References of "Attia, Shady"
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See detailCharacterization of post-world war residential buildings in Belgium
Attia, Shady ULiege; Cuchet, Mathilde; Giry, Nicolas et al

Report (2022)

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See detailDeveloping two benchmark models for post-world war II residential buildings
Attia, Shady ULiege; Mustafa, Ahmed; Giry, Nicolas et al

in Energy and Buildings (2021), 244(111052),

In the context of the European carbon neutrality targets, building benchmarks are a key issue for the renovation of existing buildings. Although there are various benchmark methods for energy efficiency ... [more ▼]

In the context of the European carbon neutrality targets, building benchmarks are a key issue for the renovation of existing buildings. Although there are various benchmark methods for energy efficiency characterization, their application to the residential sector is still limited. This paper developed two building simulation models for post-world war II houses in Belgium based on data from post-occupancy measurements and field survey campaigns. The study reports the energy characteristics and occupancy profiled of detached single-family houses. An analysis of energy consumption (electricity and natural gas) and a walkthrough survey were conducted between 2016 and 2019. The benchmark model’s validity has been further checked against public statistics and verified through model calibration and monthly energy bill comparison. Two reference models representing 633.702 post-WWII single-family houses in Belgium were created and validated. The first archetype has an average energy use intensity of 166 kWh/m2 /year and represents detached single-family houses built between 1945 and 1969. The second archetype has an average energy use intensity of 155 kWh/m2 /year and represents detached single-family houses built between 1970 and 1990. The paper provides a timely opportunity to evaluate the real performance of post-world war II most common archetypes concerning design assumptions and how building professionals can turn the energy performance gap challenge to their advantage. The findings on energy needs and intensity are useful for creating future renovation scenarios for similar archetypes in Western European countries. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the impact of automatic shading control scenarios on occupant’s comfort and energy load
Tabadkani, Amir; Roetzel, Astrid; Xian Li, Hong et al

in Applied Energy (2021), 294

Building envelopes should be responsive to boundary conditions changing in short-time, daily, or seasonal patterns. To this end, adaptive facades provide the ability to react, or benefit from, outdoor ... [more ▼]

Building envelopes should be responsive to boundary conditions changing in short-time, daily, or seasonal patterns. To this end, adaptive facades provide the ability to react, or benefit from, outdoor fluctuations and dynamic indoor requirements. On the other hand, the parallel trend of developing new technologies to control their performance, make adaptive facades more applicable to counterbalance both user’s comfort and building energy load. This goal can be met using active control mechanisms, either manually or automatically. Automatic shading controls require indoor/outdoor signal inputs to operate a shading system. However, in the literature, there is no consent on the effectiveness of automatic shading control strategies and all of the studies were investigated within specific environmental conditions. Therefore, this paper aims to compare the most used control functions and their implications on user comfort and energy load in different climate zones. To this end, EnergyPlus was used as a simulation platform to employ Energy Management System (EMS) for linking sensors, actuators to the control logic of adaptive venetian blinds. Then, a brute-force method was performed through Ladybug-tools to conduct 15,390 iterations parametrically. Results showed that climatic conditions impact the shading control scenario significantly, and the optimum scenario was an open-loop algorithm based on direct solar radiation due to the earlier activation of blind closure to block solar radiation while increasing lighting load at the same time. [less ▲]

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See detailResilient cooling of buildings to protect against heat waves and poweroutages: Key concepts and definition
Attia, Shady ULiege; Levinson, Ronnen; Ndongo, Eileen et al

in Energy and Buildings (2021), 239(110869),

The concept of climate resilience has gained extensive international attention during the last few years and is now seen as the future target for building cooling design. However, before being fully ... [more ▼]

