References of "Art, Tatiana"
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See detailAltered mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in horses suffering from polysaccharide storage myopathy.
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Art, Tatiana ULiege; Cassart, Dominique ULiege et al

in Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes (2018)

Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) is a widely described cause of exertional rhabdomyolysis in horses. Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energetics and are involved in human glycogen ... [more ▼]

Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) is a widely described cause of exertional rhabdomyolysis in horses. Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energetics and are involved in human glycogen storage diseases but their role has been overlooked in equine PSSM. We hypothesized that the mitochondrial function is impaired in the myofibers of PSSM-affected horses. Nine horses with a history of recurrent exercise-associated rhabdomyolysis were tested for the glycogen synthase 1 gene (GYS1) mutation: 5 were tested positive (PSSM group) and 4 were tested negative (horses suffering from rhabdomyolysis of unknown origin, RUO group). Microbiopsies were collected from the gluteus medius (gm) and triceps brachii (tb) muscles of PSSM, RUO and healthy controls (HC) horses and used for histological analysis and for assessment of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) using high-resolution respirometry. The modification of mitochondrial respiration between HC, PSSM and RUO horses varied according to the muscle and to substrates feeding OXPHOS. In particular, compared to HC horses, the gm muscle of PSSM horses showed decreased OXPHOS- and electron transfer (ET)-capacities in presence of glutamate&malate&succinate. RUO horses showed a higher OXPHOS-capacity (with glutamate&malate) and ET-capacity (with glutamate&malate&succinate) in both muscles in comparison to the PSSM group. When expressed as ratios, our results highlighted a higher contribution of the NADH pathway (feeding electrons into Complex I) to maximal OXPHOS or ET-capacity in both rhabdomyolysis groups compared to the HC. Specific modifications in mitochondrial function might contribute to the pathogenesis of PSSM and of other types of exertional rhabdomyolyses. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of a P-class CpG-ODN administered by intramuscular injection on plasma cytokines and on white blood cells of healthy horses
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Frellstedt, Linda; Bureau, Fabrice ULiege et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2018), 201

Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG-ODN) has been described as a potent immunostimulatory agent in different species. No study reported the effect and safety of a P-class CpG when administered by systemic ... [more ▼]

Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG-ODN) has been described as a potent immunostimulatory agent in different species. No study reported the effect and safety of a P-class CpG when administered by systemic injection in healthy horses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance and the effect of an intramuscularly administered P-class CpG-ODN on hematology and on plasma cytokines (IFN-α,IL-10, TNF-α,IFN-γ) in eight healthy horses. Intra-muscular CpG-ODN or placebo (PBS) was administered twice at a 7 days-interval. Groups were inversed after 2 months of washout period. A physical examination, complete blood count (CBC) and plasma cytokine measurements were performed from 2 days before injection up to 21 days after injection.P-class CpG-ODN injection was well tolerated with minor side effects. After the first injection a significant transient drop in circulating total leukocytes, lymphocytes and an increase in monocytes were observed. A transient drop in circulating eosinophils was also noted during 48 hours after each CpG injection. P-class CpG-ODN at a dose of 5 mg can be safely used in horses. A redistribution of white blood cells was observed in horses receiving CpG, but no change in plasma cytokines was observed at the indicated dose, route of administration and sampling times. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical outcome after surgical correction of cleft palate by laryngeal tie-forward in 2 horses
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Arevalo Rodriguez, José Manuel ULiege; Salciccia, Alexandra ULiege et al

Poster (2017)

