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See detailEffects of the class II Carriere motion® appliance on children: A randomized controlled trial
Clermont, Anaïs; Albert, Adelin ULiege; BRUWIER, Annick ULiege

in Journal of Clinical Orthodontics (in press)

Objective: To assess the skeletal, dento-alveolar and dental effects of the class II Carriere motion® on young subjects. Materials and Methods: 32 class II subjects (mean age 9.4 ± 1.6 years) were ... [more ▼]

Objective: To assess the skeletal, dento-alveolar and dental effects of the class II Carriere motion® on young subjects. Materials and Methods: 32 class II subjects (mean age 9.4 ± 1.6 years) were randomly allocated to either the Carriere motion® appliance group (n=15), or to a control group (n=17). Digital dental cast measurements and cephalometric analysis were performed before treatment (T0), at removal of the device for the appliance group, and after a period of 9 months for the control group (T1). The duration of treatment was recorded and the patient’s satisfaction with the appliance was assessed through a questionnaire. Results: The effects of the Carriere Motion leading to Class I were essentially dento-alveolar. Significant decreases of ANB and SNA angles were evidenced, as well as an increase by 1.3 degree of FMA angle compared to control subjects. Distalization and distal rotation of upper molars were observed. The mandibular teeth mesialized and the lower incisors proclined. A clockwise rotation of the occlusal plane occurred. The treatment lasted 7.6 ± 1.6 months with a mean of 6.1 ± 1.1 appointments. The patient experience with the Carriere motion® was quite positive. Conclusion: The Carriere motion® proved its efficiency in correcting class II malocclusion, essentially by dento-alveolar effects. This easy-to-use appliance is indicated in early orthodontic treatment, when the correction is urgently required (prevention of incisor trauma in case of large overjet, periodontal risk for upper incisor in case of deep bite and sleep apnea). [less ▲]

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See detailNutritional status of inmates in the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi, Democratic Republic of Congo
De Coninck, Gérard; Okenge Ngongo, Leon; Ilunga Ilunga, Félicien et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Background: The nutritional situation in prisons of developing countries and the health status of inmates remain a major human rights concern. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional ... [more ▼]

Background: The nutritional situation in prisons of developing countries and the health status of inmates remain a major human rights concern. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of inmates jailed in a prison of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted over a 4-month period in the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi, DRC. Three hundred inmates were selected according to the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Severe malnutrition was defined according to Buzby index and Nutritional Risk Index (NRI). Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The inmates were aged between 18 and 70 years and primarily males (88.7%). Of them, 24% were suffering from severe malnutrition and 62% of moderate malnutrition as based on the NRI. At the time of study, 88% of inmates were incarcerated for more than 6 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that factors independently associated with severe malnutrition were incarceration of more than 6 months (OR=5.1; 95% CI [1.5-17.4]), origin of food (prison vs. family or NGO) (OR=4.7; 95% CI [1.6-13.8]) but also presence of tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus and/or intestinal infections (OR=2.6; 95% CI [1.4-4.7]). Conclusions: The nutritional situation in the Central Prison of Mbuji-Mayi is precarious. There is urgent need to supply enough nutrient-rich food to improve health of inmates. [less ▲]

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See detailPreoperative sedentary behavior is neither a risk factor for perioperative neurocognitive disorders nor associated with an increase in peripheral inflammation, a prospective observational cohort study.
Saxena, Sarah; Rodts, Christopher; Nuyens, Vincent et al

