References of "Azadi, Hossein"
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See detailDetermining Key Agricultural Strategic Factors Using AHP-MICMAC
Akbar Barati, Ali; Azadi, Hossein ULiege; Dehghani Pour, Milad et al

in Sustainability (2019), 11(3947),

Agriculture is an irrefutable part of food policy. This paper aims to introduce an integrated method using MICMAC and AHP techniques to deal with understanding the key strategic variables of agricultural ... [more ▼]

Agriculture is an irrefutable part of food policy. This paper aims to introduce an integrated method using MICMAC and AHP techniques to deal with understanding the key strategic variables of agricultural system. MICMAC was used to determine the classifications of variables and AHP was applied to weigh these classifications. MICMAC is a structural analysis tool used to structure ideas and AHP is an effective tool to deal with complex decision making and helps decision-makers making the best decision. The results show that strategic variables had different types of influence and direct, indirect, and potential dependencies did not have the same importance. AHP-MICMAC not only considers these differences, but also puts a total priority weight for each variable. These characteristics have an important role in forming strategies and scenarios for agricultural development. Therefore, the case of Iran was used to illustrate the application of MICMAC aiming to supply instructions for the development of agriculture system. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentifying Social Indicators for Sustainability Assessment of CCU Technologies: A Modified Multi-criteria Decision Making
Rafiaani, Parisa ULiege; Dikopoulou, Zoumpolia; Van Dael, Miet et al

in Social Indicators Research (2019)

Carbon capture and utilization (CCU) technologies capture CO2 waste emissions and utilize them to generate new products (such as fuels, chemicals, and materials) with various environmental, economic, and ... [more ▼]

Carbon capture and utilization (CCU) technologies capture CO2 waste emissions and utilize them to generate new products (such as fuels, chemicals, and materials) with various environmental, economic, and social opportunities. As most of these CCU technologies are in the R&D stage, their technical and economic viability are examined with less attention to the social aspect which is an important pillar for a holistic sustainability assessment. The lack of systematic social impact research is mainly due to the difficulty of identifying and quantifying social aspects through the entire life cycle of products. We will fill this gap for CCU technologies and identify the main social indicators. A multi-criteria decision making tool: technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) was applied to empirically determine which indicators are more relevant for assessing the social impact of a company operating CCU activities within a European context. First, seeing that social impact categories are linked to key stakeholder groups, we considered workers, consumers, and local communities as relevant stakeholders. Second, the main social impact categories and their potential performance indicators associated to each group of stakeholders were listed using the United Nations Environment Program/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (UNEP/SETAC) guidelines. In the third step, an online questionnaire was distributed to identify the main social categories and indicators for CCU, to which 33 European CCU experts responded. Finally, a modified TOPSIS was applied to rank the indicators based on their relevance. We found that the indicators related to “end of life responsibility” and “transparency” within a CCU company achieved the highest rank affecting the consumers group, whereas “fair salary” and “equal opportunities/discriminations” were determined as the most relevant impact categories for the workers. For the local community group, “secure living conditions” and “local employment” received the highest priority from the experts’ point of view. Furthermore, “health and safety” considerations were identified as one of the most important criteria affecting all three groups of stakeholders. The ranking list of the main social indicators identified in our study provides the basis for the next steps in the social sustainability assessment of CCU technologies; that is, data collection and impact assessment. Our outcomes can also be used to inform the producers regarding the most and least relevant social aspects of CCU so that the potential social impacts caused by their production activities can be improved or prevented. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of Land Use Changes on Soil and Vegetation Characteristics in Fereydan, Iran
Eghdami, Hanieh; Azhdari, Ghanimat; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege et al

in Agriculture (2019), 9(3), 58

To understand and manage ecosystem complexity, it is important to determine the relationships between soil characteristics, human activities, and biodiversity. This study analyzes the relationships ... [more ▼]