Introduction: Cleft palate is a rare congenital defect in horses. Its description in literature is generally limited to cases of young foals referred for milk regurgitation from nostrils, coughing and ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Cleft palate is a rare congenital defect in horses. Its description in literature is generally limited to cases of young foals referred for milk regurgitation from nostrils, coughing and dysphagia, with a guarded to poor prognosis if not treated. Surgical intervention consists mainly in palatoplasty that is considered a salvage procedure and complications are frequent. Only few cases of cleft palate in adult horses are described in literature. Laryngeal tie-forward, a surgical technique generally used to treat dorsal displacement of the soft palate, has been described only in one 4-year-old pony with cleft palate but clinical improvement after surgery was partial and temporary. Objectives: To describe laryngeal tie-forward as a valid option for the treatment of cleft palate in two adult horses not suitable for palatoplasty. Methods: Clinical records of two 8 y.o. jumping horses performing respectively at a low and intermediate intensity of exercise and competition. Both horses were referred for respiratory noise, exercise intolerance, cough and alimentary nasal discharge; they were diagnosed with a moderate soft palate defect and surgically treated by laryngeal tie-forward. A clinical examination and control endoscopy were realized at 4 months for one horse and at 3 years after surgery for the other. Results: In both horses postoperative endoscopy showed a visible reduction of the gap between soft palate and the larynx so that the epiglottis was covering the soft palate defect. One horse was examined 4 months after surgery, a residual respiratory noise during exercise was still present but lighter than prior to intervention, its performances had remarkably improved. The second horse was controlled 3 years after surgery, some cough was still observed but limited to the onset of exercise, performances were satisfying and the horse was working at the same intensity level. Globally, in both horses, initial symptoms had disappeared or were significantly reduced after surgery and owners were satisfied. Reduction of the soft palate defect was still effective, even several months after surgery. Conclusions: The description of these two clinical cases shows that some horses can grow up to adult age with moderate defects of the soft palate; they are likely to show clinical signs of variable severity. In such cases laryngeal tie-forward should be considered as an option if the defect is too large or asymmetrical to be corrected with palatoplasty. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of methacholine bronchoprovocation test for the diagnosis of asymptomatic severe equine asthma
Frippiat, Thibault; Frellstedt, Linda; Tosi, Irène ULiege et al

Poster (2017)

Reasons for performing study: A group of experts in the field of equine respiratory disorders has recently proposed to rename Inflammatory Airway Disease and Recurrent Airway Obstruction as mild to ... [more ▼]

Reasons for performing study: A group of experts in the field of equine respiratory disorders has recently proposed to rename Inflammatory Airway Disease and Recurrent Airway Obstruction as mild to moderate and severe equine asthma (SEA) respectively, in reference of the human asthma. One of the characteristics of asthma, in equine and human patients, is the absence of clinical signs during clinical remission. Methacholine bronchoprovocation test (BPT), which is a standard diagnostic test for detection of asymptomatic human asthma, has been used in some research protocols in horses but no study has examined its potential value for clinical diagnostic. Objectives: To assess whether the methacholine bronchoprovocation test is an applicable and repeatable clinical test to distinguish control horses and SEA horses in clinical remission. Methods: Twelve horses (6 with SEA history and 6 controls). Seven of them (3 SEA and 4 control horses) underwent BPT twice at a 24-hour-interval to determine the repeatability of the test. Then all horses were tested before and after a 7-days period in a stall environment. Simultaneously, usual ancillary pulmonary examinations were performed. Results: The BPT had a good feasibility and a significant repeatability. Before the stay in stalls, SEA and controls horses could not be differentiated by the BPT. After a 7-days period of straw and hay exposure, the bronchial hyperresponsiveness was increased in both SEA and control horses, while the other clinical or functional parameters were not significantly affected. The 7-days period in stalls resulted in a significant difference in bronchoreactivity between SEA and control horses. Conclusions: Methacholine BPT does not permit to differentiate control and asymptomatic SEA horses in clinical remission, unless the horses have been kept in stalls. Potential relevance: These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying the bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma differ between human and equine patients. Nevertheless, the BPT may be used to detect asymptomatic severe asthmatic horses after a light environmental challenge. Further researches are needed to assess the clinical interest of BPT for subclinical mild-moderate equine asthma patients. [less ▲]

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See detailLe système respiratoire chez le cheval : le maillon faible de la chaîne de l'oxygène ?
Art, Tatiana ULiege; Tosi, Irène ULiege

in Nouveau Praticien Vétérinaire Equine (2016), 11(41), 6-11

Des études ont montré que la résistance des voies supérieures contribue pour 90% de la résistance totale lors de l'inspiration, alors que les voies profondes contribuent pour 50% de la résistance totale ... [more ▼]