The concept of climate resilience has gained extensive international attention during the last few years and is now seen as the future target for building cooling design. However, before being fully implemented in building design, the concept requires a clear and consistent definition and a commonly agreed frame-work of key concepts. The most critical issues that should be given special attention before developing a new definition for resilient cooling of buildings are (1) the disruptions or the associated climatic shocks to protect against, (2) the scale of the built domain, (3) the timeline of resilience, (4) the events of disruption, (5) the stages of resilience, (6) the indoor climate limits and critical comfort conditions, and (7) the influencing factors of resilient cooling of buildings. This paper focuses on a scoping review of the most of the existing resilience definitions and the various approaches, found in 90 documents, towards possible resilient buildings. In conclusion, the paper suggests a definition and a set of criteria —vulnerability, resistance, robustness, and recoverability— that can help to develop intrinsic performance-driven indicator sand functions of passive and active cooling solutions in buildings against two disruptors of indoor thermal environmental quality—heat waves and power outages. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-objective optimisation of a seasonal solar thermal energy storage system combined with an earth – Air heat exchanger for net zero energy building
Benzaama, M.H.; Menhoudj, S.; Lekhal, M.C. et al

in Solar Energy (2021), 220(2021), 901-913

Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) is a high performance building concept that integrates passive design and renewable energy systems. The aim of this paper is to analyze the performance of multi-integrated ... [more ▼]

Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) is a high performance building concept that integrates passive design and renewable energy systems. The aim of this paper is to analyze the performance of multi-integrated renewable energy systems for nearly zero energy buildings in the Mediterranean context. Taking into account the particular technical characteristics of net-zero energy buildings, this study focuses on three different systems: 1) an Earth – Air Heat Exchanger (EAHE), 2) an Underground Tank (UNT) and 3) a Solar Thermal Collector. The first step of the methodology was to study the energy efficiency of the combination between EAHE and UNT for heating needs. An experimental facility equipped with monitoring sensors was constructed. For the second step, we propose a numerical study of the energy performance of the UNT coupled with a solar thermal collector and combined with an EAHE in order to improve the coverage rate of heating needs. The results show that the combination of the three systems satisfied all the needs with a rate of 131% for the climatic conditions of Oran, Algeria. On the other hand, the EAHE and UNT systems operating separately covered 49.3% and 41.7%, respectively. Combining three systems simultaneously saves 37.9 € (or 232.8 kWh of energy needs) and reduces by 21.1 tons of CO2 emissions during the heating period. [less ▲]

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See detailSvante Arrhenius the father of climate change
Attia, Shady ULiege

Learning material (2021)

I learned recently that the Swedish physicist and chemist Svante Arrhenius published in 1896 an article analyzing the climatic relevance of atmospheric carbon dioxide for average global ground ... [more ▼]

I learned recently that the Swedish physicist and chemist Svante Arrhenius published in 1896 an article analyzing the climatic relevance of atmospheric carbon dioxide for average global ground temperatures. His research constitutes pioneering work in modeling Earth's climate by incorporating the greenhouse effect and accordingly points out fundamental mechanisms that contribute to climate changes: https://www.rsc.org/images/Arrhenius1896_tcm18-173546.pdf [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Climatic Conditions, Season and Environmental Factors on CO2 Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Primary Schools in Chile
Diaz Cisternas, Muriel Andrea ULiege; Cools, Mario ULiege; Trebilcock, Maureen et al

in Sustainability (2021), 8(13), 4139

Between the ages of 6 and 18, children spend between 30 and 42 h a week at school, mostly indoors, where indoor environmental quality is usually deficient and does not favor learning. The difficulty of ... [more ▼]