To understand and manage ecosystem complexity, it is important to determine the relationships between soil characteristics, human activities, and biodiversity. This study analyzes the relationships between vegetation, soil, and man-made damage with regards to land use change in the Fereydan region, Iran. Soil physical properties such as sand and silt content, clay, saturated soil’s moisture content, and gravel percentage as well as chemical properties such as lime content, pH, electro conductivity (EC), and organic matter content were measured. In order to trace these variables, the principle component analysis (PCA) was applied. The study area was divided into three states of conditions; i.e., good condition rangelands, poor condition rangelands, and abandoned rain-fed area. Based on the results there was a significant difference between species diversity in good condition rangelands compared with two other sites. The results further revealed that among soil chemical and physical characteristics, only soil organic matter had a significant difference between different rangeland sites. According to the results, the rangelands with good conditions had the highest amount of organic matter (1.43–1.50%) compared with two other studied rangelands (poor conditions: 1.02–1.09%; abandoned rain-fed: 1.2–1.46%). The most influential factor on the species diversity index was the distance to village parameter that revealed the important role of humans in degrading rangelands and reducing species diversity. [less ▲]

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See detailAccess to preferential loans for poverty reduction and rural development: evidence from Vietnam
Lan Thanh Nguyen; Anh Pham Hoai Nguyen; van Passel, Steven et al

in Journal of Economic Issues (2018), 52(1), 246-269

Preferential loans play an important role in the process of reducing poverty in developing countries. Considering the data set from the 2010 Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey, we aim to examine ... [more ▼]

Preferential loans play an important role in the process of reducing poverty in developing countries. Considering the data set from the 2010 Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey, we aim to examine the influential factors in probability of households getting access to preferential loans. Additionally, we analyze the determinants of household income in association with the loans by applying a quantile regression model. Our results show that ethnicity-related factors have the largest marginal effect on the access to preferential loans. The results from the quantile regression model demonstrate that the debt factor has a deeper impact on the borrowing group at the lower quantiles of household income. [less ▲]

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See detailCharges d'urbanisme et principe de proportionnalité : rapport final de la subvention 2017
Hendrickx, Sébastien ULiege; Defer, Valentine ULiege; Maldague, Hubert ULiege et al

Report (2017)

La recherche concerne les obligations imposées au promoteur et plus particulièrement le concept d’ « obligations de faire liées aux permis », soit les obligations de fournir une prestation, un service ou ... [more ▼]

La recherche concerne les obligations imposées au promoteur et plus particulièrement le concept d’ « obligations de faire liées aux permis », soit les obligations de fournir une prestation, un service ou un versement d’argent que peuvent imposer les autorités compétentes dans le cadre de la délivrance d’un permis d’urbanisme ou d’urbanisation. Le rapport final présente les objectifs, la méthodologie appliquée et les résultats engrangés de la recherche au cours de la subvention 2017. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial sustainability assessments in the biobased economy: Towards a systemic approach
Rafiaani, Parisa ULiege; Kuppens, Tom; Van Dael, Miet et al

in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2017)

The majority of impact assessments for the biobased economy are primarily focused on the environmental and (techno-)economic aspects, while social aspects are rarely considered. This study proposes a ... [more ▼]

The majority of impact assessments for the biobased economy are primarily focused on the environmental and (techno-)economic aspects, while social aspects are rarely considered. This study proposes a modified systemic approach for a social sustainability impact assessment of the biobased economy, based on a review on the common methodologies for assessing social impacts. Accordingly, the proposed approach follows the four general iterative steps of social life cycle analysis (SLCA) as it considers all life cycle phases of the biobased economy. The systemic approach considers the potential social impacts on local communities, workers, and consumers as the main three groups of the stakeholders. The review showed that the most common social indicators for inventory analysis within the biobased economy include health and safety, food security, income, employment, land- and worker-related concerns, energy security, profitability, and gender issues. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) was also highlighted as the broadly utilized methodology for aggregating the results of impact assessments within the biobased economy. Taking a life cycle perspective, this study provides a holistic view of the full sustainability of research, design, and innovation in the biobased economy by suggesting the integration of the social aspects with techno-economic and an environmental life cycle assessment. Our proposed systemic approach makes possible to integrate the social impacts that are highly valued by the affected stakeholders into the existing sustainability models that focus only on environmental and techno-economic aspects. We discuss the steps of the proposed systemic approach in order to identify the challenges of applying them within the biobased economy. These challenges refer mainly to the definition of the functional unit and system boundaries, the selection and the analysis of social indicators (inventory analysis), the aggregation of the inventory to impact categories, and the uncertainties associated with the social sustainability evaluation. The result of this review and the proposed systemic approach serve as a foundation for industry and policy makers to gain a better insight into the importance of social sustainability impacts assessment within the biobased economy. [less ▲]

