References of "Balaghi, Riad"
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See detailPhytomass estimation using eMODIS NDVI and ground data in arid rangelands of Morocco
Mahyou, Hamid ULiege; Tychon, Bernard ULiege; Lang, Marie ULiege et al

in African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2018)

The assessment of rangeland productivity in semi-extensively grazed arid rangelands is a prerequisite for livestock management in relation to sustainable use of pastoral resources. The objective of this ... [more ▼]

The assessment of rangeland productivity in semi-extensively grazed arid rangelands is a prerequisite for livestock management in relation to sustainable use of pastoral resources. The objective of this study was to assess rangeland productivity based on normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) images. Data on phytomass were measured on 61 field samples in arid rangelands of Morocco, covering various rangeland categories during autumn (November) and spring (April), i.e. when phytomass is at low and high levels, respectively, for two consecutive years (2008 and 2009). Dekadal EROS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) NDVI data were linearly regressed to field measurements for these four periods. Results show that phytomass values were correlated with NDVI during spring, with R 2 and RMSE values of 0.82 and 0.3 t ha−1, respectively. This study indicates there is a high potential for operational use of remotely sensed data to estimate rangeland phytomass of semi-extensively grazed rangelands. [less ▲]

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See detailA KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACH FOR MAPPING LAND DEGRADATION IN THE ARID RANGELANDS OF NORTH AFRICA
Mahyou, Hamid ULiege; Tychon, Bernard ULiege; Balaghi, Riad ULiege et al

in Land Degradation and Development (2016)

Rangelands cover about 82% of the arid area of Morocco. It is generally acknowledged that these areas are threatened by desertification. Monitoring desertification requires accurate knowledge about the ... [more ▼]

Rangelands cover about 82% of the arid area of Morocco. It is generally acknowledged that these areas are threatened by desertification. Monitoring desertification requires accurate knowledge about the current status of rangeland degradation. Remote sensing is widely used to assess changes in land cover, but its use in arid rangelands has limitations because of spectral confusion among various types of land cover. The objective of this study was to assess the severity and spatial extent of rangeland degradation in the high plateaus of eastern Morocco, using a knowledge-based approach combining remote sensing and ancillary data. This approach relies on analyzing datasets derived from Landsat TM satellite imagery, lithology, bioclimatic data and field measurements. The level of rangeland degradation was assessed using indicators such as vegetation parameters, grazing levels and cultivation intensity, which provided a high level of accuracy for mapping and monitoring the degradation of the arid rangelands. The results showed that the total area of degraded rangeland in the high plateaus of eastern Morocco is about 17,417 km², accounting for 48% in the studied area. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring surface water content using visible and short-wave infrared SPOT-5 data of wheat plots in irrigated semi-arid regions
Benabdelouahab, Tarik ULiege; Balaghi, Riad ULiege; Hadria, Rachid et al

in International Journal of Remote Sensing (2015), 36(15), 4018-4036

Irrigated agriculture is an important strategic sector in arid and semi-arid regions. Given the large spatial coverage of irrigated areas, operational tools based on satellite remote sensing can ... [more ▼]

Irrigated agriculture is an important strategic sector in arid and semi-arid regions. Given the large spatial coverage of irrigated areas, operational tools based on satellite remote sensing can contribute to their optimal management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of two spectral indices, calculated from SPOT-5 high-resolution visible (HRV) data, to retrieve the surface water content values (from bare soil to completely covered soil) over wheat fields and detect irrigation supplies in an irrigated area. These indices are the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the moisture stress index (MSI), covering the main growth stages of wheat. These indices were compared to corresponding in situ measurements of soil moisture and vegetation water content in 30 wheat fields in an irrigated area of Morocco, during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 cropping seasons. NDWI and MSI were highly correlated with in situ measurements at both the beginning of the growing season (sowing) and at full vegetation cover (grain filling). From sowing to grain filling, the best correlation (R2 = 0.86; p < 0.01) was found for the relationship between NDWI values and observed soil moisture values. These results were validated using a k-fold cross-validation methodology; they indicated that NDWI can be used to estimate and map surface water content changes at the main crop growth stages (from sowing to grain filling). NDWI is an operative index for monitoring irrigation, such as detecting irrigation supplies and mitigating wheat water stress at field and regional levels in semi-arid areas. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping of vegetation water content using Shortwave Infrared SPOT5 data to monitor irrigation in semi-arid regions.
Benabdelouahab, Tarik ULiege; Balaghi, Riad ULiege; Lionboui, Hayat et al

