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See detailEvaluation of thermal comfort in an office building in the humid tropical climate of Benin
Kiki, Gratien Jesugo Dieudonné ULiege; Kouchade, Clément; Houngan, Aristide Comlan et al

in Building and Environment (2020), 185

Benin, like most West African countries, is confronted with the lack of indoor thermal comfort standards adapted to the realities of the region. This situation leads to the adoption of Western comfort ... [more ▼]

Benin, like most West African countries, is confronted with the lack of indoor thermal comfort standards adapted to the realities of the region. This situation leads to the adoption of Western comfort standards, the consequences of which can be seen in the discomfort of building occupants and above all in significant energy losses. This justifies the need to identify, among the many comfort models developed in the literature, those that are better adapted to the evaluation of thermal comfort in buildings in Benin. Thus, after a literature review on the subject, two comfort models were found to be relevant for the assessment of thermal comfort in air-conditioned buildings in hot and humid regions. These are the adaptive models of L´opez-P´erez and al. and Indraganti and al. The application of these two models on an air-conditioned office building located in the city of Cotonou in southern Benin, resulted in comfort temperatures of 26.1◦Cand 26◦Crespectively. These values, very close to the average neutral temperature of the occupants (26.1◦C), reveal the effectiveness of these adaptive models in assessing thermal comfort in the said building. Moreover, the application of Fanger’s static model (PMV) and hybrid models (aPMV and PMVnew) has shown that the PMVand aPMVof Yao and al. underestimate the adaptability of the occupants to relatively high comfort temperatures while the PMVnewof Olissan and al. overestimates this adaptability. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence de l'inertie thermique et hydrique des éco-matériaux dans l'amélioration de l'efficacité énergétique des bâtiments
Kiki, Gratien Jesugo Dieudonné ULiege; Hougan, Aristide; Andre, Philippe ULiege et al

Conference (2019, December 03)

Building sector consumes about 40% of the world's energy and emits 40 to 50% of greenhouse gases (GHG). It thus becomes the main actor of the global warming of the planet. According to a study conducted ... [more ▼]

Building sector consumes about 40% of the world's energy and emits 40 to 50% of greenhouse gases (GHG). It thus becomes the main actor of the global warming of the planet. According to a study conducted by the International Energy Agency in 2013, global energy demand in the building sector is expected to increase by 50% by 2050, further accentuating global warming. Several studies showed that the use of eco-materials in the building envelope improves the hygrothermal comfort of the premises and therefore contributes to reducing the energy consumption of buildings. In Benin, almost all the studies carried out in this field are limited to the characterization of these materials. Thus, apart from the hygro-thermo-mechanical characterization of selected eco-materials, our study is also interested in the evaluation of energy gains that can be made. Through simulations under TRNSYS and Wufi software, the envelope of an existing office building is made with selected eco-materials to study the influence of the thermal and hydric inertia of the latter on energy consumption. of the building and the comfort of these occupants. Through this communication, we present results obtained from a thermal comfort survey conducted among occupants and a campaign to monitor the energy consumption of conditioning equipment (air conditioners and fans) in our building study. As selected eco-materials, we have: Compressed Earth Bricks (BTC) whose matrix is cement stabilized clay and reinforced by biosourced materials such as quackgrass, oil palm fibers and chips of wood. Their thermal parameters (thermal conductivity, diffusivity and effusivity) are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailMéthodes de caractérisation thermo-mecanique des éco-matériaux et modèles d’évaluation du confort et de la performance énergétique des bâtiments
Kiki, Gratien Jesugo Dieudonné ULiege; Hougan, Aristide; Andre, Philippe ULiege et al

Conference (2019, September 16)

Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems are the main source of the significant energy consumption of buildings. Their use is justified by the need to ensure the hygrothermal comfort of the ... [more ▼]

Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems are the main source of the significant energy consumption of buildings. Their use is justified by the need to ensure the hygrothermal comfort of the occupants. However, the use of eco-materials in the building envelope represents a passive means of improving indoor thermal comfort. They therefore contribute to reducing the energy consumption of buildings. Thus, in order to carry out our research work on the influence of the thermal and hydric inertia of eco-materials on the energy efficiency of buildings, a bibliographical study was carried out on eco-materials and the concepts of thermal comfort and energy efficiency in buildings. At the end of this study, the clay - quackgrass straw composite was chosen for the continuation of our work. Methods such as hot tape, gravimetric method and mechanical compression and bending tests were respectively chosen to carry out the thermal (thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity), hydric (sorption isotherms) and mechanical characterizations of the composite. These data will then feed the simulations under TRNSYS and Wufi in order to compare the energy and thermal comfort performances of this composite with those of a building built with conventional materials. The ‘〖PMV〗_new’ and the 'Evidence-based model calibration for energy services' are the methods chosen to assess the thermal comfort level in the test building and its energy consumption profile respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailMethod for Building Model Calibration to Assess Overheating Risk in a Passive House in Summer
Abrahams, Pauline ULiege; Lang, Marie ULiege; Falzone, Claudia ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 16th IBPSA Internation Conference and Exhibition (2019, September 03)

Overheating is a major problem that may occur, especially in high-performing buildings. The insulation thickness that is currently installed in passive houses (around 30 cm) may indeed lead to severe ... [more ▼]

Overheating is a major problem that may occur, especially in high-performing buildings. The insulation thickness that is currently installed in passive houses (around 30 cm) may indeed lead to severe overheating problems if this is some mitigated by adequate solar gains control and/or efficient ventilation schemes and strategies. This risk is expressed in percentage and calculated when the indoor temperature is above 25°C. For instance, the acceptable limit for a passive house is set at 5% over a year as defined by the Passive House Platform standard in Belgium(Vandenberghe & VanLoon, 2013). To assess overheating, dynamic simulation is a valuable approach that can be used to calculate the overheating risk and to assess the efficiency of overheating control measures. This paper presents an approach where a detailed simulation model of a passive house was developed (using TRNSYS Type 56), calibrated on the basis of measurements carried out in a typical house in Belgium and then used to compare different overheating mitigation strategies. The accuracy of the simulated model was assessed by calculating statistical indices. When the calibration results have shown a good match between measured and simulated data, the model was used in dynamic simulations to determine the best solution to reduce the risk of overheating in house under study. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a network of connected labs and a platform for remote testing of the energy performance of building systems in the Greater Region
Botquin, Grégoire ULiege; Abrahams, Pauline ULiege; Kimmling, Mathias et al

in Stanek, Wojciech; Gladysz, Pawel; Werle, Sebastian (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 32 th International Conference on Efficiency, Costs, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (2019, June 26)

Experimentations and validations are essential elements of scientific research, especially on studying and improving the energy performance of buildings. Different types of specialized laboratories exist ... [more ▼]

Experimentations and validations are essential elements of scientific research, especially on studying and improving the energy performance of buildings. Different types of specialized laboratories exist to carry out such experiments, particularly in the Greater Region: the cross-border region extending over Wallonia in Belgium, Grand-Est region in France, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland in Germany, and Luxembourg. The equipment of those labs is closely linked to their individual focus on energy performance research and is to date only operable on site. In the framework of the European program Interreg V-A Greater Region, the “RCC/KN” (Climate Chambers Network) project was funded in order to participate to the specific goal of the program consisting in strengthening cross-border cooperation in the field of research in the Greater Region. The aim of the project is to connect laboratories in a network that involves classic aspects of exchanging experiences, practices or researchers but also aims at implementing a remote connection between labs. Here the remote connectivity between laboratories is intended to allow sharing their different equipment based on a messaging platform and the use of emulation techniques. The platform is going to provide real time data exchange to perform remote tests between the connected labs on the network. The connection between the different sites has to be tested in order to continue towards an experimental phase involving the connected laboratory equipment and resources. The present paper aims to describe the development of the messaging platform and to present the first outcomes of preliminary connection tests between involved labs. The potential applications and contributions of the network are described as perspectives of the research. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of micro combined heat and power systems in the Walloon residential sector through dynamic simulation
Cousin, Vincent ULiege; Davin, Elisabeth ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

