References of "Artru, Sidonie"
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See detailHow does STICS crop model simulate crop growth and productivity under shade conditions?
Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Dumont, Benjamin ULiege; Ruget, Francois et al

in Field Crops Research (2018), 215

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See detailSpatial diversification of agroecosystems to enhance biological control and other regulating services: An agroecological perspective
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Boeraeve, Fanny ULiege; Artru, Sidonie ULiege et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2018), 621

Spatial diversification of crop and non-crop habitats in farming systems is promising for enhancing natural regulation of insect pests. Nevertheless, results from recent syntheses show variable effects ... [more ▼]

Spatial diversification of crop and non-crop habitats in farming systems is promising for enhancing natural regulation of insect pests. Nevertheless, results from recent syntheses show variable effects. One explanation is that the abundance and diversity of pests and natural enemies are affected by the composition, design and management of crop and non-crop habitats. Moreover, interactions between both local and landscape elements and practices carried out at different spatial scales may affect the regulation of insect pests. Hence, research is being conducted to understand these interdependencies. However, insects are not the only pests and pests are not the only elements to regulate in agroecosystems. Broadening the scope could allow addressing multiple issues simultaneously, but also solving them together by enhancing synergies. Indeed, spatial diversification of crop and non-crop habitats can allow addressing the issues of weeds and pathogens, along with being beneficial to several other regulating services like pollination, soil conservation and nutrient cycling. Although calls rise to develop multifunctional landscapes that optimize the delivery of multiple ecosystem services, it still represents a scientific challenge today. Enhancing interdisciplinarity in research institutions and building interrelations between scientists and stakeholders may help reach this goal. Despite obstacles, positive results from research based on such innovative approaches are encouraging for engaging science in this path. Hence, the aim of the present paper is to offer an update on these issues by exploring the most recent findings and discussing these results to highlight needs for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailAgroforestry in temperate regions, where does the water go? Electrical resitivity tomography as a tool to help us find out.
Maloteau, Sophie; Coussement, Tom; Pardon, Paul et al

Poster (2017, November 23)

Recently, agroforestry systems have been recognized to provide an opportunity for “ecological intensification”, thereby increasing yield outcome while simultaneously minimizing negative impacts on the ... [more ▼]

Recently, agroforestry systems have been recognized to provide an opportunity for “ecological intensification”, thereby increasing yield outcome while simultaneously minimizing negative impacts on the environment. Mixtures of trees and crops have the potential to capture more resources of light, water and nutrients than monocultures of trees or crops (Cannell et al. 1996). Nevertheless, few studies are available focusing on the impact of trees on soil moisture dynamics in cropped soil in temperate regions. In this study, we monitored the soil water dynamics in a corn field bordered by poplar trees in Ieper, Belgium using Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and classical soil tension sensors (Watermark) during the entire growing season of 2016 (May-September). We installed four ERT transects of 30 m long with an electrode spacing of 50cm. Three transects were placed in a part of the field bordered by trees and one reference transect was located in a part of the field without trees. Next to each transect, Watermark sensors were installed to estimate the soil water tension. The data allow us to monitor the influence of the trees on the soil water depletion by the crop. We quantified the effect in space and time of mature poplar trees on soil moisture dynamics in an agricultural field sown with maize during one growing season and confirmed the ability of electrical resistivity tomography to study tree-crop interactions for water under field conditions and we delimited an area of influence of the tree on the crop using a segmented linear regression technique. With our study, we show the potential of ERT to quantify tree-crop-soil interactions for water in agroforestry systems. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of spatio-temporal shade dynamics on wheat growth and yield, perspectives for temperate agroforestry
Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Garré, Sarah ULiege; Dupraz, Christian et al

in European Journal of Agronomy (2017)

A stumbling block to the adoption of silvoarable agroforestry systems is the lack of quantitative knowledge on the performance of different crops when competing for resources with trees. In North-Western ... [more ▼]

