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See detailComprehensive analysis of the immunomodulatory effects of rapamycin on human T cells in graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis
Ehx, Grégory ULiege; Ritacco, Caroline ULiege; HANNON, Muriel ULiege et al

in American Journal of Transplantation (in press)

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of toxicity after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). While rapamycin (RAPA) is commonly used in GVHD prophylaxis in combination ... [more ▼]

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of toxicity after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). While rapamycin (RAPA) is commonly used in GVHD prophylaxis in combination with a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), the understanding of its mechanism of action on human T cells is still incomplete. Here, we performed an extensive analysis of RAPA effects on human T cells in a humanized mouse model of GVHD, in ex-vivo T-cell cultures and in patients given RAPA plus tacrolimus as GVHD prophylaxis after non-myeloablative allo-HCT. We demonstrate that RAPA mitigates GVHD by decreasing T-cell engraftment and differentiation, inhibiting CD8+ T-cell activation and increasing the long-term IL-2 secretion, thereby supporting regulatory T-cell (Treg) proliferation. In contrast, graft-versus-leukemia effects were not abrogated, as RAPA-treated T cells had increased resistance to apoptosis and retained their effector function and proliferative capacity upon re-stimulation. Importantly, we found that RAPA impact on Treg and CD8+ T cells was closely dependent upon IL-2 signaling and that therapeutic options interfering with IL-2, such as calcineurin inhibitors, antagonize the IL-2-dependent promotion of Treg mediated by RAPA. Our results suggest that RAPA immunological efficacy could be improved in combination with drugs having possible synergistic effects such as the hypomethylating agent 5-azacytidine. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh proportion of terminally-differentiated regulatory T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Ritacco, Caroline ULiege; Ehx, Grégory ULiege; GREGOIRE, Céline ULiege et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (in press)

It is now well-established that regulatory T cells (Treg) represent a heterogeneous group of CD4+ T cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that Treg homeostasis was impacted by allogeneic hematopoietic ... [more ▼]

It is now well-established that regulatory T cells (Treg) represent a heterogeneous group of CD4+ T cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that Treg homeostasis was impacted by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and particularly so in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here, we first assessed the ability of various Treg subsets to phosphorylate STAT5 in response to IL-2 or IL-7 stimulation in vitro. We then compared the frequencies of different Treg subtypes in healthy controls as well as in allo-HCT patients with or without chronic GVHD. The highest phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5) signal in response to IL-2 was observed in the CD45RO+CD26−CD39+HLA-DR+ Treg fraction. In contrast, naive Treg were mostly less susceptible to IL-2 stimulation in vitro. Following IL-7 stimulation, most Treg subpopulations upregulated pSTAT5 expression but to a lesser extent than conventional T cells. Compared to healthy controls, allo-HCT patients had lower frequencies of the naive CD45RAbrightCD26+ Treg subpopulation but higher frequencies of the most differentiated memory CD45RO+CD26−CD39+ Treg subpopulations. Further, unbiased analysis revealed that six Treg clusters characterized by high expression of CD25, HLA-DR, and ICOS were significantly more frequent in patients with no or with limited chronic GVHD than in those with moderate/severe chronic GVHD. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurable residual disease (MRD) testing for acute leukemia in EBMT transplant centers: a survey on behalf of the ALWP of the EBMT
Nagler, A.; Baron, Frédéric ULiege; Labopin, M. et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (2021), 56

Detectable measurable residual disease (MRD) is a key prognostic factor in both acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Thus, we conducted a survey in EBMT transplant ... [more ▼]

Detectable measurable residual disease (MRD) is a key prognostic factor in both acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Thus, we conducted a survey in EBMT transplant centers focusing on pre- and post-allo-HCT MRD. One hundred and six centers from 29 countries responded. One hundred had a formal strategy for routine MRD assessment, 91 for both ALL and AML. For ALL (n = 95), assessing MRD has been routine practice starting from 2010 (range, 1990–2019). Techniques used for MRD assessment consisted of PCR techniques alone (n = 27), multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC, n = 16), both techniques (n = 43), next-generation sequencing (NGS) + PCR (n = 2), or PCR + MFC + NGS (n = 7). The majority of centers assessed MRD every 2–3 months for 2 (range, 1-until relapse) years. For AML, assessing MRD was routine in 92 centers starting in 2010 (range 1990–2019). Assessment of MRD was by PCR (n = 23), MFC (n = 13), both PCR and MFC (n = 39), both PCR and NGS (n = 3), and by all three techniques (n = 14). The majority assesses MRD for AML every 2–3 months for 2 (range, 1-until relapse) years. This survey is the first step in the aim to include MRD status as a routine registry capture parameter in acute leukemia. © 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to Make an Immune System and a Foreign Host Quickly Cohabit in Peace? The Challenge of Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease Prevention After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
Vandenhove, Benoît ULiege; Canti, Lorenzo ULiege; Schoemans, Hélène et al