Des études ont montré que la résistance des voies supérieures contribue pour 90% de la résistance totale lors de l'inspiration, alors que les voies profondes contribuent pour 50% de la résistance totale lors de l'expiration. Les maladies respiratoires sont, après les problèmes troubles ostéo-articulaires et les boiteries, la seconde cause d'intolérance à l'effort et de réforme chez les chevaux de course et de sport. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of a CpG-ODN on the innate immune system of the horse: an in-vivo trial
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Pirottin, Dimitri ULiege; Fievez, Laurence ULiege et al

Poster (2015, October 16)

Oligodeoxynucleotides containing cytosine-phosphate-guanosine motifs (CpG-ODN) represent a class of agonists of Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9). TLR9 activation induces the secretion of cytokines and the ... [more ▼]

Oligodeoxynucleotides containing cytosine-phosphate-guanosine motifs (CpG-ODN) represent a class of agonists of Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9). TLR9 activation induces the secretion of cytokines and the maturation of immune cells, thus initiating both innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, CpG-ODN has been investigated in different species as a potential immune-modulator targeting infectious, allergic and neoplastic diseases. It has been administered by nebulisation to RAO-affected horses with promising results. Nonetheless, there is no in-vivo study on the effect of CpG administered systemically to the horse. Therefore, we tested the effect of CpG, given by intramuscular injection, on the equine immune response. Eight horses were used for this study. Five mg/horse were injected to 4 horses at D0 and D7; the other horses received a placebo (PBS). Blood was collected 2 days prior to each injection, then regularly up to D21. A clinical exam was realised daily. Laboratory analyses included haematology, ELISA tests for IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-10 and cytometry analyses for MCHII and CD86 expressions on B-lymphocytes. A cross-over of the 2 groups was realised after 2 months of washout. CpG was well tolerated. Significant transient eosinopenia, monocytosis and leukopenia were observed after CpG injection, while ELISA and cytometry analyses did not reveal any significant modification. This trial represents the first in-vivo study where CpG is administered systemically to healthy horses. Further studies are needed to adjust the dose, the formulation and the sampling schedule and to fully investigate this molecule as potentiel modulator of the equine immune system. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of TLR7/8 in equine pulmonary alveolar macrophages
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Frellstedt, Linda; Pirottin, Dimitri ULiege et al

Poster (2015, October 08)

Purpose of the study: In both human and equine athletes, viral infections are common causes of respiratory diseases and of a sudden deterioration of expected performances. In both species, the underlying ... [more ▼]

Purpose of the study: In both human and equine athletes, viral infections are common causes of respiratory diseases and of a sudden deterioration of expected performances. In both species, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, and an involvement of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), a fundamental link between innate and adaptive immunity, has been advocated. Our objectives were to verify the presence of TLR7 and TLR8, responsible for the early anti-viral response in mammals, in equine pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and to assess their function through specific stimulation. Methods used: Equine PAMs were collected by broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), isolated by adherence and stimulated with specific TLR7/8 ligands (an imidazoquinoline compound and single-stranded RNA), mimicking a viral attack. The expression of TLR7/8 was evaluated by rt-PCR and the ligand-induced production of cytokines (type I-IFNs and TNF-α) was assessed via ELISA. Summary of results: Our study demonstrated the expression of TLR7/8 in equine PAMs. QPCR analyses showed a high relative expression of genes coding for TLR7 and TLR8 on equine PAM. Stimulation with specific TLR7/8 ligands resulted in significantly up-regulated production of IFN-β and TNF-α, thereby confirming that TLR7/8 are functional in equine PAMs and that they play a role in the early pulmonary antiviral response. Conclusions: This study shows that TLR7 and TLR8 are present and functional in equine PAM and that they could play a role in the early pulmonary antiviral response. In terms of future perspectives, it is interesting to suggest that the extensively demonstrated efficacy of TLR7 and TLR8 synthetic ligands in the treatment of viral diseases in human medicine could motivate the pursuit of clinical trials in the equine patient for the therapeutic management or prevention of viral respiratory infections. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning to look - Purpose and design of an awareness-raising online course in veterinary sciences
Tasnier, Sophie ULiege; Busoni, Valeria ULiege; Hanzen, Christian ULiege et al

in Prilla, M; Ullmann, T; Kravcik, M (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning (2015, September 15)