Between the ages of 6 and 18, children spend between 30 and 42 h a week at school, mostly indoors, where indoor environmental quality is usually deficient and does not favor learning. The difficulty of delivering indoor air quality (IAQ) in learning facilities is related to high occupancy rates and low interaction levels with windows. In non-industrialized countries, as in the cases presented, most classrooms have no mechanical ventilation, due to energy poverty and lack of normative requirements. This fact heavily impacts the indoor air quality and students’ learning outcomes. The aim of the paper is to identify the factors that determine acceptable CO2 concentrations. Therefore, it studies air quality in free-running and naturally ventilated primary schools in Chile, aiming to identify the impact of contextual, occupant, and building design factors, using CO2 concentration as a proxy for IAQ. The monitoring of CO2, temperature, and humidity revealed that indoor air CO2 concentration is above 1400 ppm most of the time, with peaks of 5000 ppm during the day, especially in winter. The statistical analysis indicates that CO2 is dependent on climate, seasonality, and indoor temperature, while it is independent of outside temperature in heated classrooms. The odds of having acceptable concentrations of CO2 are bigger when indoor temperatures are high, and there is a need to ventilate for cooling. [less ▲]

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See detail[Keyonte] User control of adaptive facades: Observations from case studies on users’ interaction
Attia, Shady ULiege

Conference (2021, March 30)

Many factors influence user control of adaptive façades. Depending on the façade technology's nature, users' objectives can be competing with comfort requirements or energy-saving objectives. In practice ... [more ▼]

Many factors influence user control of adaptive façades. Depending on the façade technology's nature, users' objectives can be competing with comfort requirements or energy-saving objectives. In practice, this causes conflicts and ends up in low user satisfaction and interaction. Despite the importance of user interactive feedback, most control strategies rely on regulated feedback based on temperature or illuminance sensors and model-based control strategies. There are almost no practical approaches to balance energy efficiency targets and at the same time empower users allowing them to personalize the control of adaptive façades. [less ▲]

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See detailUser control of adaptive facades: Observations from case studies on users' interaction
Attia, Shady ULiege

in PrietoHoces, Alejandro (Ed.) USER CENTRED FAÇADES (2021, March 30)

Many factors influence user control of adaptive facades. Depending on the façade technology's nature, users objectives can be competing with comfort requirements or energy-saving objectives. In practice ... [more ▼]

Many factors influence user control of adaptive facades. Depending on the façade technology's nature, users objectives can be competing with comfort requirements or energy-saving objectives. In practice, this causes conflicts and end up in low user satisfaction and interaction. Despite the importance of user interactive feedback, most control strategies rely on regulated feedback based on temperature or illuminance sensors and model-based control strategies. There are almost no practical approaches to balance energy efficiency targets and at the same time empower users allowing them to personalize the control of adaptive facades. This presentation shows observations from different case studies with dynamic solar shading and chromogenic glazing facades to understand this gap. Our post-occupancy evaluations in office buildings dataset is analyzed to define and compare the common control strategies and evaluate users' interaction with dynamic facades. The presentation suggests clustering adaptive facades users according to the usage intensity and preferences patterns. The presentation provides insights and recommendations about the importance of stimulating overriding feedback features for adaptive facades. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign criteria for circular buildings
Attia, Shady ULiege; Al-Obaidy, Muheeb ULiege

in Crossing Boundaries (2021, March 24)

The term 'circular building' has mainly become popular over the last years and is now widespread across architectural and building engineering – at least in Europe. With climate change high up on the ... [more ▼]

The term 'circular building' has mainly become popular over the last years and is now widespread across architectural and building engineering – at least in Europe. With climate change high up on the political and corporate agenda and introduction of the European Unions' Green Deal, the identification of design criteria for 'circular building' is in demand. Numerous approaches and projects have been proposed to develop evaluation criteria, ranging from sustainability rating systems (e.g., BREEAM and LEED), life cycle analysis methods, the Cradle to Cradle approach, Circular Building Service Companies (e.g., Oaplis and Werflink), research projects (e.g., BAMB, Facades leasing, FCRBE) and the European Waste Framework Directive and Circular Economy Action Plan. Despite the proliferation of those knowledge resources, however, there is an apparent lack of technical criteria to what extent a 'circular building design' is characterized. The scientific literature is surprisingly scarce of clarifications, even though countless studies on reversible building design exist. This paper explores the apparent discrepancy between professional and scientific use of the term 'circular building'. It suggests scientific design criteria based on commonly accepted circularity principles and environmental assessment modeling approaches. The paper answer a fundamental research question on the design criteria of a 'circular building' with an overarching aim to define robust indicators for their design and characterization. [less ▲]