in BMC Anesthesiology (2020), 20(1), 284

BACKGROUND: Surgical interventions result in a postoperative rise in circulating inflammatory cytokines and high molecular group box protein 1 (HMGB1). Herein, the impact of a sedentary lifestyle and ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Surgical interventions result in a postoperative rise in circulating inflammatory cytokines and high molecular group box protein 1 (HMGB1). Herein, the impact of a sedentary lifestyle and other age-related factors on the development of perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) following non-cardiac surgical procedures was assessed in an older (55-75 years-old) surgical population. METHODS: Prior to surgery, patients were asked questions regarding their sedentary behavior and daily habits. They also passed the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and their blood circulating interleukin 6 (IL-6) and HMGB1 levels were assayed by ELISA. IL-6 and HMGB1 measurements were repeated respectively 6 and 24 h after surgery. MMSE was re-evaluated 6 weeks and whenever possible 3 months after surgery. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in the study from January until July 2019. The study identified self-sufficiency, multilinguism, and overall health score on the geriatric depression scale, as protectors against PND. No other demographic (age, sex), environmental (solitary/non-solitary housing, professional and physical activities, smoking, alcohol drinking), comorbidity (antipsychotic drug uptake, diabetic state) and type of surgery (orthopedic, general, genitourinary) influenced the development of PND. Although some factors (surgery type and age) influenced the surgery-induced rise in the circulating IL-6 levels, they did not impact HMGB1. CONCLUSION: Inflammaging, reflected by the greater increment of surgery-induced IL-6 in patients with advanced age, was present. As trauma-induced release of HMGB1 was not similarly affected by age, we surmise that HMGB1, rather than circulating cytokines, is the key driver of the trauma-induced inflammatory cascade leading to PND. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03805685 . [less ▲]

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See detailStandard vs computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing customized self-ligating systems using indirect bonding with both.
Jackers, Nastasia; MAES, Nathalie ULiege; Lambert, France ULiege et al

in Angle Orthodontist (2020)

OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment duration and quality between standard vs computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) customized self-ligating systems using indirect bonding with both ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment duration and quality between standard vs computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) customized self-ligating systems using indirect bonding with both. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This comparative trial included 24 patients: 12 treated with a CAD/CAM custom indirect bonding self-ligating system (CAD/CAM) and 12 others treated with an indirect bonding self-ligating standard system (I-STD). For each group, overall orthodontic treatment (OT) time was calculated and included the time needed to place each arch as well as the duration of the alignment and fine-tuning phases. The quality of the final result was analyzed using the American Board of Orthodontics Cast-Radiograph Evaluation. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were also evaluated. RESULTS: Patient characteristics were similar between the 2 groups except for age, which was slightly lower in the I-SDT group. Overall OT time was increased by 26% in the I-STD group compared with the CAD/CAM group (497 ± 40 days vs 393 ± 55 days, P = 0.0002) due to a shorter fine-tuning phase in the latter group (P<0.01). No difference was found between the groups for alignment phase. Quality of the final result was similar (I-STD, 25.7 ± 6.1; CAD/CAM, 21.6 ± 6.3) among the groups. Finally, no difference was found in the PROMs variables. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a 26% longer OT time when compared with the CAD/CAM customized bracket system, the indirect bonding self-ligating bracket system demonstrated the same quality of treatment. PROMs demonstrated a high level of acceptance and satisfaction for both techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailCurcuminoids and Boswellia serrata extracts combination decreases tendinopathy symptoms: findings from an open-label post-observational study.
Henrotin, Yves ULiege; Dierckxsens, Yvan; Delisse, Gaëlle et al

in Current medical research and opinion (2020)

Background: To investigate the effects of 1-month treatment in addition to standard care with a food supplement containing both Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata extracts on tendinopathy symptoms ... [more ▼]

Background: To investigate the effects of 1-month treatment in addition to standard care with a food supplement containing both Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata extracts on tendinopathy symptoms. Method: This open-label, non-controlled, post-observational study included 670 patients suffering from tendinopathy recruited at different sites by Belgian general practitioners. Patients received a medical prescription for 1-month treatment with two tablets twice a day of a pharmaceutical grade food supplement containing both C. longa and B. serrata extracts. Pain and functional limitation were evaluated using a visual analog scale at the inclusion and 1-month treatment later. Patient satisfaction, concomitant drugs intake and side effects were also recorded. Results: After 1-month treatment, pain and functional limitation were significantly improved whatever the cause of tendinopathy, its localization, and the duration of symptoms. The pain score decreased from 6.16 ± 1.53 to 2.98 ± 1.64 (p < .0001), yielding a drop of 51.6% and the functional limitation score fell after 1-month treatment from 5.96 ± 1.73 to 2.88 ± 1.67 (p < .0001) corresponding to a drop of 51.6%. The percentage of patients taking at least one concomitant treatment at the end of the treatment period had decreased from 81.3% to 61.8% (p < .0001). Only 43 (6.5%) patients reported side effects. No severe adverse effects related to the product were reported. Conclusion: The combination of C. longa and B. serrata extracts improves symptoms in patients suffering of tendinopathy and shows a good safety. Although its effect will have to be confirmed in randomized controlled trials, it can be considered as a helpful support of standard symptomatic treatments for tendinopathies. Highlights Tendinopathy is a common disease representing 30% of all consultations with a general practitioner for musculoskeletal disorders. The combination of Curcuminoids and Boswellia serrata extracts are efficient on tendinopathy symptoms in support of standard symptomatic treatments. The combination of Curcuminoids and B. Serrata extract is safe and can be administrated for at least 1 month in addition of analgesic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. [less ▲]