This paper reports on a work in progress: an online self-instruction course created to stimulate students’ awareness processes when dealing with pictures. Using non-clinical material, the “Learning to ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on a work in progress: an online self-instruction course created to stimulate students’ awareness processes when dealing with pictures. Using non-clinical material, the “Learning to Look” course was de-signed as a preliminary training to the observation of histological sections, radi-ological graphs, and other specialized visual material. Following a presentation of the project, salient results of a feedback questionnaire completed by 382 stu-dents about their experience of the course are provided. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Innate Immune Response of Equine Bronchial Epithelial Cells is Altered by Training
Frellstedt, Linda ULiege; Gosset, Philippe; Kervoaze, Gwenola et al

in Veterinary Research (2015), 46(3), 1-12

Respiratory diseases, including inflammatory airway disease (IAD), viral and bacterial infections, are common problems in exercising horses. The airway epithelium constitutes a major physical barrier ... [more ▼]

Respiratory diseases, including inflammatory airway disease (IAD), viral and bacterial infections, are common problems in exercising horses. The airway epithelium constitutes a major physical barrier against airborne infections and plays an essential role in the lung innate immune response mainly through toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. The aim of this study was to develop a model for the culture of equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) in vitro and to explore EBEC innate immune responses in trained horses. Bronchial epithelial biopsies were taken from 6 adult horses during lower airway endoscopy. EBEC were grown in vitro by an explant method. The innate immune response of EBEC was evaluated in vitro by treatment with TLR ligands. TLR3 is the most strongly expressed TLR at the mRNA level in EBEC and stimulation of EBEC with Poly(I:C), an analog of viral dsRNA, triggers a strong secretion of IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL8. We further evaluated the EBEC innate immune response in horses that underwent a 4-month-training program. While training had no effect on TLR mRNA expression in EBEC as well as in bronchial biopsies, it increased the production of IFN-β after stimulation with a TLR3 ligand and decreased the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 after stimulation with a TLR2 and TLR3 ligand. These findings may be implicated in the increased risk for viral and bacterial infections observed in sport horses. Altogether, we report a successful model for the culture of EBEC that can be applied to the investigation of pathophysiologic conditions in longitudinal studies. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression microarray as a tool to identify candidate blood biomarkers in horses suffering from inflammatory airway disease
Ramery, Eve ULiege; Fraipont, Audrey ULiege; Art, Tatiana ULiege et al

in Veterinary Clinical Pathology (2015), 44(1), 37-46

Background: Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) affects performance and well-being in horses. Diagnosis is primarily reached by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology but this is invasive and requires ... [more ▼]

Background: Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) affects performance and well-being in horses. Diagnosis is primarily reached by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology but this is invasive and requires sedation. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify candidate blood biomarkers of IAD using species-specific expression microarrays. Methods: Horse Gene Expression Microarrays were used to investigate global mRNA expression in circulating leukocytes from healthy and IAD-affected standardbreds and endurance horses. Results: Nine genes were significantly differentially regulated in standardbreds and 61 in endurance horses (P < 0.001). These genes were mainly related to inflammation (eg. ALOX15B, PLA2G12B and PENK), oxidant/antioxidant balance (eg. DUOXA2 and GSTO1-1) and stress (eg. V1aR, GRLF1, Homer-2 and MAOB). DUOXA2, ALOX15B, PLA2G12B, MAOB and GRLF1 variations of expression were further validated by RT-qPCR. The deregulation of the oxidant/antioxidant balance was demonstrated at the protein level by an increase of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in heparinised whole blood of IAD-affected standardbreds (P = 0.0025) and endurance horses (P = 0.0028). There was good correlation (r = 0.7354) between BAL neutrophil percentage and whole blood GPx activity in all horses. Conclusions: There is accumulating evidence that, even when systemic clinical signs are not evident, circulating leukocyte gene expression can reflect responses of other tissues, leading to potential diagnostic applications in the future. Although not specific for IAD, whole blood GPx activity appears to reflect BAL neutrophil percentage. This finding should be further assessed by testing a larger number of horses. [less ▲]