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See detailLeadership of EU member States in building carbon footprint regulations and their role in promoting circular building design
Attia, Shady ULiege; Santos, M. C.; Al-Obaidy, Muheeb ULiege et al

in Crossing Boundaries (2021, March 24)

European countries are working towards carbon neutrality of the building sector. Regulations and initiatives, including the European Green Deal, aim at promoting circular buildings and low carbon design ... [more ▼]

European countries are working towards carbon neutrality of the building sector. Regulations and initiatives, including the European Green Deal, aim at promoting circular buildings and low carbon design. Therefore, this paper seeks to investigate the role of legislation in paving the way towards achieving the circularity of buildings design and construction. A systematic literature review is conducted to compare the current regulations in different EU member states that address carbon emissions and life cycle thinking to achieve circularity. The study aims to demonstrate how the low-carbon emissions regulations in leading countries can lead to making the construction sector's circularity. The research is focused on five leading EU member states in low carbon buildings, including Denmark, Finland, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. The study compares the performance indicators, metrics, and target thresholds found in the five selected states' regulations and examines them across a circularity assessment framework developed earlier by the authors. This paper provides insights on low emission building regulations state-of-the-art. Moreover, it offers a better understanding of the relationship between low-carbon emissions regulations and building circularity. The article explains the role of the legislative landscape and its impact on circular building design practices. Key findings from the study will assist the European Commission to identify policy options to support the uptake of “Circular economy principles for buildings design” in European, national and local policies. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of the circularity and carbon neutrality of an office building: The case of ’t Centrum in Westerlo, Belgium
Al-Obaidy, Muheeb ULiege; Santos, MC; Baskar, M et al

in Crossing Boundaries (2021, March 24)

Circular building design is a concept that is gaining great interest from architects, construction professionals, and their clients but is still rarely adopted in practice. One of the earliest design ... [more ▼]

Circular building design is a concept that is gaining great interest from architects, construction professionals, and their clients but is still rarely adopted in practice. One of the earliest design decisions architects and developers should make to design a circular building is to determine the building’s construction system. The choice of constructive and structural systems, such as columns, beams, and slabs, is crucial to upgrade the reuse cycles in the future. Flexible construction systems can make it easier to dismantle the structures and recover, upgrade, modify, or transform building materials. Therefore, this paper assesses the carbon emission impacts of two construction systems for an office building in Belgium using life cycle assessment (LCA) and circularity criteria. One-Click LCA software was used for the calculations. Parametric analysis took place for two construction systems scenarios involving a steel structure and a timber structure. Life Cycle Assessment and comparisons of the various construction systems are made based on ISO 14040, 14044, and CEN/TC 350 standards with a focus on carbon neutrality. The results show that using local plant-based materials such as wood can drastically reduce office buildings’ carbon footprint. Based on the sensitivity analysis results, the overall global warming potential impact is mostly sensitive to the construction material’s weight and reuse and dismantling ability. This paper provides a better understanding of building structural systems; to inform architects about the circularity potential of different construction systems. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantification of the Outdoor Thermal Comfort within Different Oases Urban Fabrics
Matallah, Mohamed Elhadi ULiege; Djamel, Alkama; Teller, Jacques ULiege et al

in Sustainability (2021), 13(3051),

Oases settlements are common entities of human agglomerations throughout desert regions. Oases settlements face several environmental challenges such as climate change, which can render them insufferably ... [more ▼]