in Frontiers in immunology (2020), 11

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) has been used as cellular immunotherapy against hematological cancers for more than six decades. Its therapeutic efficacy relies on the ... [more ▼]

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) has been used as cellular immunotherapy against hematological cancers for more than six decades. Its therapeutic efficacy relies on the cytoreductive effects of the conditioning regimen but also on potent graft-versus-tumor (GVT) reactions mediated by donor-derived immune cells. However, beneficial GVT effects may be counterbalanced by acute GVHD (aGVHD), a systemic syndrome in which donor immune cells attack healthy tissues of the recipient, resulting in severe inflammatory lesions mainly of the skin, gut, and liver. Despite standard prophylaxis regimens, aGVHD still occurs in approximately 20-50% of alloHCT recipients and remains a leading cause of transplant-related mortality. Over the past two decades, advances in the understanding its pathophysiology have helped to redefine aGVHD reactions and clinical presentations as well as developing novel strategies to optimize its prevention. In this review, we provide a brief overview of current knowledge on aGVHD immunopathology and discuss current approaches and novel strategies being developed and evaluated in clinical trials for aGVHD prevention. Optimal prophylaxis of aGVHD would prevent the development of clinically significant aGVHD, while preserving sufficient immune responsiveness to maintain beneficial GVT effects and immune defenses against pathogens. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of detectable measurable residual disease on umbilical cord blood transplantation
Baron, Frédéric ULiege; Labopin, M.; Ruggeri, A. et al

in American Journal of Hematology (2020), 95(9), 1057-1065

The impact of measurable residual disease (MRD) on cord blood transplantation (CBT) outcomes has remained debated. To address this issue, we assessed the impact of measurable MRD at CBT on outcomes in ... [more ▼]

The impact of measurable residual disease (MRD) on cord blood transplantation (CBT) outcomes has remained debated. To address this issue, we assessed the impact of measurable MRD at CBT on outcomes in large cohort of patients with acute leukemia. Inclusion criteria included adult patients with acute myeloid (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), CBT as first allo-HCT in first or second complete remission (CR) at transplantation, and known MRD status at the time of CBT. Data from 506 patients were included in the analysis. Among them, 317 patients had AML and 189 had ALL. Positive MRD was reported in 169 (33%) patients while the remaining 337 patients were MRD negative at CBT. At 2 years, relapse incidence was 18% in patients with MRD negativity vs 33% in those with MRD positivity at transplantation (P <.001). Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) were 57% and 60%, respectively, in MRD negative patients, vs 38% (P <.001) and 48% (P =.004), respectively, in those with MRD positivity. There was no interaction between the impact of MRD on OS and LFS and diagnosis (ie, ALL vs AML), single or double CBT, and reduced-intensity or myeloablative conditioning. On multivariate analysis, MRD positivity was associated with a higher risk of relapse (HR = 1.8, P =.003), comparable non-relapse mortality (P =.44), worse LFS (HR = 1.4, P =.008) and a trend towards worse OS (HR = 1.3, P =.065). In conclusion, these data suggest that novel strategies that are aiming to achieve MRD negativity at CBT are needed for leukemic patients with positive MRD pre-CBT. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC. [less ▲]

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See detailBusulfan or melphalan: is there a better conditioning regimen for allogeneneic transplantation?
Hsu, J.; Van Besien, K.; Baron, Frédéric ULiege

in Leukemia and Lymphoma (2020), 61(7), 1529-1534

[No abstract available]

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See detailTreatment of a patient with severe cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after haploidentical stem cell transplantation with donor-derived CMV-specific T cells
Ingels, J.; De Smet, S.; Heyns, K. et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica: International Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine (2020)