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See detailSupplementation Effect of a Combination of Olive (Olea europea L.) Leaf and Fruit Extracts in the Clinical Management of Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome
Hermans, Michel; Lempereur, Philippe; Salembier, Jean-Paul et al

in Antioxidants (2020), 9

Background: The role of herbal products in the prevention of cardiovascular disease requires supporting evidence. This open pilot study assessed the effect of 2-month supplementation of a combination of ... [more ▼]

Background: The role of herbal products in the prevention of cardiovascular disease requires supporting evidence. This open pilot study assessed the effect of 2-month supplementation of a combination of olive leaf and fruit extracts (Tensiofytol®, Tilman SA, Baillonville, Belgium) in the clinical management of hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: A total of 663 (pre)-hypertensive patients were enrolled by general practitioners and supplemented for two months with Tensiofytol®, two capsules per day (100 mg/d of oleuropein and 20 mg/d of hydroxytyrosol). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP/DBP) were measured before and after treatment. Markers of MetS, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), fasting blood glucose (FG) and waist circumference (WC), were also examined. Results: Significant reductions (p < 0.0001) in SBP/DBP (13 ± 10/7.1 ± 6.6 mmHg) were observed and similarly in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients. Improvements in SBP/DPB were independent of age and gender but greater for elevated baseline SBP/DBP. Tensiofytol® supplementation also significantly improved markers of MetS, with a decrease of TG (11%), WC (1.4%) and FG (4.8%) and an increase of HDL-C (5.3%). Minor side effects were reported in 3.2% patients. Conclusions: This real-life, observational, non-controlled, non-randomized pilot study shows that supplementation of a combination of olive leaf and fruit extracts may be used efficiently and safely in reducing hypertension and MetS markers. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in IBS patients.
Bonfrate, Leonilde; Di Palo, Domenica M.; Celano, Giuseppe et al

in European journal of clinical investigation (2020)

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder, which still lacks effective therapy. We aimed to investigate the effects of a novel formulation of Bifidobacterium longum ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder, which still lacks effective therapy. We aimed to investigate the effects of a novel formulation of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 with vitamin B6 (LBB) on symptoms, intestinal permeability, cultivable bacteria and metabolome in IBS subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five IBS patients (Rome IV criteria) (M:F = 8:17; age 48 years +/- 11 SD) were randomized to treatment (LBB) or placebo (one month each) in a crossover randomized double-blind controlled trial. Symptoms, intestinal habits, disease severity, intestinal permeability and intestinal microbiota were analysed at 0, 30, 45 and 60 days. RESULTS: Percentage decrease from baseline of abdominal pain (-48.8% vs -3.5%), bloating (-36.35% vs +7.35%) and severity of disease (-30.1% vs -0.4%) was significantly (P < .0001) greater with LBB than placebo, respectively. In IBS-D patients, the improvement from baseline of Bristol score was more consistent with LBB (from 6 +/- 0.4 to 4.3 +/- 1.1, P < .00001) than placebo (from 6.2 +/- 0.7 to 5.3 +/- 1.1, P = .04). In IBS-C patients, Bristol score tended to improve from baseline after LBB (2.6 +/- 1.1 vs 3.2 +/- 0.5, P = .06). LBB significantly improved the percentage of sucralose recovery (colonic permeability) (1.86 +/- 0.1 vs 1.1 +/- 0.2, P = .01). During treatment, presumptive lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, relative abundance of propanoic, butanoic, pentanoic acids and hydrocarbons increased, while phenol decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The novel formulation of B. longum BB536 and L. rhamnosus HN001 with B6 vitamin improves symptoms and severity of disease, restores intestinal permeability and gut microbiota in IBS patients. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovative customized CAD/CAM nickel-titanium lingual retainer versus standard stainless-steel lingual retainer: A randomized controlled trial
Gelin, Emilie ULiege; SEIDEL, Laurence ULiege; BRUWIER, Annick ULiege et al

