenon progressively shifted towards a higher assimilation for the RG treatment. This behaviour was attributed to sharp biomass changes in the RG treatment and therefore sharp changes in plant photosynthetic capacity. We found that differences in gross primary productivity at high radiation were strongly correlated to differences in standing biomass. In terms of carbon budgets, no significant difference was observed between the two treatments, neither in cumulative NEE, or in terms of estimated biomass production. The results of our study suggest that we should not expect major benefits in terms of CO2 uptake from rotational grazing management when compared to continuous grazing management in intensively managed temperate pastures. [less ▲]

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See detailL'équilibre des rations des ruminants et autonomie alimentaire
Beckers, Yves ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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See detailDes vaches qui transforment efficacement les fourrages en lait : un pas vers plus d'autonomie
Farinelle, Arnaud; Beckers, Yves ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2018)

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