Objectives: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients. The classic antiviral treatments have shown ... [more ▼]

Objectives: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients. The classic antiviral treatments have shown clinical efficacy but are often associated with drug resistance. Reconstitution of CMV-specific cellular immunity is essential in controlling CMV infection; therefore, adoptive transfer of CMV-specific T cells is a promising treatment option. We treated a patient with a multidrug resistant CMV infection after haploidentical HSCT with CMV-specific T cells. Methods: The T cells were derived from the HSCT donor who was CMV seropositive. We generated the T cells by a short-term Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) grade protocol in which a leukapheresis product of the HSCT donor was stimulated with the immunodominant antigen pp65 and interferon-γ secreting cells were isolated. A total of 5 × 105 T cells were administered to the patient within 30 hours after leukapheresis. Results: The patient was closely monitored for reconstitution of antiviral T cell immunity and viral replication after adoptive T cell transfer. We observed an in vivo expansion of both CD4+ and CD8+ CMV-specific T cells associated with a significant decrease in viral burden and clinical improvement. Conclusion: This case report further supports the feasibility and effectiveness of adoptive donor T cell transfer for the treatment of drug resistant CMV infections after allo-HSCT. © 2020, © Acta Clinica Belgica 2020. [less ▲]

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See detailAllogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with anti-thymocyte globulin versus allogeneic bone marrow transplantation without anti-thymocyte globulin.
Baron, Frédéric ULiege; Galimard, Jacques-Emmanuel; Labopin, Myriam et al

in Haematologica (2020), 105

We compared severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free survival and other transplantation outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia patients given bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin, versus ... [more ▼]

We compared severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free survival and other transplantation outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia patients given bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin, versus peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin after myeloablative conditioning. In the cohort of patients receiving grafts from a human-leukocyte-antigen matched sibling donor, patients given peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin (n=1,021) and those given bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin (n=1,633) presented comparable severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free (HR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-1.1, P=0.5) and overall (HR=1.0, 95% CI: 0.8-1.2, P=0.8) survival. They had however, a lower incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9; P=0.01). In the cohort of patients receiving grafts from human-leukocyte-antigen matched unrelated donor, patients given peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin (n=2,318) had better severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free survival than those given bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin (n=303) (HR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, P=0.001). They also had a lower incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR=0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.8, P=0.0006) and better overall survival (HR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.6-1.0, P=0.04). In summary, these data suggest that peripheral blood stem cells with anti-thymocyte globulin results in comparable (in the case of sibling donor) or significantly better (in the case of unrelated donor) severe graft-versus-host-disease free and relapse-free survival than bone marrow without anti-thymocyte globulin in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission receiving grafts after myeloablative conditioning. [less ▲]

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See detailRedefining and measuring transplant conditioning intensity in current era: a study in acute myeloid leukemia patients
Spyridonidis, A.; Labopin, M.; Savani, B. N. et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (2020), 55

To address limitations of the currently used reduced-intensity/myeloablative conditioning (RIC/MAC) classification scheme we aimed to develop a tool that can capture more standardized the conditioning ... [more ▼]

To address limitations of the currently used reduced-intensity/myeloablative conditioning (RIC/MAC) classification scheme we aimed to develop a tool that can capture more standardized the conditioning intensity of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We assigned intensity weight scores for frequently used conditioning regimen components and used their sum to generate the transplant conditioning intensity (TCI) score. We retrospectively tested the impact of TCI on 8255 adult (45–65 years) acute myeloid leukemia patients who underwent HCT in first complete remission. A Cox model for early nonrelapse mortality (NRM) yielded a 3-group TCI risk scheme (low, intermediate, high) with respective TCI scores of [1–2], [2.5–3.5] and [4–6]. On multivariate modeling, TCI grouping was highly and better predictive for early (day 100 and 180) NRM, 2-year NRM and relapse (REL) as compared with the RIC/MAC classification. Validation was done on 200 bootstrap samples. Moreover, TCI scoring enabled the identification of a distinct subgroup of RIC and MAC conditioning regimens with an intermediate TCI [2.5–3.5] score that had identical outcomes and which are frequently referred as “reduced toxicity conditioning”. TCI scheme provides an improvement of the RIC/MAC classification. We propose TCI as a new tool to define and measure the conditioning regimen intensity. © 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of chimerism analysis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: Belgian guidelines and review of the current literature
Delie, A.; Verlinden, A.; Beel, K. et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica: International Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine (2020)