in Korean Journal of Orthodontics (2020), 50(6), 373-382

Objective: To compare computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) customized nitinol retainers with standard stainlesssteel fixed retainers over a 12-month study period. Methods: This ... [more ▼]

Objective: To compare computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) customized nitinol retainers with standard stainlesssteel fixed retainers over a 12-month study period. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted on 62 patients randomly allocated to a control group that received stainless-steel retainers or a test group that received customized CAD/CAM nickel-titanium retainers. Four time points were defined: retainer placement (T0) and 1-month (T1), 6-month (T2), and 12-month (T3) follow-up appointments. At each time point, Little’s irregularity index (LII) (primary endpoint) and dental stability measurements such as intercanine width were recorded in addition to assessment of periodontal parameters. Radiological measurements such as the incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) were recorded at T0 and T3. Failure events (wire integrity or debonding) were assessed at each time point. Results: From T0 to T3, LII and other dental measurements showed no significant differences between the two groups. The data for periodontal parameters remained stable over the study period, except for the gingival index, which was slightly, but significantly, higher in the test group at T3 (p = 0.039). The IMPA angle showed no intergroup difference. The two groups showed no significant difference in debonding events. Conclusions: This RCT conducted over a 12-month period demonstrated no significant difference between customized CAD/CAM nickel-titanium lingual retainers and standard stainlesssteel lingual retainers in terms of dental anterior stability and retainer survival. Both retainers eventually appeared to be equally effective in maintaining periodontal health. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation between hematological parameters and outcome in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated by concomitant chemoradiotherapy.
Gennigens, Christine ULiege; DE CUYPERE, Marjolein ULiege; SEIDEL, Laurence ULiege et al

in Cancer Medicine (2020)

BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC), and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) blood counts may be correlated with outcomes in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS: Hb, WBC ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC), and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) blood counts may be correlated with outcomes in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS: Hb, WBC, and PMN counts were measured at diagnosis and during concomitant cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in a retrospective sample of 103 patients between 2010 and 2017. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions were also recorded. The associations between hematological variables and patient overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were assessed by Cox regression models. RESULTS: The 3-year OS and RFS rates were 81.4% and 76.8%, respectively. In addition to tumor size and smoking, OS and RFS were found to be significantly associated with changes in WBC and PMN counts from the first to the last cisplatin cycle. Hb count throughout the treatment and RBC transfusions were not predictive of outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no association between Hb count or RBC transfusions and outcome. The daily practice of maintaining the Hb count above 12 g/dL during CCRT should be weighed against the potential risks of transfusions. Drops in WBC and PMN counts during treatment positively impacted OS and RFS and could, therefore, serve as biomarkers during CCRT to adapt the follow-up and consider the need for adjuvant systemic treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailFacteurs associés à la survie en milieu pénitentiaire: étude en république Démocratique du Congo
Kalonji, Muasa Patoka ULiege; OKENGE, Ngongo Léon; ILUNGA-ILUNGA, Félicien et al

in Santé Publique (2019), 5.31(automne), 715-722

Objectif : L’objectif de cette étude était d’identifier les facteurs associés à la survie chez les détenus à la prison centrale de Mbuji-Mayi, située en République démocratique du Congo, entre janvier ... [more ▼]