Scientific conference (2018, December 12)

Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems are known for a long time and are well established especially in the industrial sector where they allow interesting energy savings. However, the application of this ... [more ▼]

Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems are known for a long time and are well established especially in the industrial sector where they allow interesting energy savings. However, the application of this technology in the residential and small tertiary sectors remains difficult due to the irregularity and the low heat demand during certain months of the year. The “Smart Micro Cogen” project focused on evaluating the potential of micro CHP systems (≤ 50kWe) in the Belgian building stock (residential and small tertiary sector) by means of dynamic simulation using TRNSYS 17 software. This work provides the hypotheses allowing representing the Belgian residential building stock and the different elements taken into account in the modelling and simulation of a complex HVAC system including a micro CHP system. Some results of the various simulations performed will be presented to show the robustness of the proposed modeling. [less ▲]

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See detailPositive Energy Houses, envelope and systems integrated optimization by means of dynamic simulations
Abrahams, Pauline ULiege; Scheuren, Claude ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

Conference (2018, December 10)

In the framework of the Interreg IV-A Greater Region project called « VallEnergie » four projects of residential houses with “positive energy performance” were analysed. The main purpose of the study was ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the Interreg IV-A Greater Region project called « VallEnergie » four projects of residential houses with “positive energy performance” were analysed. The main purpose of the study was to define the optimal choices in terms of envelope and energy system in the building in order to reach the high performance level of a “Positive Energy House” (PEH in this paper). The first step was to determine what was meant by the term “Positive Energy House” and to define criteria used to characterize energy and comfort performance of such house. The concept of « Positive Energy house » defined in the project had to be in adequacy with European definition, therefore a complete state of the art of NZEB concept in Europe was carried out. The collected information was used to establish the specifications document of “PEH” in concertation with the project consortium. By means of TRNSYS17 software different sets of variants were assessed by thermal dynamic simulations and compared in order to define the optimal choice of insulation strategy and heating, DHW and Renewable Energy production systems configuration to reach the PEH performance as defined in the specification document of “VallEnergie” project. The paper will present the selected hypotheses of the simulation models, describe the applications that were developed in TRNSYS and discuss the results of the different variants. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the flexibility potential of buildings in the Greater Region to contribute to the management of the grid: study case for two reference buildings in Belgium
Abrahams, Pauline ULiege; Botquin, Grégoire ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (2018, June)

The Interreg Va Pth4GR²ID project (“Power to Heat For the Greater Region’ Renewables Integration and Development”) focuses on the determination of an optimal solution at a technical, economic and ... [more ▼]

The Interreg Va Pth4GR²ID project (“Power to Heat For the Greater Region’ Renewables Integration and Development”) focuses on the determination of an optimal solution at a technical, economic and ecological point of view for the use of heat pumps in Greater Region (Wallonia BE, Luxembourg LU, Grand-Est FR, Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland DE) as storage solution to absorb the part of local renewable electrical production that could not be injected into the grid (because of grid generation congestion risks). The decision to work with this kind of solution is justified because of the important part of total energy consumed in the residential sector for buildings heating. The present paper focuses on the flexibility potential evaluation of two residential buildings in order to evaluate their contribution to the electrical grid management in the Greater Region. The work is based upon simulations which are run with TRNSYS software. The capacity of buildings to deal with a heating system cut-off strategy during winter is assessed by means of comfort and energy performance indicators. The goal of this study is to assess in which way the selected buildings will respond to a heating cut-off (in case of grid congestion, the heat pumps will be switched off) and to analyse their “flexibility” as a function of design parameters series. The flexibility takes into account the comfort and the energy aspect of buildings performance. The first part of this paper presents the method used to select the reference buildings in Wallonia and the second part is dedicated to the evaluation their flexibility according to several heating management scenarios. This evaluation is realized by means of specific performance indicators which were developed the project. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal comfort and air quality: one-year measurement, analysis and feed back to users of an educational building
Thomas, Sébastien ULiege; Hennaut, Samuel ULiege; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in Windsor Rethinking Comfort Proceedings (2018, April)