A stumbling block to the adoption of silvoarable agroforestry systems is the lack of quantitative knowledge on the performance of different crops when competing for resources with trees. In North-Western Europe, light is likely to be the principal limiting resource for understorey crops, and most agronomic studies show a systematic reduction of final yield as shade increases. However the intensity of the crop response depends on both the environmental conditions and the shade characteristics. This study addressed the issue by monitoring winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth, productivity and quality under artificial shade provided by military camouflage shade-netting, and using the Hi-sAFe model to relate the artificial shade conditions to those applying in agroforestry systems. The field experiment was carried out over two consecutive years (2013–14 and 2014–15) on the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium. The shade structures recreated two shade conditions: periodic shade (PS) and continuous shade (CS), with the former using overlapping military camouflage netting to provide discontinuous light through the day, and the latter using conventional shade cloth. The experiment simulated shading from a canopy of late-flushing hybrid walnut leaves above winter wheat. Shading was imposed 16 (2013–14) and 10 (2014–15) days before flowering and retained until harvest. The crop experienced full light conditions until the maximum leaf area index stage (LAImax) had been reached. In both years, LAI followed the same dynamics between the different treatments, but in 2013–2014 an attack of the take-all disease (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) reduced yields overall and prevented significant treatment effects. In season 2014–15 the decrease in global radiation reaching the crop during a period of 66 days (CS: – 61% and PS: – 43%) significantly affected final yield (CS: – 45% and PS: – 25%), mainly through a reduction of the average grain weight and the number of grain per m2. Grain protein content increased by up to 45% under the CS treatment in 2015. Nevertheless, at the plot scale, protein yield (t/ha) did not compensate for the final grain yield decrease. The Hi-sAFe model was used to simulate an agroforestry plot with two lines of walnut trees running either north-south or east-west. The levels of artificial shade levels applied in this experiment were compared to those predicted beneath trees growing with similar climatic conditions in Belgium. The levels used in the CS treatment are only likely to occur real agroforestry conditions on 10% of the cropped area until the trees are 30 years old and only with east-west tree row orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of spatio-temporal sahde on crop growth and productivity, perspectives for temperate agroforestry
Artru, Sidonie ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2017)

Currently, silvoarable agroforestry is receiving renewed interest in Europe, as a land use system that allows for combining the production of commodities with a range of non-commodity outputs, such as ... [more ▼]

Currently, silvoarable agroforestry is receiving renewed interest in Europe, as a land use system that allows for combining the production of commodities with a range of non-commodity outputs, such as environmental protection. Despite the potential of this practice, it remains rarely implemented in Northwestern Europe. One of the obstacles in the adoption of silvoarable agroforestry systems is the lack of quantitative knowledge on the long term performance of different crops when they are competing for resources with trees. In the face of a wide range of possibilities, it remains difficult to obtain a clear overview of overall system functioning. In this thesis, we simplify this complexity by focusing our research questions on the resource of light, based on the assumption that in Belgian climatic conditions light is likely to be the predominant constraint for understorey crops in a silvoarable agroforestry system. With regard to this resource, we develop our research in order to gain insights into the growth mechanisms and final yield of shaded winter wheat and sugar beet crops. We address these questions using an artificial shade system, which has been developed to reproduce the effect of the heterogeneous spatio-temporal pattern of light observed under late-flushing trees in an agroforestry system, isolated from the competition effects for water and nutrients. The shade structures recreate two shade environments: continuous and periodic. The continuous shade treatment leads to shade throughout the entire day, while the periodic shade treatment induces an intermittent shade period, which varies during the day and according to structure orientation. Winter wheat responded to the late application of both shade treatments with a significant decrease in grain yield, which was partly compensated for by an increase in grain protein content. When shaded, sugar beet compensated through morphological adaptations of the aboveground part of the plant, and by a decrease in the final root dry matter and sugar yield. Overall, for both crops, the magnitude of the final yield repercussion varied with the level and period of shade application. Additionally, an arable plot bordered by a row of poplar trees was selected to evaluate the effect of real trees on the winter wheat. The reduction in the final grain yield follows a gradient, from underneath the trees to the centre of the field. Notwithstanding that interactions other than light competition may have occurred, the maximum yield reduction observed under the trees never reaches the level of decrease which is observed under the continuous shade treatment simulated by the artificial shade arrangement. This experimental approach with winter wheat was complemented by a modelling study, in which we evaluate the ability of the STICS crop model to simulate crops growing under dynamic shade. The results highlight the limits of the STICS model when it is used to simulate crop growth under contrasted shade conditions. Finally, we propose agroecology as a conceptual framework for developing sustainable and profitable agroforestry systems in Europe, and reflect on agricultural practices, food systems, and research methodologies. [less ▲]