Objectif : L’objectif de cette étude était d’identifier les facteurs associés à la survie chez les détenus à la prison centrale de Mbuji-Mayi, située en République démocratique du Congo, entre janvier 2014 et décembre 2016. Méthodes : Il s’agit d’une étude de cohorte rétrospective. Le taux de mortalité a été calculé durant la période de suivi de trois ans et la courbe de survie de Kaplan-Meier déterminée. La régression de Cox et le rapport de risque (HR) ont été utilisés pour analyser et quantifier les facteurs associés à la survie. L’étude a porté sur un total de 793 détenus. Résultats : L’âge moyen des détenus était de 33 ± 10 ans (extrêmes : 17-67 ans) La durée médiane de suivi était de 12 mois pour un total de 7 513 personnes-mois. Le nombre de décès répertorié était de 135, soit un taux de mortalité de 17,9/1 000 personnes-mois. Les facteurs de risque associés au décès étaient la malnutrition (HR = 17,5 ; IC 95 % = [12,1 ; 25,4]) et la tuberculose (HR = 11,8 ; IC 95 % = [7,7 ; 17,8]). Conclusion : Cette étude met en évidence un taux élevé de décès en milieu carcéral et identifie les deux facteurs potentiels (malnutrition et tuberculose) sur lesquels les autorités pénitentiaires et sanitaires se doivent d’agir. [less ▲]

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See detailIs the triple stimulation technique a better quantification tool of motor dysfunction than motor evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis?
GIFFROY, Xavier ULiege; DIVE, Dominique ULiege; KAUX, Jean-François ULiege et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2019), 119(1), 47-54

The triple stimulation technique (TST) was rarely used in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to compare TST and motor evoked potentials (MEP) for the quantification of motor dysfunction. Central ... [more ▼]

The triple stimulation technique (TST) was rarely used in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to compare TST and motor evoked potentials (MEP) for the quantification of motor dysfunction. Central motor conduction based on MEP (four limbs) and TST (upper limbs) was assessed in 28 MS patients with a median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of 4. EDSS, timed 25-foot walk (T25FW), grasping strength and motor components of the MS functional composite (MSFCm) were evaluated. Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between MEP, TST and clinical findings. TST was negatively correlated with EDSS (r = -0.74, p<0.0001) and to a lesser extent with T25FW (r = -0.47, p<0.05), and grasping strength (r = -0.43, p<0.05). A multiple regression analysis underlined the better correlation between clinical data and TST (R2 = 0.56, p<0.0005) than with MEP (0.03<R2<0.22, p>0.05). This study evidenced the value of TST as a quantification tool of motor dysfunction. TST appeared to reflect a global disability since it was correlated not only to hand function but also to walking capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailPiezocision-assisted orthodontic treatment using CAD/CAM customized orthodontic appliances: a randomized controlled trial in adults.
CHARAVET, Carole ULiege; LECLOUX, Geoffrey ULiege; JACKERS, Nastasia et al

in European Journal of Orthodontics (2019), 10.1093/ejo/cjy082

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of piezocision (surgical protocol with sutures) in orthodontic treatment using CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of piezocision (surgical protocol with sutures) in orthodontic treatment using CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) customized orthodontic appliances. DESIGN: The study is designed as a parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT). SETTING: University Hospital. ETHICAL APPROVAL: The study was approved by the ethic committee of the University Hospital Liege, Belgium. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This RCT was conducted on 24 adult patients requiring orthodontic treatment to release mild overcrowding. Patients were all treated with a customized appliance and randomly assigned by means of sealed envelopes containing group codes to either a test group treated with piezocision or a control group without any further treatment. A blinded orthodontist validated appliance removal or further adjustments based on the model study. OUTCOME MEASURES: The overall treatment time and the time between archwire changes were recorded. Moreover, clinical and radiological features such as tooth resorption, gingival recessions, and the presence of scars were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 24 patients (12 control and 12 test) completed the study. The overall treatment time was significantly shorter in the test group than the control group. Likewise, the time difference between all arch changes was significantly lower when piezocision was performed, except for the first arch at the mandible and the last arches at both maxillae. During the fine-tuning phase, no significant difference was found between the two groups. All periodontal and radiographic parameters remained stable from the start to the end of treatment in both the groups. However, minor scars were found in 66 per cent cases. LIMITATIONS: This trial was a single-centre trial. CONCLUSIONS: Piezocision seems to be an effective method to accelerate orthodontic treatment in cases of mild overcrowding. However, the effect was only observed during the alignment phase and a greater efficiency was found in the maxilla. The technique may be contraindicated in patients with a high smile line since the risk of slight scarring exists. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrails.gov (Identifier: NCT03406130). [less ▲]