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See detailTraining Modifies Innate Immune Responses in Blood Monocytes and in Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages
Frellstedt, Linda ULiege; Waldschmidt, Ingrid; Gosset, Philippe et al

in American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology (2014), 51(1), 135-142

In humans, strenuous exercise causes increased susceptibility to respiratory infections associated with down-regulated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), co-stimulatory and antigen-presenting ... [more ▼]

In humans, strenuous exercise causes increased susceptibility to respiratory infections associated with down-regulated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), co-stimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules. Lower airway diseases are also a common problem in sport and racing horses. Because the innate immunity plays an essential role in lung defense mechanisms, we aimed to assess the effect of acute exercise and training on innate immune responses in two different compartments. Blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were collected from horses in an untrained, moderately and intensively trained as well as deconditioned state before and after a strenuous exercise test (SET). The cells were analysed for TLR mRNA expression by real-time PCR in vitro and the cytokine production after in vitro stimulation with TLR ligands was measured by ELISA. Our results showed that training, but not acute exercise, modified the innate immune responses in both compartments. The mRNA expression of TLR3 was down-regulated by training in both cell types, whereas the expression of TLR4 was up-regulated in monocytes. Monocytes treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL) showed increased cytokine secretion in trained and deconditioned subjects indicating the activation of cells at the systemic level. The production of TNF-alpha and IFN-beta in non-stimulated and stimulated PAM was decreased in trained and deconditioned horses and might therefore explain the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. Our study reports a dissociation between the systemic and the lung response to training that is probably implicated in the systemic inflammation and in the pulmonary susceptibility to infection. [less ▲]

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See detailLower airway function: response to exercise and training
Art, Tatiana ULiege; Bayly, Warwick

in Hinchcliff, Kenneth W.; Kaneps, Andris J.; Geor, Raymont J. (Eds.) Equine Sports Medicine and Surgery. Basic and clinical Sciences of the Equine Athlete. 2d Edition (2014)

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See detailExercise and immunity in horses
Art, Tatiana ULiege

in Hinchcliff, Kenneth W.; Kaneps, Andres J.; Geor, Raymond J. (Eds.) Equine Sports Medicine and Surgery. Basic and clinical Sciences of the Equine Athlete. 2d Edition (2014)

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See detailAltered mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in horses suffering from polysaccharide storage myopathy
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Art, Tatiana ULiege; Cassart, Dominique ULiege et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement (2014), 46(Suppl 46), 9

Introduction: Exertional myopathies are a common cause of exercise intolerance in the equine athlete, and Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy (PSSM) is a widely described muscular disease. It is characterized ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Exertional myopathies are a common cause of exercise intolerance in the equine athlete, and Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy (PSSM) is a widely described muscular disease. It is characterized by an accumulation of abnormal glycogen in myofibers due to a genetic defect in the skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1) enzyme. We hypothesized that energy production through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in muscular mitochondria might be impaired in type-1 PSSM-affected horses. Methods: Eight horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis were tested for the GYS1 mutation. Muscle biopsies were collected and used for histological analysis and high resolution respirometry (HRR). HRR values from 3 groups of horses (5 PSSM-positive horses, 3 horses with a history of myopathy but PSSM-negative and 16 healthy controls) were compared using a linear mixed model to take into account repeated (2–3 times) measurements made for each horse. Results: In 5/8 horses histology revealed an accumulation of abnormal glycogen in myofibers. These 5 horses also tested positive for the GYS1 mutation. A severe depression of maximal OXPHOS capacitywas observed by HRR in 7/8 horses with exertional rhabdomyolysis, with lower values in PSSM-positive cases (4/5). Conclusions: Our study shows a severely decreased OXPHOS capacity in PSSM-affected horses. PSSM is considered primarily a defect in glycogen synthesis but altered OXPHOS might play a central role in its pathogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence and Risk Factors for Various Cardiac Diseases in a Hospital-Based Population of 3434 Horses (1994-2011)
Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Detilleux, Johann ULiege; Sandersen, Charlotte ULiege et al

in Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2013), 27(6), 1563-70

Background: Risk factors for several cardiac diseases have been suspected in horses, but few have been statistically demonstrated in a large equine population. Objectives: To describe risk factors for ... [more ▼]

Background: Risk factors for several cardiac diseases have been suspected in horses, but few have been statistically demonstrated in a large equine population. Objectives: To describe risk factors for various cardiac diseases in a hospital-based equine population. Animals: Files of 3434 horses admitted at the internal medicine department of the Liege Equine Teaching Hospital between 1994 and 2011were reviewed and of those, 284 were categorized as suffering from moderate to severe cardiac disease. Methods: Observational study. After calculating prevalence for each cardiac disease, we tested whether breed (chi-square test) or gender, age, body weight (BW) and other cardiac diseases (logistic regressions) were risk factors (p<0.05 significant). Results: Mitral regurgitation (MR, 4.4%), atrial fibrillation (AF, 2.3%), aortic regurgitation (AR, 2.1%) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR, 1.7%) were the most common cardiac abnormalities. Determinants were male gender and increasing age for AR (OR=2.03, CI=1.07-4.94), racehorses breed and middle-age for TR (OR=4.36; CI=1.10-17.24), and high BW for AF (OR=3.54; CI=1.67-7.49). MR was the major valvular disease associated with AF, pathological ventricular arrhythmia, pulmonary regurgitation (PR) and congestive heart failure (CHF). TR was also linked to AF, PR and CHF; AR was not linked to CHF. Conclusions and clinical importance: Several previously suspected risks factors of a variety of equine cardiac diseases are statistically confirmed in the studied hospital-based population. Similar observation could be suspected in a larger randomized population and should be taken into account in health and sport’s monitoring of horses presenting predisposing factors. [less ▲]

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See detailAltered mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in horses suffering from polysaccharide storage myopathy
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Art, Tatiana ULiege; Cassart, Dominique ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the Third FMV Scientific Meeting (2013, October 11)

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See detailThe challenge of understanding myopathies in horses using permeabilized muscle cells
Votion, Dominique ULiege; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULiege; Ceusters, Justine ULiege et al

in In proceedings 9th Conference on Mitochondrial Physiology (2013, September)

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See detailRisks factors for valvular regurgitations in 3499 equids: a cross-sectional study.
Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Detilleux, Johann ULiege; Sandersen, Charlotte ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 2013 ACVIM Forum (2013)

Risk factors for valvular regurgitations (VR) have been suspected in equids, but no extensive epidemiologic study has been performed in a large mixed equine population. Therefore, the aim of this study ... [more ▼]