Whereas thermal comfort and air quality in buildings are often measured locally and over a short-term period, the complaints of user may occur everywhere in the building regardless the time of the day or ... [more ▼]

Whereas thermal comfort and air quality in buildings are often measured locally and over a short-term period, the complaints of user may occur everywhere in the building regardless the time of the day or the season. The dynamic nature of indoor environments make it hard to closely assess and compare the comfort conditions in the day-to-day life within all the spaces of a building over time. In this study, thermal comfort and air quality have been measured in four teaching rooms in a university building located in Belgium. The analysis gives a letter (A-B-C or D) for the comfort and the air quality for each room. The computed level of thermal comfort and air-quality is shown to users on a yearly and monthly basis via the TV screen located in the building. The vulgarisation, or sharing of the results with the building occupants makes the users aware of their own impact on comfort conditions and the options available for them to improve them through their own actions. The whole year gathered data illustrates the various occupancy patterns and highlights the opportunities to improve comfort:. On the one hand, the results shown a low air quality, the CO2 thresholds have been modified. On the other hand, the summer comfort, was found to be poor in two rooms. This argues with the landlord to do something to improve the comfort especially in these rooms. [less ▲]

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See detailIntégration système et simulation
Hennaut, Samuel ULiege; Davin, Elisabeth ULiege; Baiwir, Romain ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2017, September 20)

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See detailCalibration of a building simulation model to evaluate the overheating risk in summer period – case study of a passive house in Belgium
Abrahams, Pauline ULiege; Rehab, Imane; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in 30th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS 2017) (2017, July)

A method based upon a calibrated model of building is proposed here to evaluate the performance in terms of thermal comfort during summer in a passive house. A model of the house was developed and this ... [more ▼]

A method based upon a calibrated model of building is proposed here to evaluate the performance in terms of thermal comfort during summer in a passive house. A model of the house was developed and this model was used to determine optimal solutions (cost and efficiency) to reduce or avoid the overheating that could occur in the building. The first step of this work consisted in the calibration of the thermal response of the simulation building model by comparison with the internal temperatures measured in the passive house during summer period. The simulations took into account the occupancy in the house and several other parameters in order to match the temperature sensors data of the house. These parameters were adjusted thanks to sensitivity analysis. An assessment of the accuracy of the simulated model was conducted by computation of sensitivity indicators. When the results of calibration showed a good matching between reference and simulated buildings the simulations were used to assess the best solution to reduce the overheating in passive house rooms which is occurring when the percentage of overheating time is over 5% (Passive House Platform standard in Belgium). [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of HVAC indoor terminal units by using T-Q diagram : an experimental study
Ajaji, Youness; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in Heiselberg, Per (Ed.) CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress : volume 10. (2016, May)

The T-Q diagram is a widely used tool in the industry to optimize the design and the number of heat exchangers in a process. The principle consists in minimizing the quantity ∫TdQ in WK called entransy ... [more ▼]

The T-Q diagram is a widely used tool in the industry to optimize the design and the number of heat exchangers in a process. The principle consists in minimizing the quantity ∫TdQ in WK called entransy dissipation. We performed an experimental study in climatic chamber in order to apply the T-Q diagram method for the choice of the best indoor terminal device in an office submitted to a summer climate in Brussels and for the choice of the operating parameters water flow rate and water temperature. We tested four terminal units coupled to a cooling water tank by using a reversible air-water chiller: a mixing ventilation, a displacement ventilation, the mixing ventilation combined with a low inertia hydronic radiant floor, the displacement ventilation combined with the low inertia hydronic radiant floor. The tests were performed under stationary conditions. We plot the T-Q diagram and we assessed the entransy dissipations for each system and various operating parameters. We measured thermal comfort within the climatic chamber. Tests showed that air systems were less efficient than ventilation combined with radiant floor and that the combination of displacement ventilation with radiant floor was the best system. The study also showed that entransy dissipation values represented the real quality of the indoor terminal units. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy performance of buildings : bridging the gap between research and practice
Masy, G.; Ajaji, Youness; Abrahams, Pauline ULiege et al

in Heiselberg, Per Kvols (Ed.) CLIMA 2016 - proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress : vol. 6 (2016, May)