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See detailA new wave in Romania: organic food. Consumers’ motivations, perceptions, and habits
Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Malina; Burny, Philippe ULiege et al

in Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems (2017), 41(1), 46-75

The study draws the profile of Romanian consumers of organic food, based on a probabilistic survey and adopting an original approach—a dual focus on certified and uncertified organic products. Uncertified ... [more ▼]

The study draws the profile of Romanian consumers of organic food, based on a probabilistic survey and adopting an original approach—a dual focus on certified and uncertified organic products. Uncertified organic food (from farmers’ market or self-production) is considered to be more “organic” than certified organic food. While consumers are strongly oriented towards organic food (certified or uncertified) and driven by health concerns and taste, they are primarily deterred by price and lack of availability. Results advocate that consumers’ extended and positive evaluations of uncertified organics represent the link that could initiate the behavioral transition from conventional to certified organic food, being the premise for the development of a sustainable market. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of household risk management strategies for coastal aquaculture: The case of clam farming in Thaibinh Province, Vietnam
Ngo Thi Thu Hang, ULiege; Azadi, Hossein ULiege; Huu Cuong, Tran et al

in Aquaculture International (2017), (December 2017), 1-18

Clam farmers have experienced different types of risks that have been further exacerbated by the rapid expansion of clam farming areas, increased growing densities, and increased market difficulties in ... [more ▼]

Clam farmers have experienced different types of risks that have been further exacerbated by the rapid expansion of clam farming areas, increased growing densities, and increased market difficulties in recent years in the Thaibinh Province of Vietnam. Most farmers have been seriously affected by production risk, market risk, and financial risk, while a number of others have met with success in almost all of their clam-raising cycles. This study applied a differentiating comparative analysis method and multiple discriminant analysis method to discuss the differences in risk management strategies between and among clam farming households and the impacts of those differences on their success/failure rates. In general, the tactics are related to increase in farm size, the application of technical innovations, diversifying livelihood activities, and accessing secure financial sources all provided better conditions for clam growth, diminished losses, and led to speedier recovery from shocks. To support farmers in managing risks, several government interventions are needed: (1) better re-zoning of clam farming areas in parallel with an increase in the farm size of each household, (2) promoting sustainable linkages between the farmers and the formal financial market and output market, and (3) investing more funding into research and extension related to sustainable clam farming practices and to the improvement of farmers’ skills in cooperative works and management. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganic Farming and Small-Scale Farmers: Main Opportunities and Challenges
Jouzi, Zeynab; Azadi, Hossein ULiege; Taheri, Fatemeh et al

in Ecological Economics (2017), 132(February 2017), 144-154

Producing enough food to meet the needs of a growing population has always been the greatest concern of food policy-makers around the world. Given the increasing attention to organic farming (OF), we ... [more ▼]

Producing enough food to meet the needs of a growing population has always been the greatest concern of food policy-makers around the world. Given the increasing attention to organic farming (OF), we conducted this study to investigate the main opportunities and challenges of the food production system of small-scale farmers in developing countries with an emphasis on their livelihoods. The study showed that the most significant advantages of OF are environmental protection and a higher resilience to environmental changes, increasing farmers' income and reducing external input cost, enhancing social capacity and increasing employment opportunities. A s well as enhancing food security primarily by increasing the food purchasing power of local people. However, the main challenges of this food production system include lower yields in comparison to conventional systems, difficulties with soil nutrient management, certification and market barriers, and the educational and research needs of small-holders. The paper concludes that even though OF might present some significant challenges to small-scale farmers, it could/should still be considered as a part of the solution and means of improving their livelihoods. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Life Cycle Assessment in Biobased Industries: Identifying Main Indicators and Impacts
Rafiaani, Parisa ULiege; Van Passel, Steven; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege et al

in Benoit Norris, Catherine; Norris, Gregory (Eds.) 5th International Social LCA Conference Harvard, Cambridge, USA, June 13 - 15, 2016: book of abstracts (2016)