Risk factors for valvular regurgitations (VR) have been suspected in equids, but no extensive epidemiologic study has been performed in a large mixed equine population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to statistically test risk factors for VR in a large population of equids. Hospital records were reviewed for 3.499 equids, admitted at the internal medicine department of the Liege Equine Teaching Hospital between 1994 and 2011, aged ≥2 years, and which underwent thorough cardiac clinical evaluation. Of this population, 495 cases had ECG and echocardiography performed because of a clinical suspicion of cardiac disease. Chi-square test or logistic regressions (as appropriate) were used to test if breed, gender, age, body weight (BW), and co-existence of various cardiac diseases were risk factors for each VR. Moreover, the risk of development of congestive heart failure (CHF) was tested for each VR. Significance was set at p<0.05. Most of the studied animals were warmbloods, and observed prevalences were 4.4% for mitral regurgitation (MR), 2.1% for aortic regurgitation (AR), 1.7% for tricuspid regurgitation (TR), and 1.0% for pulmonary regurgitation (PR). Significant risk factors were male gender and increasing age for AR (OR=2.03, CI=1.07-4.94), and racehorses breed group and middle-age for TR (OR=4.36; CI=1.10-17.24). No effect of age or BW was demonstrated for MR. MR was the major valvular disease associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), ventricular tachyarrhythmia, PR and CHF. TR was also linked to AF, PR and CHF; but AR was not linked to CHF. In conclusion, several previously suspected risks factors for VR were confirmed statistically in this study and should be taken into account in health and athletic monitoring of horses presenting predisposing factors. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk factors for atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 3499 equids admitted at the liege university equine hospital between 1994 and 2011
Leroux, Aurélia ULiege; Detilleux, Johann ULiege; Sandersen, Charlotte ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 2013 ECEIM Congress (2013)

Risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) and pathological ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) have been suspected in equids, however little epidemiologic data exists. The aim of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) and pathological ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) have been suspected in equids, however little epidemiologic data exists. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for AF and VTA in a large equine population. Case files of 3499 equids admitted to the internal medicine department of the Liege University Equine Teaching Hospital between 1994 and 2011were reviewed. Amongst them, 495 horses with a suspicion of a cardiac abnormality underwent ECG and echocardiography. After calculation of prevalence of AF and VTA, we tested whether breed (chi-square test) or gender, age, body weight (BW) and presence of other cardiac diseases (logistic regressions) were risk factors (significance set at p<0.05). In the studied population, prevalence of AF was high (2.3%), whereas prevalence of VTA was low (0.7%). Warmbloods and standardbreds were significantly overrepresented in AF cases. High BW was a risk factor for AF (OR=3.54; CI=1.67-7.49), whereas age was not. No effect of breed, age or BW was demonstrated for VTA. AF was observed significantly more frequently in horses presenting with moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (MR), tricuspid regurgitation, and pulmonary regurgitation, and VTA was significantly more frequent in horses with MR. Several previously suspected but not statistically demonstrated risk factors of AF were confirmed in this study and horses presenting valvular disease could be at increased risk of developing AF and VTA. [less ▲]

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See detailTraining modifies the innate immune response both in the airways and in blood in horses
Frellstedt, Linda ULiege; Gosset, Philippe; Desmet, Christophe ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the ICI (2013)

Lower airway diseases are common problems in sports and racing horses. In humans, exercise has been associated with upper respiratory tract infections due to down-regulated expression of Toll-like ... [more ▼]

Lower airway diseases are common problems in sports and racing horses. In humans, exercise has been associated with upper respiratory tract infections due to down-regulated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), costimulatory and antigen-presenting molecules on monocytes. The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the expression of TLRs in equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) and blood monocytes in untrained and trained horses; 2) to stimulate EBEC and monocytes in vitro with TLR ligands, in order to mimic bacterial/viral infections; 3) to compare the cytokine production of EBEC and monocytes in untrained and trained horses. Bronchial biopsies were taken from 8 horses during lower airway endoscopy at rest and 24 hours after a standardized exercise test (SET). Bronchial epithelial cells were grown in vitro and activated with TLR ligands. Blood monocytes were collected at rest and after the SET. TLR1-TLR9 expression was evaluated via real-time PCR and cytokine production was measured via ELISA. TLR3 and TLR4 expression was modified by training. The expression of TLR2, TLR7 and TLR8 was modified only by strenuous exercise in trained horses. Training had local immuno-suppressive effects shown by a decreased production of TNF-alpha and IFN-beta in EBEC in response to TLR2 and TLR3 ligands. Training also caused a systemic pro-inflammatory response evidenced by increased production of TNF-alpha in monocytes in response to TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. These findings suggest that training and strenuous exercise in trained subjects may result in an increased susceptibility of the lower airway to infections associated with systemic inflammation. [less ▲]

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