A method to bridge the gap between research and practice, as far as estimation of the building envelope Heat Loss Coefficient is concerned, is to perform measurement of indoor temperature profiles during ... [more ▼]

A method to bridge the gap between research and practice, as far as estimation of the building envelope Heat Loss Coefficient is concerned, is to perform measurement of indoor temperature profiles during unoccupied periods when the solar heat gains are sufficient to reach significant indoor-outdoor temperature differences. An observation of indoor temperature profiles was conducted during summer 2014 in a passive house located in Belgium. The observation includes periods with and without occupancy. Occupants were asked to describe their behavior regarding windows opening, closing of external blinds, opening of internal doors. Electric devices were listed and the electricity consumption profile was characterized during occupancy and no occupancy. A calibration process is performed in order to reproduce the global heat balance of the whole building and the zone by zone heat balance. The calibrated model provides an estimation of the Building Heat Loss Coefficient. The influence of the assumptions related to occupants’ behavior in summer is confirmed and recommendations are made to better describe that behavior in terms of use of mechanical ventilation, internal doors opening and use of external blinds. [less ▲]

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See detailAbout the use of CO2 as tracer gas for identification of air renewal; combination with co-heating test
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Aparecida Silva; Davin, Elisabeth ULiege et al

in Heiselberg, Per Kvols (Ed.) CLIMA 2016 - Proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress : volume 5 (2016)

Three types of tracer gas test are, until now, mentioned in international standards: Injection at constant indoor concentration, injection at constant flow rate and transient injection followed by a ... [more ▼]

Three types of tracer gas test are, until now, mentioned in international standards: Injection at constant indoor concentration, injection at constant flow rate and transient injection followed by a recording of the decontamination curve. A fourth method is proposed in this paper: it is based on the same scenario as the third method, but with weighting of the mass of tracer gas (CO2) injected and integration of the curve of indoor concentration on the whole testing period. The concentration peak is used to identify the “effective” volume of the building zone considered; this volume, associated to the final concentration, is used to calculate the amount of CO2 remaining inside the zone at the end of the test. The total mass of renovation air is then deduced from the corresponding CO2 mass balance. The CO2 can be injected from a bottle or directly produced by combustion on site. In the latter case, the tracer gas method is combined with a co-heating test. It can be done, for example, with a current camping butane cooker: From the weighting of this device and continuous recording of air temperature, CO2 concentration and humidity ratio, three significant (energy, CO2 and water) balances are established in such a way to verify and tune a reference simulation model of the building zone. [less ▲]

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See detailSupport for energy and comfort management in an office building using smart electrochromic glazing : dynamic simulations
Ajaji, Youness; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in Mathur, Jyotirmay; Garg, Vishal (Eds.) Proceedings of BS2015 : 14th conference of IBPSA (2016)

] In this research, we look for a control strategy of the electrochromic windows, depending on the measurement of the vertical outdoor illuminance and the outdoor temperature, for an efficient highly ... [more ▼]

] In this research, we look for a control strategy of the electrochromic windows, depending on the measurement of the vertical outdoor illuminance and the outdoor temperature, for an efficient highly glazed office building in Brussels. We simulate this building in TRNSYS. We implement a Perez model in TRNSYS to assess the vertical diffuse outdoor illluminance. As the building is equipped with a dimmable lighting system, we assess the average indoor illuminance. We simulate the switching dynamics of the elctrochromic window and we implement a control strategy. Finally, we evaluate the primary energy consumption due to HVAC and lighting, the risk of overheating and the average indoor illuminance. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart Grid Energy Flexible Buildings through the use of Heat Pumps and Building Thermal Mass as Energy Storage in the Belgian context
Masy, Gabrielle; Georges, Emeline ULiege; Verhelst, Clara et al

in Science and Technology for the Built Environment (2015), 21(6), 800-811

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See detailEtude des besoins énergétiques du chauffage et du refroidissement d'un bâtiment administratif au Maroc.
Yessouf, R.; Mezrhab, A.; Andre, Philippe ULiege