Assessing social impacts of various products, services and human activities has achieved an increasing interest worldwide. The nature of sustainability of biobased industries from a social point of view ... [more ▼]

Assessing social impacts of various products, services and human activities has achieved an increasing interest worldwide. The nature of sustainability of biobased industries from a social point of view is how and to what extent they are perceived by society, and how various societies take advantages from such activities. However, an important issue is that social factors are not usually easy to be quantitatively analyzed and although the social impacts might be very remarkable, especially at the local scale, they have been not possible to be investigated in the majority of impact evaluations in the past. Despite the existence of many different methodologies towards Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) to address social impacts of various businesses and industries, most of them impartially address social performances of an industry. The aim of this paper is to highlight the main criteria that need to be taken into account in SLCA approaches for identifying the social indicators and impacts of biobased industries that is a timely topic worldwide toward climate change mitigation goals. Accordingly, considering the general approach of SLCA and particularly its inventory analysis phase for impact categories and indicator determinations, the paper provides an overview of the existing guidelines and frameworks for identifying social indicators and impact categories associated with bio-industries. In conclusion, main impact categories and indicators formulated in the existing frameworks applied to biobased industries are demonstrated as a basic set of applicable elements of social dimensions in evaluating bio-industries’ sustainability when conducting SLCAs. The state of the art for this study mainly includes leading journal articles, international reports and conference papers up to and including 2016 on SLCA in biobased industries. According to the reviewed frameworks in this study, quantitative, midpoint and site-specific data are the main elements taken into account when collecting the data for biobased product social impact assessment. This study also reveals that although SLCA is in its early steps of development and despite in numerous cases, conducting a comprehensive SLCA is not yet feasible, it has been considered to have substantially promising methodological attributes that can help policymakers and other stakeholders to quantify and assess sustainability of bio-industries from the social perspective. Recommendations for further research work concerning SLCA in bio-industries are also presented. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating social aspects into sustainability assessment of biobased industries: Towards a systemic approach
Rafiaani, Parisa ULiege; Van Passel, Steven; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege et al

in Benoit Norris, Catherine; Norris, Gregory (Eds.) 5th International Social LCA Conference Harvard, Cambridge, USA, June 13 - 15, 2016: book of abstracts (2016)

Considering its potential impacts on development, biobased industries require to be assessed according to the positive and negative effects they can bring to the society. Typically, the implications of ... [more ▼]

Considering its potential impacts on development, biobased industries require to be assessed according to the positive and negative effects they can bring to the society. Typically, the implications of biobased industries are considered in terms of economic, environmental and technical indices while social factors are usually neglected in the majority of impact assessments. This is mainly due to the fact that social issues are not easy to be quantitatively analyzed, measured and monitored. Indeed, the following issues need to be addressed: (i) how the social dimension is understood from different stakeholders’ perspective; (ii) how the social pillar can be properly integrated into sustainability evaluation methodologies which are mainly focused on environmental performance and (techno)-economic assessments of biobased industries. This review paper aims to answer these questions firstly through identifying the main social impacts and indicators of the biobased industries at local level in order to find an answer for the second question by analyzing and comparing the current methodologies for assessing social impacts in bioindustries. These methods mainly include Social Impact Assessment (SIA), Socio-economic Impacts Assessment (SEIA) and Social Life Cycle Analysis (SLCA). The latter, although is in its early steps of development, has been considered to have substantially promising methodological attributes for bioindustries’ social sustainability assessment. Although ongoing research tackles the incorporation of the environmental dimension into extended techno-economic assessments, no integration of the social pillar into such assessments has been made. Given that, this review focuses on the social dimension for integrated sustainability assessments of biobased industries to assess the main social impacts resulting from each operation or from the bioenergy sector. The current review focuses on the importance of social sustainability indicators and evaluation techniques. By discussing the methodologies for evaluating social impacts, a systemic methodology for assessing and integrating the social dimension into the sustainability assessments of bioindustries is developed, considering the four main iterative steps of an SLCA framework and three useful SLCA-based approaches including Product Social Impact Assessment; Prosuite and the UNEP SETAC Guidelines for SLCA of Products. It is concluded that the term systemic analysis implies that the whole approach needs the capacity to understand different subsystems and relations between them. Accordingly, the systemic assessment of biobased technologies should simultaneously include technological, economic, social and environmental dimensions. The result of this study identifies social impacts in the bioeconomy and particularly highlight the importance of considering social issues in biobased industries’ design and innovation. [less ▲]