Conference (2014, May 28)

Half of world’s food comes from irrigated area that uses about 72% of available water resources. In Morocco, water availability is the main limiting factor for crop growth and final yield and it is ... [more ▼]

Half of world’s food comes from irrigated area that uses about 72% of available water resources. In Morocco, water availability is the main limiting factor for crop growth and final yield and it is becoming a national priority for the agricultural sector. This situation leads the stakeholders to define most favorable strategies in planning and management of available water resources, on one hand, and to assess accurately vegetation water content status, on the other hand, in order to improve irrigation scheduling and prevent water stress adversely affecting yield. Remotely sensed reflectance has been used to estimate vegetation water content for different crops and to monitor water irrigation per surface unit, considering its high temporal and spatial resolution. In this study, we used two spectral indices of vegetation water content indicator (the Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) and the Moisture Stress Index (MSI)) developed using Near Infrared (NIR) and Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR) bands. The study area is the irrigated perimeter of Tadla in Morocco (35% dominated by irrigated wheat crop). In a first step, we compared observed vegetation water content of 16 studied plots of wheat and derived spectral indices NDII and MSI at the end of cropping season. The two images used at this step were acquired on March 26, 2013 and on April 11, 2013 when soil was fully covered by vegetation. Statistical analyses showed that the two spectral indices, NDII and MSI, simulated accurately vegetation water content. The statistical indicators, r, R², RMSE, nRMSE and MAE were -0.81, 0.65, 3.26% of water content (≈0.13 kg/m²), 4.26% and 2.69% for the NDII and 0.81, 0.65, 3.27% of water content (≈0.14 kg/m²), 4.27% and 2.72% for the MSI, respectively. To validate these results, we compared observed vegetation water content values and those predicted using the k-fold CV method. The errors were minimal for NDII and MSI, and the indicators of model evaluation obtained for predicted vegetation water content from NDII were: RMSE = 3.17%, nRMSE = 4.13%, MAE = 2.52% and R²=0.64. For MSI, these indicator were RMSE = 3.28%, nRMSE = 4.29%, MAE = 2.68% and R²=0.61. In a second step, we delimited the cereal area in the studied perimeter using a supervised classification method. The classification has been validated and the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were estimated respectively at 96.7% and 0.9545. Based on the regression model resulting from the comparison between NDII and measured vegetation water content, we produced maps of vegetation water content of wheat over the whole Beni-Moussa East irrigated area (41,000 hectares). The results of this work demonstrated the potential of spectral indices (NDII and MSI) derived from SPOT5 satellite images data to quantify and map vegetation water content of wheat. It showed also the potential of the SWIR band to improve the monitoring of irrigation by mapping water stress of wheat at field and regional level. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication de la télédétection optique et RADAR pour contribuer à une gestion hydrique efficiente de la céréaliculture des périmètres irrigués au Maroc : Cas du périmètre irrigué du Tadla.
Benabdelouahab, Tarik ULiege; Balaghi, Riad ULiege; Barbier, Christian ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2013, February 06)

« l’Application de la télédétection optique et radar pour contribuer à la gestion de la céréaliculture dans les périmètres irrigués : cas du périmètre irrigué de Tadla ». Cette présentation est un résumé ... [more ▼]