Conference (2015, April)

Le gouvernement marocain vise à réaliser une économie d’énergie primaire d’environ 12%à l’horizon 2020 en mettant en place un plan d’efficacité énergétique dans les différents secteurs économiques. En ... [more ▼]

Le gouvernement marocain vise à réaliser une économie d’énergie primaire d’environ 12%à l’horizon 2020 en mettant en place un plan d’efficacité énergétique dans les différents secteurs économiques. En effet, le secteur de bâtiment est un gros consommateur d’énergie, mais en même temps possède le plus fort potentiel d’amélioration de l’efficacité énergétique au Maroc. C’est dans cette perspective s’inscrit ce travail. En considérant un bâtiment administratif type, l’étude a été effectuée sous le logiciel TRNsys pour calculer le bilan énergétique (besoins annuelles de chauffage et de refroidissement) de cette construction qui ne contient pas des mesures d’efficacité énergétique dans les six zones climatiques du Maroc. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization-based calibration for dynamic building simulation models : a case study
Monetti, Valentina; Davin, Elisabeth ULiege; Fabrizio, Enrico et al

in Mathur, Jyotirmay; Garg, Vishal (Eds.) Proceedings of BS2015: 14th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association (2015)

This study presents an original methodology for calibrating building energy models based on monitored data. An optimization-based approach was applied to a monitored test building coupling the building ... [more ▼]

This study presents an original methodology for calibrating building energy models based on monitored data. An optimization-based approach was applied to a monitored test building coupling the building simulation program EnergyPlus with the optimization software GenOpt. An objective function was set to minimize the difference between the simulated and the monitored energy consumption at the hour time scale, varying the building model parameters selected at the beginning as the most influencing. After calibration, the observed heating energy consumption of the case study matched closely the monitored data, the model accuracy was verified according to the MBE and the Cv(RMSE) limit set by the ASHRAE guideline 14. [less ▲]

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See detailCalibration of building energy simulation models based on optimization: A case study
Monetti, V.; Davin, Elisabeth ULiege; Fabrizio, E. et al

in Energy Procedia (2015), 78

This study applies an optimization-based approach for calibrating building energy models using monitored data. The calibration was carried out on a test building coupling the EnergyPlus energy simulation ... [more ▼]

This study applies an optimization-based approach for calibrating building energy models using monitored data. The calibration was carried out on a test building coupling the EnergyPlus energy simulation tool with the GenOpt optimization tool. The objective function was set to minimize the difference between simulated and monitored energy consumption. For evaluating the model accuracy, the Mean Bias Error (MBE) and the Coefficient of Variation of the RMSE (Cv (RMSE)) were calculated and found consistent with ASHRAE guideline 14 limits for a model to be considered calibrated. © 2015 The Authors. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy performance charactirisation of the test case "twin house" in Holzkirchen, based on Trnsys simulation and grey box model.
Rehab, Imane; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in Mathur, Jyotirmay; Garg, Vishal (Eds.) Proceedings of BS2015: 14th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association (2015)

In the frame of the IEA Annex 58 project, this paper presents an exercise of building energy performance characterization based on full scale dynamic measurements. First focus of the exercise is the ... [more ▼]

In the frame of the IEA Annex 58 project, this paper presents an exercise of building energy performance characterization based on full scale dynamic measurements. First focus of the exercise is the verification and validation of the numerical TRNSYS BES-model of the case study test house in Holzkirchen. Second focus is on the modelling of the house through a second order inverse “grey box” model in order to determine reliable performance indicators which include UA-value, total heat capacity, and solar aperture. Final issue is the comparison of predicted indoor temperatures of free floating period, results of TRNSYS and “grey box” models simulation. [less ▲]

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