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See detailDealing with crop rotation in agroforestry: the impact of shade on winter wheat and sugar beet growth and yield under belgium conditions
Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Garré, Sarah ULiege; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULiege et al

in Book of Abstract- 3rd European Agroforestry Conference 2016 (2016, May)

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See detailAre crop models able to efficiently simulate crop growth under shade?
Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Dumont, Benjamin ULiege; Lassois, Ludivine ULiege et al

in Gosme, Marie (Ed.) 3rd European Agroforestry conference 2016 - Book of abstracts (2016, May)

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See detailTowards sustainable food systems: the concept of agroecology and how it questions current research practices. A review
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Brédart, David ULiege et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement (2016), 20(Special issue 1), 215-224

Introduction. Multiple environmental and socio-economic indicators show that our current agriculture and the organization of the food system need to be revised. Agroecology has been proposed as a ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Multiple environmental and socio-economic indicators show that our current agriculture and the organization of the food system need to be revised. Agroecology has been proposed as a promising concept for achieving greater sustainability. This paper offers an overview and discussion of the concept based on existing literature and case studies, and explores the way it questions our current research approaches and education paradigms. Literature. In order to improve the sustainability of agriculture, the use of external and chemical inputs needs to be minimized. Agroecological farming practices seek to optimize ecological processes, thus minimizing the need for external inputs by providing an array of ecosystem services. Implementing such practices challenges the current structure of the food system, which has been criticized for its lack of social relevance and economic viability. An agroecological approach includes all stakeholders, from field to fork, in the discussion, design and development of future food systems. This inclusion of various disciplines and stakeholders raises issues about scientists and their research practices, as well as about the education of the next generation of scientists. Conclusions. Agroecology is based on the concept that agricultural practices and food systems cannot be dissociated because they belong to the same natural and socio-economic context. Clearly, agroecology is not a silver-bullet, but its principles can serve as avenues for rethinking the current approaches towards achieving greater sustainability. Adapting research approaches in line with indicators that promote inter- and transdisciplinary research is essential if progress is to be made. [less ▲]

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See detailL'agroforesterie en Belgique : atouts et freins dans le paysage agricole moderne
Boutsen, Raphaël; Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Claessens, Hugues ULiege et al

in Forêt.Nature (2016), 138

L'agroforesterie associe la production ligneuse d'arbres avec d'autres cultures ou avec l'élevage. Si des formes traditionnelles d'agroforesterie se sont perpétuées jusqu'à nos jours, grâce notamment à ... [more ▼]

L'agroforesterie associe la production ligneuse d'arbres avec d'autres cultures ou avec l'élevage. Si des formes traditionnelles d'agroforesterie se sont perpétuées jusqu'à nos jours, grâce notamment à des aides indirectes de la PAC, une nouvelle génération est en train d'émerger. Des modèles plus complexes et novateurs tentent d'intégrer l'arbre à une réflexion globale sur le système de production. La prise en compte des processus sous-jacents aux fonctionnements des écosystèmes est au cœur de cette réflexion... [less ▲]

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See detailDo crop models efficiently simulate crop under shade
Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Dumont, Benjamin ULiege; Lassois, Ludivine ULiege et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailAgroecology: Unity into diversity
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Boeraeve, Fanny ULiege et al

Poster (2015, May 21)

What does agroecology suggest ? Next to the theoretical agroecological principles, we present illustrative examples from farming practices, through the food system, up to the way of carrying agricultural ... [more ▼]

What does agroecology suggest ? Next to the theoretical agroecological principles, we present illustrative examples from farming practices, through the food system, up to the way of carrying agricultural research and education. [less ▲]

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See detailWinter wheat and summer shade
Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Lassois, Ludivine ULiege; Garré, Sarah ULiege et al

Poster (2014, December 18)

Agroforestry research is in full expansion, but uncertainty remains on the performance of combinations of species with regard to the broad range of possible species associations. In addition, the ... [more ▼]