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See detailAgricultural Land Conversion Drivers in Northeast Iran: Application of Structural Equation Model
Azadi, Hossein ULiege; Barati, Ali Akbar; Rafiaani, Parisa ULiege et al

in Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy (2016), 9(4), 591609

Identifying driving forces behind agricultural land conversion (ALC) remains one of the most difficult challenges that agricultural and environmental scientists must continually deal with. The difficulty ... [more ▼]

Identifying driving forces behind agricultural land conversion (ALC) remains one of the most difficult challenges that agricultural and environmental scientists must continually deal with. The difficulty emerges from the fact that in ALC, multiple actions and interactions between different factors (i.e., economic, political, environmental, biophysical, institutional, and cultural) exist and make it difficult to understand the function of the processes behind the changes. The phenomenon of ALC in different countries is varied in terms of intensity, trends and drivers. The main goal of this study was to understand these drivers in Northeast Iran through applying structural equation model (SEM). Using multi-stage stratified random sampling, 101 executive officers participated in the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire. A multi-stakeholder analysis and a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach were applied. Results revealed that not only from the policy makers’ perspective but also based on the SEM, “economic”, “political”, “technological”, “social” and “environmental” factors should respectively be the five major drivers of ALC. The results also showed that among other drivers, “more profitability of non-agriculture sectors”, “excessive rising of land prices”, “farmers’ income instability”, “land fragmentation”, “urban sprawl” and “inheritance laws” are the main six causes of ALC. Hence, it can be concluded that policy-makers and planners need to take these drivers and subsidiaries more into consideration in order to properly respond to ALC. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating Social Aspect into Sustainability Assessment of Bio-Based Industries: Towards a Systemic Approach
Rafiaani, Parisa ULiege; Van Passel, S.; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege et al

in Ban, Marko et al. (Ed.) 11th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems : book of abstracts (2016)

Biobased industries require to be assessed on their positive and negative impacts on sustainable development. However, social factors are usually neglected in the majority of impact assessments of ... [more ▼]

Biobased industries require to be assessed on their positive and negative impacts on sustainable development. However, social factors are usually neglected in the majority of impact assessments of biobased industries: they are mainly focused on environmental performance and (techno)- economic assessments. This review proposes a new systemic approach for assessing and integrating the social dimension into sustainability assessments of biobased industries. First the main methodologies for assessing social impacts in biobased industries are compared. Social Life Cycle Analysis (SLCA) is considered to have promising methodological attributes for biobased industries’ social sustainability assessment, although it is still in its early steps of development. Second, a new systemic framework was developed following the four main iterative steps of an SLCA framework and based on three useful SLCA-based approaches including Product Social Impact Assessment; Prosuite and the UNEP SETAC Guidelines for SLCA of Products. The proposed framework allows incorporating the social impacts into a techno economic assessments (TEA) model through providing both a final social score and separate scores for each indicator category and life cycle phase. The result of this study particularly highlights the importance of considering social issues in biobased industries’design and innovation. Using the proposed systemic approach, industry and policy makers gain a better insight into the full sustainability performance (i.e. including social aspects) of biobased industries. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Life Cycle Assessment in Bio-Based Industries: Identifying Main Indicators and Impacts
Rafiaani, Parisa ULiege; Van Passel, S.; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege et al

in Ban, Marko et al. (Ed.) 11th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems : book of abstracts (2016)

Assessing social impacts of various products, services and human activities has achieved an increasing interest worldwide. The nature of sustainability of biobased industries from a social point of view ... [more ▼]