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment option in both adult and pediatric patients with malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases.  ... [more ▼]

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment option in both adult and pediatric patients with malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases.  Chimerism analysis, which determines the donor or recipient origin of hematopoietic cells in HSCT recipients, is an essential aspect of post-HSCT follow-up.Objectives: To review the current literature and develop Belgian consensus guidelines for the use of chimerism analysis in the standard of care after allogeneic HSCT.Methods: Non-systematic review of the literature in consultancy with the members of the BHS transplantation committee.Results: Clinical application with regards to prediction of graft failure or relapse as well as cell source are reviewed. A consensus guideline on the use of chimerism analysis after HSCT is presented.Conclusion: Monitoring of the dynamics or kinetics of a patient’s chimerism status by serial analysis at fixed time points, as well as on suspicion of relapse or graft failure, is needed to monitor engraftment levels, as well as disease control and possible relapse. © 2020, © 2020 Journal of Belgian Society of Internal Medicine and Royal Belgian Society of Laboratory Medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailGraft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-leukaemia effects in secondary acute myeloid leukaemia: a retrospective, multicentre registry analysis from the Acute Leukaemia Working Party of the EBMT
Baron, Frédéric ULiege; Labopin, M.; Savani, B. N. et al

in British Journal of Haematology (2020), 188

We assessed the susceptibility of secondary acute myeloid leukaemia (sAML) to graft-versus-leukaemia effects. Data from 2414 sAML patients in first (n = 2194) or second (n = 220) complete remission were ... [more ▼]

We assessed the susceptibility of secondary acute myeloid leukaemia (sAML) to graft-versus-leukaemia effects. Data from 2414 sAML patients in first (n = 2194) or second (n = 220) complete remission were included. They were given grafts from human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling (MSD, n = 1085), 10/10 unrelated donor (MUD, n = 1066) or 9/10 mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD, n = 263). The 100-day incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 25% while 2-year incidence of chronic GVHD was 38%. Relapse rates declined steadily by duration of follow-up and were significantly lower in patients with chronic GVHD (P < 0·001). Limited (hazard ratio [HR] = 0·66, P < 0·001) and extensive (HR = 0·52, P < 0·001) chronic GVHD were associated with a lower incidence of relapse. Each grade III-IV acute (HR = 7·04, P < 0·001) as well as limited (HR = 1·42, P = 0·03) and extensive (HR = 3·97, P < 0·001) chronic GVHD were associated with higher non-relapse mortality (NRM). This translated to better overall survival (OS; HR = 0·61, P < 0·001) in patients with limited chronic GVHD. In contrast, grade III-IV acute and extensive chronic GVHD were associated with worse OS (HR = 3·16, P < 0·001 and HR = 1·21, P = 0·03, respectively). Further, in comparison to HLA-identical sibling recipients, MUD recipients had a lower risk of relapse (HR = 0·82, P = 0·03) but higher NRM (HR = 1·38, P = 0·004). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that sAML is susceptible to graft-versus-leukaemia effects. © 2019 British Society for Haematology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailProphylactic, preemptive, and curative treatment for sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease in adult patients: a position statement from an international expert group
Mohty, M.; Malard, F.; Abecasis, M. et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (2020), 55

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See detailAcute graft-versus-host disease: diagnosis, pathophysiology and prevention
Vandenhove, Benoît ULiege; Canti, Lorenzo ULiege; Schoemans, Hélène et al

in Belgian Journal of Hematology (2020), 11(4), 159-173

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See detailUnderdiagnosed veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) as a major cause of multi-organ failure in acute leukemia transplant patients: an analysis from the EBMT Acute Leukemia Working Party.
Bazarbachi, Abdul Hamid; Al Hamed, Rama; Labopin, Myriam et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (2020)

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is a complex, potentially fatal therapy featuring a myriad of complications. Triggering event(s) of such complications vary significantly, but often ... [more ▼]