« l’Application de la télédétection optique et radar pour contribuer à la gestion de la céréaliculture dans les périmètres irrigués : cas du périmètre irrigué de Tadla ». Cette présentation est un résumé de projet de thèse doctorale qui vise à contribuer à une gestion synoptique du périmètre irrigué grâce aux outils de la télédétection spatiale optique et radar combinés à la modélisation agrométéorologique. [less ▲]

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See detailDesertification of arid Rangelands in Morocco
Mahyou, Hamid ULiege; Tychon, Bernard ULiege; Paul, Roger ULiege et al

Conference (2011, February 24)

Rangeland or natural arid pastures of Morocco are ecosystems where there is a natural or seminatural vegetation composed of steppes, shrubs and grassland. They cover about 82% of the Moroccan arid lands ... [more ▼]

Rangeland or natural arid pastures of Morocco are ecosystems where there is a natural or seminatural vegetation composed of steppes, shrubs and grassland. They cover about 82% of the Moroccan arid lands. These areas represent livelihoods for thousands of people and protect the country from desertification. Despite the importance of the rangelands and the threat of desertification, it is surprising that up to date there is no comprehensive assessment of their condition and their evolution, hindering any plan for desertification alleviation. However, the available information on selected pilot areas shows that these rangelands are threatened by desertification. It’s associated with biodiversity loss and contributes to climate change. The leading causes of land degradation are the human actions combined with climate. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system based on remote sensing, biophysics and socio-economic data must be envisaged to provide policymakers with an operational tool adapted to the spatio-temporal monitoring of desertification. [less ▲]

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See detailKnowledge-based approaches for degradation mapping in arid rangeland
Mahyou, Hamid ULiege; Tychon, Bernard ULiege; Balaghi, Riad ULiege

Poster (2010, September 28)

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See detailDésertification des parcours arides au Maroc
Mahyou, Hamid ULiege; Tychon, Bernard ULiege; Balaghi, Riad ULiege et al

in Tropicultura (2010), 28(2), 107-114

Rangeland or natural arid pastures of Morocco are ecosystems where there is a natural or seminatural vegetation composed of steppes, shrubs and grassland. They cover about 82% of the Moroccan arid lands ... [more ▼]

Rangeland or natural arid pastures of Morocco are ecosystems where there is a natural or seminatural vegetation composed of steppes, shrubs and grassland. They cover about 82% of the Moroccan arid lands. These areas represent livelihoods for thousands of people and protect the country from desertification. Despite the importance of the rangelands and the threat of desertification, it is surprising that up to date there is no comprehensive assessment of their condition and their evolution, hindering any plan for desertification alleviation. However, the available information on selected pilot areas shows that these rangelands are threatened by desertification. It’s associated with biodiversity loss and contributes to climate change. The leading causes of land degradation are the human actions combined with climate. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system based on remote sensing, biophysics and socio-economic data must be envisaged to provide policymakers with an operational tool adapted to the spatio-temporal monitoring of desertification. [less ▲]

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See detailChapter 6 : Agrometeorological forecasting
Gommes, René; Das, Haripada; Mariani, Luigi et al

in WMO/CAgM Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices (GAMP) WMO n° 134 (2010)

This chapter presents a set of tools and techniques for crop yield forecasting.

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See detailManaging climatic risks for enhanced food security : key information capabilities
Balaghi, Riad ULiege; Badjeck, M.-C.; Djaby, Bakary ULiege et al

in Procedia Environmental Sciences (2010), 1

Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main ... [more ▼]

Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main capabilities that have been recently developed, especially in the area of operational agroclimatology, for an efficient use of natural resources and a better management of climatic risks. Many countries, including the developing world, now benefit from well-trained staff in the use of climate data, physical and biological information and knowledge to reduce negative climate impacts. A significant volume of data and knowledge about climate–agriculture relationships is now available and used by students, scientists, technicians, agronomists, decision-makers and farmers alike, particularly in the areas of climate characterization, land suitability and agroecological zoning, seasonal climate forecasts, drought early warning systems and operational crop forecasting systems. Climate variability has been extensively modelled, capturing important features of the climate through applied statistical procedures, agroclimatic indices derived from raw climatic data and from remote sensing. Predictions of climate at seasonal to interannual timescales are helping decision-makers in the agricultural sector to deal more effectively with the effects of climate variability. Land suitability and agroclimatic zoning have been used in many countries for agricultural planning, thanks to the availability of new and comprehensive methodologies; developments in climate, soil and remote sensing data collection and analysis; and improved applications in geographic information systems (GIS). Drought early warning systems are available worldwide at both national and international levels. These systems are helping decisionmakers and farmers to take appropriate decisions to adapt to short-term climatic risks. Also, operational crop forecasting systems are now becoming available at the regional and national levels. In some developed countries, several efficient and well tested tools are now available for optimizing on-farm decisions based on the combination of crop simulation models and seasonal forecasts. However, in developing countries few tools have been developed to efficiently manage crops at the farm level to cope with climate variability and climate risks. Climate change impacts on agriculture and food security have been assessed in international studies using specific and efficient methodologies and tools. Adaptation to climate change and variability can also be facilitated through effective planning and implementation of strategies at the political level. The role of technological progress, risk transfer mechanisms and financial instruments and their easy accessibility to rural people are critical elements of climate risk management. [less ▲]

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See detailEmpirical regression models using NDVI, rainfall and temperature data for the early prediction of wheat grain yields in Morocco
Balaghi, Riad ULiege; Tychon, Bernard ULiege; EERENS, Herman et al

in International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (2008), 10

In Morocco, no operational system actually exists for the early prediction of the grain yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This study proposes empirical ordinary least squares regression models to ... [more ▼]

In Morocco, no operational system actually exists for the early prediction of the grain yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This study proposes empirical ordinary least squares regression models to forecast the yields at provincial and national levels. The predictions were based on dekadal (10-daily) NDVI/AVHRR, dekadal rainfall sums and average monthly air temperatures. The Global Land Cover raster map (GLC2000) was used to select only the NDVI pixels that are related to agricultural land. Provincial wheat yields were assessed with errors varying from 80 to 762 kg ha 1, depending on the province. At national level, wheat yield was predicted at the third dekad of April with 73 kg ha 1 error, using NDVI and rainfall. However, earlier forecasts are possible, starting from the second dekad of March with 84 kg ha 1 error, at least 1 month before harvest. At the provincial and national levels, most of the yield variation was accounted for by NDVI. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to early forecast wheat yields in Morocco. [less ▲]

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See detailGestion du risque de sécheresse agricole au Maroc
Balaghi, Riad ULiege; Jlibene, Mohammed; Tychon, Bernard ULiege et al

in Sécheresse (2007), 18(3), 169-176

Le risque de pénurie en eau au Maroc s’accroît sous la pression conjuguée de la sécheresse et de la demande domestique et industrielle. Il doit être pris en compte dans toute gestion de l’eau aussi bien ... [more ▼]

Le risque de pénurie en eau au Maroc s’accroît sous la pression conjuguée de la sécheresse et de la demande domestique et industrielle. Il doit être pris en compte dans toute gestion de l’eau aussi bien au niveau de l’agriculture pluviale qu’irriguée. Les stratégies pour réduire le risque de sécheresse agricole, peuvent être classées en trois catégories : i) en agriculture irriguée, économiser l’eau en réduisant les pertes et en améliorant l’efficience d’utilisation de l’eau \; ii) en zones forestières et pastorales, bénéficier de l’eau perdue actuellement par le processus d’évaporation en développant les écosystèmes pastoraux et fruitiers \; iii) en agriculture pluviale, augmenter la productivité par les techniques de conservation de l’eau qui consistent à améliorer la collecte, le stockage et l’utilisation de l’eau au niveau de l’exploitation. Des mesures publiques additionnelles sont nécessaires, principalement les systèmes d’alerte précoce incluant la prévision saisonnière du climat et la prévision agro-météorologique, pour promouvoir l’investissement dans les environnements secs et mettre à la disposition des agriculteurs et des pouvoirs publics des outils d’aide à la décision. L’adoption d’une gestion efficiente de l’eau de pluie et d’irrigation permettra d’assurer la sécurité alimentaire et de libérer l’eau pour les besoins non agricoles. [less ▲]