Oases settlements are common entities of human agglomerations throughout desert regions. Oases settlements face several environmental challenges such as climate change, which can render them insufferably hot and unlivable within decades. Therefore, this study aims to assess the outdoor thermal comfort variation within three different oases urban fabrics of Tolga Oases Complex in Algeria. The overarching aim is to quantify thermal comfort and guide landscape, and urban designers improve outdoor thermal comfort. The methodology relies on microclimatic measurements and weather datasets (TMY2, TMY3, TMYx), combining observations and numerical simulations. A total of 648 Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) values were calculated in three different urban fabrics in Tolga Oases Complex, Algeria. Between 2003 and 2017, a remarkable microclimatic change was found, causing a high and accelerated heat stress level of 76%. The study results inform architects, urban planners, and climatologists about climate change effects and urban sprawl impact on the oases lands. Moreover, urban strategies should seek mitigation and adaptation benefiting from the existing green infrastructure of palm groves. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the Determining Factors for the Renovation of the Walloon Residential Building Stock
Ruellan, Guirec ULiege; Cools, Mario ULiege; Attia, Shady ULiege

in Sustainability (2021), 13(4), 2221

The issue of energy retrofitting of existing building stock occupies an increasingly prominent place in energy transition strategies in Europe. Adopting models representing the building stock and ... [more ▼]

The issue of energy retrofitting of existing building stock occupies an increasingly prominent place in energy transition strategies in Europe. Adopting models representing the building stock and accounting for occupancy influence on final housing energy use must be developed to advise new policies. In this respect, this study aims to characterize the Walloon residential building stock and to analyze the existing correlations between the stock’s technical data and its occupants’ socioeconomic data. This study uses existing databases on buildings and inhabitants in Wallonia. Several statistical analyses make it possible to highlight the preponderant criteria and existing correlations between these different criteria. This study affirms the importance of accounting for certain socioeconomic categories, such as low-income groups, in a global strategic reflection on energy renovation. Multiple linear regression shows us that each percent increase in the category of households that declare between 10,000–20.000 EUR of income per year corresponds to an increase of 7.22 kWh/m2·y in the average energy efficiency of the built stock. The results highlight the importance of focusing on renovation strategies for particular types of buildings, such as semi-detached houses, which combine unfavorable technical and socioeconomic factors. Thus, the results confirm the interest of a mixed model approach to adapt to effective renovation policy strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailFramework to evaluate the resilience of different cooling technologies
Attia, Shady ULiege; Rahif, Ramin ULiege; Corrado, Vincenzo et al

Report (2021)

As part of the EBC Annex 80 - Resilient cooling of buildings activities, the Thermal Condition Taskforce was created, in April 2020. In coordination with all other groups and the Weather Data Taskforce ... [more ▼]

As part of the EBC Annex 80 - Resilient cooling of buildings activities, the Thermal Condition Taskforce was created, in April 2020. In coordination with all other groups and the Weather Data Taskforce, two objectives were set by the Annex leader Dr. Peter Holzer. Firstly, to define common thermal conditions to assess different cooling technologies. Secondly, define a standard benchmark that can allow comparing the different cooling technologies worldwide. Several meetings and discussions took place between May and November 2020 to identify a systematic methodology for assessing the overheating risk in buildings and enable the comparative evaluation of resilient cooling technologies. The taskforce succeeded to identify common comfort criteria based on an existing overheating calculation method. Also, reference simulation models for benchmarking were identified. This report presents the outcome of the Thermal Condition Taskforce in the form of a methodological framework that can allow performing a comparative evaluation of cooling technologies. The framework is meant to provide a consistent and structured approach to evaluate and relatively compare different cooling technologies on the building scale, taking into account comfort and not only energy efficiency. Therefore, the framework was designed and tested in line with the Weather Data taskforce choice of sixteen cities worldwide and involving IPCC climate change scenarios. The framework is flexible and open, allowing building simulation modellers to run comparative simulations in different climates and evaluating the Technologies investigated by the Annex. [less ▲]