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is a complex, potentially fatal therapy featuring a myriad of complications. Triggering event(s) of such complications vary significantly, but often a so-called "multi-organ failure" (MOF) is reported as the leading cause of death. The identification of the exact trigger of MOF is critical towards early and disease-specific intervention to improve outcome. We examined data from 202 alloHCT patients reported to have died of MOF from the EBMT registry aiming to determine their exact cause of death focusing on veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) due to its life-threatening, often difficult to capture yet preventable nature. We identified a total of 70 patients (35%) for whom VOD/SOS could be considered as trigger for MOF and leading cause of death, among which 48 (69%) were previously undiagnosed. Multivariate analysis highlighted history of hepatic comorbidity or gentuzumab use and disease status beyond CR1 as the only significant factors predictive of VOD/SOS incidence (OR = 6.6; p = 0.001 and OR = 3.3; p = 0.004 respectively). VOD/SOS-related MOF was widely under-reported, accounting for 27% of deaths attributed to MOF of unknown origin without a previous VOD/SOS diagnosis. Our results suggest most missed cases developed late VOD/SOS beyond 21 days post-alloHCT, highlighting the importance of the newly revised EBMT criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailSurvival Improvement over Time of 960 s-AML Patients Included in 13 EORTC-GIMEMA-HOVON Trials.
Ramadan, Safaa M.; Suciu, Stefan; Stevens-Kroef, Marian J. P. L. et al

in Cancers (2020), 12(11), 3334

We report the outcomes of secondary acute myeloid leukemia (s-AML) patients included in one of 13 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) collaborative AML trials using ... [more ▼]

We report the outcomes of secondary acute myeloid leukemia (s-AML) patients included in one of 13 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) collaborative AML trials using intensive remission-induction chemotherapy. Among 8858 patients treated between May 1986 and January 2008, 960 were identified as having s-AML, either after MDS (cohort A; n = 508), occurring after primary solid tumors or hematologic malignancies other than MDS (cohort B; n = 361), or after non-malignant conditions or with a history of toxic exposure (cohort C; n = 91). Median age was 64 years, 60 years and 61 years in cohort A, B and C, respectively. Among patients ≤60 years and classified in the cohorts A or B (n = 367), the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 28%. There was a systematic improvement in the 5-year OS rate over three time periods (p < 0.001): 7.7% (95% CI: 1.3-21.7%) for patients treated before 1990 (period 1: n = 26), 23.3% (95% CI: 17.1-30.0%) for those treated between 1990 and 2000 (period 2: n = 188) and 36.5% (95% CI: 28.7-44.3%) for those treated in 2000 or later (period 3: n = 153). In multivariate analysis, male gender (HR = 1.39; p = 0.01), WBC ≥ 25 × 10(9)/L (HR = 2.00; p < 0.0001), age 46-60 years (HR = 1.65; p < 0.001) and poor-risk cytogenetics (HR = 2.17; p < 0.0001) were independently associated with shorter OS, while being treated during period 2 (HR = 0.50, p = 0.003) or period 3 (HR = 0.43; p = 0.0008). Having received high-dose cytarabine (HD-AraC) (n = 48) in the induction chemotherapy (HR = 0.54, p = 0.012) was associated with a longer OS. In contrast, among patients >60 years of age (n = 502), the OS was dismal, and there was no improvement over time. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical practice recommendation on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia patients with FLT3internal tandem duplication: A position statement from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Bazarbachi, A.; Bug, G.; Baron, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Haematologica (2020), 105(6), 1507-1516

The FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene is mutated in 25-30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Because of the poor prognosis associated with FLT3-internal tandem duplication mutated AML ... [more ▼]

The FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene is mutated in 25-30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Because of the poor prognosis associated with FLT3-internal tandem duplication mutated AML, allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) was commonly performed in first complete remission. Remarkable progress has been made in frontline treatments with the incorporation of FLT3 inhibitors and the development of highly sensitive minimal/measurable residual disease assays. Similarly, recent progress in allogeneic hematopoietic SCT includes improvement of transplant techniques, the use of haplo-identical donors in patients lacking an HLA matched donor, and the introduction of FLT3 inhibitors as post-transplant maintenance therapy. Nevertheless, current transplant strategies vary between centers and differ in terms of transplant indications based on the internal tandem duplication allelic ratio and concomitant nucleophosmin-1 mutation, as well as in terms of post-transplant maintenance/consolidation. This review generated by international leukemia or transplant experts, mostly from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, attempts to develop a position statement on best approaches for allogeneic hematopoietic SCT for AML with FLT3-internal tandem duplication including indications for and modalities of such transplants and on the potential optimization of post-transplant maintenance with FLT inhibitors. © 2020 Ferrata Storti Foundation [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of the type of anthracycline and of stem cell transplantation in younger patients with acute myeloid leukaemia: Long-term follow up of a phase III study
Baron, Frédéric ULiege; Efficace, F.; Cannella, L. et al