Assessing social impacts of various products, services and human activities has achieved an increasing interest worldwide. The nature of sustainability of biobased industries from a social point of view is how and to what extent they are perceived by society, and how various societies take advantages from such activities. However, an important issue is that social factors are not usually easy to be quantitatively analyzed and although the social impacts might be very remarkable, especially at the local scale, they have been not possible to be investigated in the majority of impact evaluations in the past. Despite the existence of many different methodologies towards Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) to address social impacts of various businesses and industries, most of them impartially address social performances of an industry. The aim of this paper is to highlight the main criteria that need to be taken into account in SLCA approaches for identifying the social indicators and impacts of biobased industries that is a timely topic worldwide toward climate change mitigation goals. Accordingly, considering the general approach of SLCA and particularly its inventory analysis phase for impact categories and indicator determinations, the paper provides an overview of the existing guidelines and frameworks for identifying social indicators and impact categories associated with bio-industries. In conclusion, main impact categories and indicators formulated in the existing frameworks applied to biobased industries are demonstrated as a basic set of applicable elements of social dimensions in evaluating bio-industries’ sustainability when conducting SLCAs. The state of the art for this study mainly includes leading journal articles, international reports and conference papers up to and including 2016 on SLCA in biobased industries. According to the reviewed frameworks in this study, quantitative, midpoint and sitespecific data are the main elements taken into account when collecting the data for biobased product social impact assessment. This study also reveals that although SLCA is in its early steps of development and despite in numerous cases, conducting a comprehensive SLCA is not yet feasible, it has been considered to have substantially promising methodological attributes that can help policymakers and other stakeholders to quantify and assess sustainability of bio-industries from the social perspective. Recommendations for further research work concerning SLCA in bio-industries are also presented. [less ▲]

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See detailClam Farming Risks in Thai Binh Province Vietnam: Impacts and Causes
Ngo Thi Thu, Hang; Tran Huu, Cuong; Azadi, Hossein ULiege et al

in Bulletin des Séances de l'Académie Royale des Sciences d'Outre-Mer (2016), 62(2016-1), 57-79

Large part of the world population are seeking livelihood from coastal aquaculture, and have been experiencing increased difficulties because of the poor development plan for coastal areas by governments ... [more ▼]

Large part of the world population are seeking livelihood from coastal aquaculture, and have been experiencing increased difficulties because of the poor development plan for coastal areas by governments, polluted water discharges from inland agricultural and industrial activities, and increasing negative impacts of climate changes. This study explores risks faced by the clam farming sector in Thai Binh province, as well as their causes and impacts on farmers. Our survey has revealed that there have been several important risks in clam production which can be grouped in terms of nature of origin: human-caused and natural ones. These risks have impacted on all relevant aspects of clam farming: production, market and financial sector. They are caused by several factors, including extreme weather events, waste water discharges, production techniques, market or financial access. Of these risks, human-caused ones are more severe and more difficult for farmers to cope with (than natural ones). Therefore, the governments are suggested to play more effective roles in coordinating and managing the different activities of relevant stakeholders (such as inland farming and industrial producers, better inland discharge schemes, more flexible credit system functions) so that human-caused risks for clam farming could be minimized. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors contributing to household-resilience capacity to farming risks: Case study of clam farming in Thai Binh province, Vietnam
Ngo Thi Thu Hang, ULiege; Tran, Huu Cuong; Nguyen Thi Khanh Hong, ULiege et al

Conference (2016)

Despite coastal endowment is a unique opportunity for coastal farmers it may be embedded with some risks. Vietnam was ranked 18th in world risk index in 2015 with the vulnerability index of 50.87 ... [more ▼]