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See detailClassification of Heritage Residential Building Stock and Defining Sustainable Retrofitting Scenarios in Khedivial Cairo
Ibrahim, Hanan; Khan, Ahmed ULiege; Attia, Shady ULiege et al

in Sustainability (2021), 13(880),

This study aims to develop an integrated classification methodology for retrofitting that preserves both energy use and cultural value aspects in hot climates, especially, in North Africa, as a hot zone ... [more ▼]

This study aims to develop an integrated classification methodology for retrofitting that preserves both energy use and cultural value aspects in hot climates, especially, in North Africa, as a hot zone, which lacks retrofitting initiatives of built heritage. Despite the number of existing methods of classification for energy purposes, little attention has been paid to integrate the perceptions of cultural values in those methods. The proposed methodology classifies heritage building stocks based on building physical characteristics, as well as heritage significance levels, and then later integrates the outcomes into a matrix to propose sustainable retrofitting scenarios based on three dimensions, i.e., heritage value locations, types, and heritage significance level. For validation, the methodology was applied to the heritage residential building stock along with a microscale analysis on a building in Khedivial Cairo, Egypt. The findings include extracting twelve building classes, providing a reference building for each class, and a detailed catalog of the extracted reference buildings that includes retrofitting scenarios for creating energy models. The originality of this work lies in integrating cultural values in a building classification methodology and providing a list of sustainable retrofitting scenarios for reference buildings. The findings contribute to fill the gap in existing building classifications, more specifically in hot climates. [less ▲]

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See detailConducting Peer Reviews
Attia, Shady ULiege

Learning material (2020)

This presentation is intended for all researchers, who publish scientific papers. By default, publishing is associated with peer review. Peer reviewing is the only way to shorten the articles review time.

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See detailUnderstanding the performance gap of nearly zero-energy schools in Belgium
Attia, Shady ULiege

in Ghaffarianhoseini, A.; Nasmith, N.; Ghaffarianhoseini, Ali (Eds.) Imaginable Futures: Design Thinking, and the Scientific Method (2020, November 27)

This study aims to understand the energy use performance gap of Passive House (PH) schools and nearly zero-energy schools (nZES). The study reports the results of a recent field survey conducted on thirty ... [more ▼]

This study aims to understand the energy use performance gap of Passive House (PH) schools and nearly zero-energy schools (nZES). The study reports the results of a recent field survey conducted on thirty nearly zero energy buildings constructed between 2015 and 2020. An analysis of energy consumption (electricity and natural gas) and a walkthrough survey were conducted. A representative simulation building energy data set and a reference model was created. The average energy use intensity per school (primary and secondary) was 59 and 42 kWh/m2/year. The paper provides insights into the underlying causes of a discrepancy between predicted and measured energy use. Findings on energy needs and use intensity are useful in temperate and continental climates. [less ▲]

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See detailMethods Chapter
Attia, Shady ULiege

Learning material (2020)

This video describes the content that needs to be addressed in any methodology chapter in an MSc thesis or Ph.D. dissertation or scientific paper.

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See detailClimate Change Effects on Belgian Households: A Case Study of a Nearly Zero Energy Building
Attia, Shady ULiege; Gobin, Camille

in Sustainability (2020), 13(20), 5357

Overheating in residential building is a challenging problem that causes thermal discomfort, productivity reduction, and health problems. This paper aims to assess the climate change impact on thermal ... [more ▼]

Overheating in residential building is a challenging problem that causes thermal discomfort, productivity reduction, and health problems. This paper aims to assess the climate change impact on thermal comfort in a Belgian reference case. The case study represents a nearly zero energy building that operates without active cooling during summer. The study quantifies the impact of climate change on overheating risks using three representative concentration pathway (RCP) trajectories for greenhouse gas concentration adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Building performance analysis is carried out using a multizone dynamic simulation program EnergyPlus. The results show that bioclimatic and thermal adaptation strategies, including adaptive thermal comfort models, cannot suppress the effect of global warming. By 2050, zero energy buildings will be vulnerable to overheating. [less ▲]

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