in American Journal of Hematology (2020), 95(7), 749-758

We provide a long-term evaluation of patients enrolled in the EORTC/GIMEMA AML-10 trial which included a total of 2157 patients, 15-60 years old, randomized to receive either daunorubicin (DNR, 50 mg/m2 ... [more ▼]

We provide a long-term evaluation of patients enrolled in the EORTC/GIMEMA AML-10 trial which included a total of 2157 patients, 15-60 years old, randomized to receive either daunorubicin (DNR, 50 mg/m2), mitoxantrone (MXR, 12 mg/m2), or idarubicin (IDA, 10 mg/m2) in addition to standard-dose cytarabine and etoposide for induction chemotherapy and intermediate dose cytarabine for consolidation. Younger patients who reached complete remission with complete (CR) or incomplete (CRi) recovery were then scheduled to receive an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). That was if they had a HLA-identical sibling donor; in all other cases, an autologous HSCT had to be administered. At an 11-year median follow-up, the 5-year, 10-year and 15-year overall survival (OS) rates were 33.2%, 30.1% and 28.0%, respectively. No significant difference between the three randomized groups regarding OS was observed (P =.38). In young patients, 15-45 years old, no treatment difference (P =.89) regarding OS was observed, while in patients 46-60 years old, MXR and IDA groups had a trend for a longer OS as compared to the DNR group (P =.029). Among younger patients without a favorable MRC cytogenetic risk subgroup who achieved a CR/CRi after induction chemotherapy, those with a HLA-identical sibling donor had higher 10-year and 15-year OS rates than those without. In older patients who reached CR/CRi, the long-term outcomes of those with or without a donor was similar. In conclusion, long-term outcomes of the study confirmed similar OS in the three randomized groups in the whole cohort of patients. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailBetter leukemia-free survival with allogeneic than with autologous HCT in AML patients with isolated trisomy 8: a study from the ALWP of the EBMT.
Baron, Frédéric ULiege; Labopin, Myriam; Blaise, Didier et al

in Bone Marrow Transplantation (2020)

The indication for performing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in patients with isolated trisomy 8 AML in first complete remission (CR) is still debated. Here, we compared ... [more ▼]

The indication for performing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in patients with isolated trisomy 8 AML in first complete remission (CR) is still debated. Here, we compared outcomes of such patients given either allo-HCT or autologous (auto)-HCT. Inclusion criteria consisted of adult patients with de novo AML, isolated trisomy 8, first HCT between 2000 and 2018, CR1 at transplantation, and either auto-HCT or allo-HCT with a HLA-identical sibling donor (MSD) or a 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donor (UD 10/10). A total of 401 patients met the inclusion criteria. They underwent an auto-HCT (n = 81), allo-HCT with a MSD (n = 186) or allo-HCT with a 10/10 UD (n = 134). At 3 years, relapse incidence, nonrelapse mortality and leukemia-free survival (LFS) were 59%, 5%, and 37%, respectively, in auto-HCT recipients; 31% (P < 0.001), 14% (P = 0.04), and 55% (P = 0.033), respectively, in MSD recipients and 29% (P < 0.001), 13% (P = 0.15), and 59% (P = 0.03), respectively, in UD 10/10 recipients. In multivariate analysis, in comparison to auto-HCT, MSD and UD 10/10 were associated with a lower risk of relapse (HR = 0.47, P < 0.001 and HR = 0.40, P < 0.001, respectively) translating to better LFS (HR = 0.69, P = 0.04 and HR = 0.60, P = 0.03, respectively). There was also a similar trend for overall survival (HR = 0.73, P = 0.12 and HR = 0.65, P = 0.08). [less ▲]

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