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See detailProtection in a model of liver injury is parallel to energy mobilization capacity under distinct nutritional status.
Papegay, Berengere; Nuyens, Vincent; Albert, Adelin ULiege et al

in Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) (2019), 67-68

OBJECTIVE: Dietary and energetic restrictions are endowed with protection against experimental injuries. However, a drop in cell energetic status under a critical threshold may prevent protection, as ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Dietary and energetic restrictions are endowed with protection against experimental injuries. However, a drop in cell energetic status under a critical threshold may prevent protection, as previously observed for livers isolated from rat donors undergoing 18-h fasting versus feeding. The aim of this study was to further explore, in the latter model, links between nutritional status, energy availability, and protection through lengthening of rat fasting to 24 h and withdrawal of energy sources from perfusions. METHODS: Energy-free perfused ex vivo livers from fed, 18-h-fasted, and 24-h-fasted rats were studied during 135 min for cytolysis (potassium, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase releases in perfusates), cell deaths (activated caspase-3 [apoptosis], LC3 II/actin and p62/actin ratios [autophagy]), glycogen stores, glucose, and lactate production. RESULTS: Cytolysis was significantly increased by 18-h and 24-h fasting versus feeding but unexpectedly the increase was less for 24-h fasting than it was for 18-h fasting. Apoptotic marker caspase 3 significantly increased under fed and 18-h fasting but not 24-h fasting conditions. Autophagic marker LC3 II/actin significantly increased during perfusion in the 24-h fasted group but neither fed nor 18-h fasted groups. Autophagic induction also was supported by a drop in the p62/actin ratio. Under perfusion with 3-methyladenine, a standard autophagy inhibitor, protection and enhanced autophagy provided by 24-h but not 18-h fasting were lost without affecting apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Liver protections are obviously influenced by nutritional status in a way that is parallel to hepatic energy mobilization capacities (glycogen plus autophagy) with a decreased order of protection: Fed >24-h fasted >18-h fasted >24-h fasted+3-methyladenine livers. By showing that autophagy induction limits starvation-induced cytolysis, the present work supports the emerging view that autophagy inducers might improve health benefits of diet restriction. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Rapid Maxillary Expansion on Respiratory Events in Children: Are we doing no Harm?
REMACLE, Sarah ULiege; HENDRIX, Charlotte ULiege; BRUWIER, Annick ULiege et al

in B-ENT (2019)

Introduction and Aim: Rapid maxillary expansion devices are used in children with upper maxillary transverse deficit and cross-bite. They were consistently shown to improve obstructive apnoea syndrome in ... [more ▼]

Introduction and Aim: Rapid maxillary expansion devices are used in children with upper maxillary transverse deficit and cross-bite. They were consistently shown to improve obstructive apnoea syndrome in children. However, the impact of the device in place into the child’s mouth has never been studied. The aim of our study was to quantify the effect of the device on respiratory events while in place. Secondary endpoints were to evaluate its impact on quality of life and on respiratory events after treatment. Material and Methods: 12 consecutive children with maxillary cross-bite were prospectively included in this cohort study. Respiratory events were recorded before, during and after rapid maxillary expansion using a validated type 3 polygraphy including jaw movements. Subjective outcomes were evaluated using Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)-18 quality-of-life questionnaire (OSA-18). Maxillary width and 16/26 distance were evaluated before and after rapid maxillary expansion on anterior radiography. Results: Estimated apnea hypopnea index increased from 2.67/h (±1.31/h) to 2.9/h (±2.4/h) with the device in place. Respiratory effort characterized by jaw motion > 0.4mm during the respiratory cycle increased from 7.58% (±10.01%) to 16.05% (±15.53%). Sleep-related breathing impairment was confirmed by parents’ questionnaires. Conclusion: While rapid maxillary expansion is an effective treatment for obstructive apnea syndrome in children, our study suggested a transient worsening of sleep breathing while the device is in place. It may be related to an incorrect tongue position and/or to the crowding of the device into the mouth. [less ▲]

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