Agroforestry research is in full expansion, but uncertainty remains on the performance of combinations of species with regard to the broad range of possible species associations. In addition, the variability of environmental conditions under which agroforestry stands can be successfully developed is unknown. Under Belgian pedoclimatic conditions, tree-crop competition for light might be the principal limiting factor in the agroforestry context. Most studies show that shade stress induces a systematic reduction of final crop yield. However, the response of a specific crop to shade is highly dependent on environmental conditions. In agroforestry systems, the tree canopy reduces the incident radiation for the crop following a dynamic spatio-temporal pattern. In this study, we will report on the efficiency of wheat under artificial dynamic shade in the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium in order to evaluate it’s potential for agroforestry purposes in the same region. Wheat productivity and development under artificial shade conditions have been monitored during 1 year and the observations will be continued for 2 more years. We constructed an artificial shade structure, which mimics the light environment observed under hybrid walnut agroforestry trees: periodic fluctuation in radiation transmittance and discontinuous light quantity. We collected information on biomass development, soil state and radiation patterns in the field. Using this data, we evaluated the influence of dynamic shade, light availability and the efficiency with which energy is converted in wheat dry matter under the artificial shade treatment. This, in combination with modeling, will allow a thorough study of the potential of wheat-walnut agroforestry systems in the Hesbaye region in Belgium [less ▲]

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See detailIncorporate agroecology within research : The on-going story of four young researchers
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Boeraeve, Fanny ULiege et al

in Broadening Scopes on Food, Squeezing Urban Hinterlands (2014, November 04)

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See detailWinter wheat and summer shade
Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Lassois, Ludivine ULiege; Garré, Sarah ULiege et al

Poster (2014, June)

Actually, agroforestry research is in full expansion; nevertheless, there remains uncertainty about the performance of combinations of species in regard to the broad range of possible species associations ... [more ▼]

Actually, agroforestry research is in full expansion; nevertheless, there remains uncertainty about the performance of combinations of species in regard to the broad range of possible species associations, as well as the variability of environmental conditions under which agroforestry stand can be develops. In Belgium, pedoclimatical conditions, cultural practices and information available in the literature suggest that light might be the principal tree/crop competitiveness resource in agroforestry context. In most study, responses induced by this shade stress condition converge toward a systematic reduction of crop final yield. However, the behavior of wheat to the shade will be highly dependent on environmental conditions. In fact, in agroforestry system, the tree canopy reduces the incident radiation for crop following a dynamic spatio-temporal pattern, considering tree phenology and sun/shade fluctuation in accordance to the path of the sun during the day. What about in wheat efficiency under a later shade, in Belgium? In Gembloux experimental farm, wheat productivity and development will be monitored over 3 years under artificial shade conditions. An original artificial shade structure has been thought to mimics the light environment observed under hybrid walnut agroforestry tree: periodic fluctuation in radiation transmittance and discontinuous light quantity. The aim of this work will be to evaluate the influence of latter shade, light availability and the efficiency with which she is converted in dried matter on wheat under artificial shade treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailThree aspects, One concept: Agroecology. Agroecological practices and human interactions for a new approach for science. An example at the Univeristy of Liege.
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Artru, Sidonie ULiege; Boeraeve, Fanny ULiege et al

Poster (2014, February 07)

Critics are raising about conventional farming and its consequences on biodiversity, human health and society. As alternatives, novel models for agriculture are proposed, and among them Agroecology. Quite ... [more ▼]

Critics are raising about conventional farming and its consequences on biodiversity, human health and society. As alternatives, novel models for agriculture are proposed, and among them Agroecology. Quite often, Agroecology is seen as the application of ecological knowledge to the agricultural production. Indeed, this helps to develop more ecological farming practices favoring biodiversity to provide ecosystem services at multiple scales. Agroecology goes further in considering that the agricultural production is integrated in a food system guided by human interactions. This latter one takes into account socio-economic and political dimensions to develop new production systems. Doing so, it assures food security worldwide while preserving resources for future generations. Facing these ambitious objectives, academics are invited to elaborate a new approach for science in developing participatory and action-oriented approaches as well as multidisciplinarity. AgricultureIsLife is a research platform built up at the University of Liège (ULg). In 2013, 40 researchers (including 18 young researchers) from 16 research units of ULg were working in a multidisciplinary approach. About twenty research topics have been divided in four research axes of which objectives are to develop a more sustainable agriculture. The platform has the ambition to discuss its results to a large comity gathering the actors of the agricultural development. The aim of our work is firstly to present Agrocology as a concept made of three interrelated aspects. To illustrate it, the organization and objectives of the research platform AgricultureIsLife will be discussed in a second part. [less ▲]

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