Despite coastal endowment is a unique opportunity for coastal farmers it may be embedded with some risks. Vietnam was ranked 18th in world risk index in 2015 with the vulnerability index of 50.87% (Garschagen, Hagenlocher et al. 2016). In this context, Vietnamese clam farmers have been experiencing increased difficulties. This research focuses on clam production in Thai Binh province which has the largest clam area in northern and northern central coastal Vietnam. The central question of the research was “which factors contributing to farmer’s resilience to clam farming risks”. Results of the research indicated that there are several factors, which altogether explained 66% of variance of resilience among the households, formed three groups including (1) farmer’s ability in gaining experiences from failures and harnessing new opportunities; (2) farmer’s perception toward clam farming risks and its impacts; (3) farmer’s confidence about financial capacity and incomes from diversifying activities which can be used to invest in clam farming. From these research results, several support strategies have been suggested to enhance this capacity of the clam farmers, in order to minimize the losses while maximizing the benefit when people seek for sustainable livelihood. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional integration and agricultural trade development in Rwanda: the case of staple foods sector
Musabanganji, Edouard ULiege; Karangwa, Antoine; Azadi, Hossein ULiege et al

in Poljoprivreda i Sumarstvo (2016), 62(2), 153-162

This paper investigated the impact of regional integration on the agricultural trade development. Using a literature review, the study showed that the results of common agricultural initiatives aiming at ... [more ▼]

This paper investigated the impact of regional integration on the agricultural trade development. Using a literature review, the study showed that the results of common agricultural initiatives aiming at agriculture sector and agricultural trade development have not been convincing due to lack of appropriate mechanisms and institutional actions to operationalize regional agricultural policy and strategy at the national level. The paper also revealed that Rwanda benefited from its accession to EAC, especially in terms of the ease of access to regional markets through the establishment of the Common Market, the Customs Union and the alleviation of some of regional trade barriers for basic foodstuffs and consumer goods. This led to an increased value of its agricultural products exports to neighboring countries. The analysis of the Net Export Index and the Grubel-Lloyd measure for maize, potato and bean revealed that Rwanda is a net importer of maize and a net exporter of potato and bean. For these two staple foods, the results revealed that if Rwanda manages, through policy and institutional actions, to remove or alleviate the bottlenecks that prevent farmers from producing enough for export, it can have a competitive advantage on neighboring countries' markets whose access has been facilitated by its accession to the EAC. [less ▲]

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See detailAgricultural Land Conversion Drivers in Northeast Iran: Application of Structural Equation Model
Azadi, Hossein ULiege; Barati, Ali Akbar; Rafiaani, Parisa ULiege et al

in Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy (2015)

Identifying driving forces behind agricultural land conversion (ALC) remains one of the most difficult challenges that agricultural and environmental scientists must continually deal with. The difficulty ... [more ▼]

Identifying driving forces behind agricultural land conversion (ALC) remains one of the most difficult challenges that agricultural and environmental scientists must continually deal with. The difficulty emerges from the fact that in ALC, multiple actions and interactions between different factors (i.e., economic, political, environmental, biophysical, institutional, and cultural) exist and make it difficult to understand the function of the processes behind the changes. The phenomenon of ALC in different countries is varied in terms of intensity, trends and drivers. The main goal of this study was to understand these drivers in Northeast Iran through applying structural equation model (SEM). Using multi-stage stratified random sampling, 101 executive officers participated in the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire. A multi-stakeholder analysis and a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach were applied. Results revealed that not only from the policy makers’ perspective but also based on the SEM, "economic", "political", "technological", "social" and "environmental" factors should respectively be the five major drivers of ALC. The results also showed that among other drivers, "more profitability of non-agriculture sectors", "excessive rising of land prices", "farmers’ income instability", "land fragmentation", "urban sprawl" and "inheritance laws" are the main six causes of ALC. Hence, it can be concluded that policy-makers and planners need to take these drivers and subsidiaries more into consideration in order to properly respond to ALC. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetically modified crops : towards agricultural growth, agricultural development or agricultural sustainability ?
Azadi, Hossein ULiege; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghoochani, Omid M. et al

in Food Reviews International (2015)

This paper presents the main potentials and challenges of the GM crops in approaching agricultural growth, development, and sustainability. Accordingly, the paper will first discuss briefly the ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the main potentials and challenges of the GM crops in approaching agricultural growth, development, and sustainability. Accordingly, the paper will first discuss briefly the differences between agricultural growth, development, and sustainability. Then, the main potentials and challenges of these crops in approaching agricultural growth, development, and sustainability will be discussed. Finally, a conclusion will be drawn to let policy makers understand, based on which circumstances, GM crops may lead to sustainable agriculture. [less ▲]

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