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See detailEmpirical regression models using NDVI, rainfall and temperature data for the early prediction of wheat grain yields in Morocco
Balaghi, Riad ULiege; Tychon, Bernard ULiege; Eerens, H. et al

Conference (2006, October)

In Morocco, no operational system actually exists for the early prediction of the grain yields of bread wheat. This study proposes empirical Ordinary Least Squares regression models to forecast the yields ... [more ▼]

In Morocco, no operational system actually exists for the early prediction of the grain yields of bread wheat. This study proposes empirical Ordinary Least Squares regression models to forecast the yields at provincial and national levels. The predictions were based on dekadal (10-daily) NDVI/AVHRR, dekadal rainfall sums and average monthly air temperatures. The global land cover map GLC2000 was used to select only the NDVI pixels that are related to agricultural lands. Provincial yields were assessed with errors varying from 80 to 762 kg.ha-1, depending on the province. At national level, yield was predicted at the third dekad of April with 73 kg.ha-1 error, using NDVI and rainfall. However, earlier forecasts are possible, starting from the second dekad of March with 84 kg.ha-1 error. At the province and country levels most of the yield variation was accounted for by NDVI. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to forecast bread wheat yields in Morocco. [less ▲]

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See detailCrop yield forecast with NOAA and spot-vegetation data in Morocco.
Balaghi, Riad ULiege; Tychon, Bernard ULiege; Eerens, H. et al

Conference (2006)

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See detailRisk management in agricultural water use
Tychon, Bernard ULiege; Balaghi, Riad ULiege; Jlibene, Mohammed

E-print/Working paper (2002)

Water availability for agricultural activities will decrease in the twenty-first century. As a consequence, agricultural water management will have to improve in order to meet two challenges: satisfy the ... [more ▼]

Water availability for agricultural activities will decrease in the twenty-first century. As a consequence, agricultural water management will have to improve in order to meet two challenges: satisfy the needs of an increasing world population; and alleviate the climate change impacts. One way to improve agricultural water management consists of including the ‘risk’ notion as much as possible at the different decision levels of: farmers, farmer corporations and states or associations of states. These three decision levels will be analysed both for rainfed and irrigated agriculture. The poorest countries are those most subject to climate risks, the main risks in developing countries, because they too rarely possess the means to combat excesses or shortages of water during the plant growing period (irrigation schemes) and they cannot rely on crop insurance or other kinds of support to maintain their income in bad years. Consequently, in order to ensure a minimum level of income, farmers will prefer low input practices that provide a low but stable production without involving too much investment or cash. Where possible they will diversify their production. This paper first defines hazard, vulnerability and risk in the particular context of drought assessment and prediction. It then presents some strategies to reduce water risk in three major categories: (1) more irrigated agricultural land in an efficient manner; (2) increased and better managed pasture and forest areas to benefit from otherwise lost water by evaporation process, increasing animal productivity; (3) well water managed dryland agriculture. In dryland agriculture, some additional public measures are necessary, mainly drought risk insurance and early warning systems, in order to promote investment in drought-prone environments and to provide tools for decision-making. The adoption of an efficient water use management of rainfall and irrigation will ensure food security, contribute to poverty alleviation, and free water for non-agricultural uses. The paper presents some new promising techniques and approaches. Finally, it discusses the sharing of risk between the different decision levels and launches some ideas to serve as discussion points in the electronic conference. [less ▲]

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