References of "Meulemans, Thierry"
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See detailTime’s Up! Involvement of Metamemory Knowledge, Executive Functions, and Time Monitoring in Children’s Prospective Memory Performance
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Lejeune, Caroline ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

in Child Neuropsychology : A Journal on Normal & Abnormal Development in Childhood & Adolescence (2016), 22(4), 443-457

This study examined time-based prospective memory (PM) in children and explored the possible involvement of metamemory knowledge and executive functions in the use of an appropriate time monitoring ... [more ▼]

This study examined time-based prospective memory (PM) in children and explored the possible involvement of metamemory knowledge and executive functions in the use of an appropriate time monitoring strategy depending on the ongoing task’s difficulty. Specifically, a sample of 72 typically developing children aged 4, 6, and 9 years old were given an original PM paradigm composed of both an ongoing procedural activity and a PM task. Half of the participants (expert group) were trained in the ongoing activity before the prospective test. As expected, results show that time monitoring had a positive effect on children’s PM performance. Furthermore, mediation analyses reveal that strategic time monitoring was predicted by metamemory knowledge in the expert group but only by executive functions in the novice group. Overall, these findings provide interesting avenues to explain how metamemory knowledge, strategy use, and executive functions interact to improve PM performance during childhood. [less ▲]

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See detailShedding new light on representational neglect: The importance of dissociating visual and spatial components
Wansard, Murielle ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege

in Neuropsychologia (2016), 84

Over the last decade, many studies have demonstrated that visuospatial working memory (VSWM) can be divided into two subsystems, dealing respectively with spatial and visual information. A similar ... [more ▼]

Over the last decade, many studies have demonstrated that visuospatial working memory (VSWM) can be divided into two subsystems, dealing respectively with spatial and visual information. A similar dissociation has been observed in brain-damaged patients without neglect for mental imagery skills. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether performance dissociations between spatial and visual mental imagery can be observed in unilateral neglect. The second objective was to further investigate the role of spatial and visual working memory subsystems in the mental representation abilities of neglect patients and healthy controls, and their dependence on the nature of the mental imagery tasks performed. The results showed that spatial and visual imagery processes can be selectively impaired in unilateral neglect. Spatial working memory skills were also found to strongly predict spatial imagery score in the two experimental groups. However, contrary to what was observed in healthy controls, visual working memory did not appear to predict performance on visual imagery tasks in neglect patients. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of investigating both visual and spatial components of working memory and mental imagery in neglect patients. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit learning: A way to improve visual search in spatial neglect?
Wansard, Murielle ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege; Colson, Catherine et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2016), 43

Studies have shown that neglect patients are able to use stimulus regularities to orient faster toward the neglected side, without necessarily being aware of that information, or at the very least without ... [more ▼]

Studies have shown that neglect patients are able to use stimulus regularities to orient faster toward the neglected side, without necessarily being aware of that information, or at the very least without being able to verbalize their knowledge. In order to better control for the involvement of explicit processes, the present study sought to test neglect patients’ ability to detect more complex associations between stimuli using tasks similar to those used in implicit learning studies. Our results demonstrate that neglect patients had difficulties implicitly learning complex associations, contrary to what we found with controls. The possible influence of attentional and working memory impairments are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailProcedural learning, consolidation, and transfer of a new skill in Developmental Coordination Disorder
Lejeune, Caroline ULiege; Wansard, Murielle ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege et al

in Child Neuropsychology : A Journal on Normal & Abnormal Development in Childhood & Adolescence (2016), 22(2), 143-154

The aim of this study was to explore the differences in procedural learning abilities between children with DCD and typically developing children by investigating the steps that lead to skill ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to explore the differences in procedural learning abilities between children with DCD and typically developing children by investigating the steps that lead to skill automatization (i.e., the stages of fast learning, consolidation, and slow learning). Transfer of the skill to a new situation was also assessed. We tested 34 children aged 6–12 years with and without DCD on a perceptuomotor adaptation task, a form of procedural learning that is thought to involve the cerebellum and the basal ganglia (regions whose impairment has been associated with DCD) but also other brain areas including frontal regions. The results showed similar rates of learning, consolidation, and transfer in DCD and control children. However, the DCD children's performance remained slower than that of controls throughout the procedural task and they reached a lower asymptotic performance level; the difficulties observed at the outset did not diminish with practice. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychometric properties of the Questionnaire of Executive Self-Awareness (QESA) for Children
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Catale, Corinne ULiege; Geurten, Claire ULiege et al

in Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (2016)

Objective: People with accurate representations of their own cognitive functioning (i.e., cognitive self-awareness) tend to use appropriate strategies to regulate their behavior. Due to the lack of ... [more ▼]

Objective: People with accurate representations of their own cognitive functioning (i.e., cognitive self-awareness) tend to use appropriate strategies to regulate their behavior. Due to the lack of appropriate instruments, few studies have examined the development of this ability among children. Method: This study tested the measurement properties of the self-rating and other-rating forms of the Questionnaire of Executive Self-Awareness (QESA), designed to tap children’s knowledge of their executive functioning. Participants were 317 children aged 7 to 14 years old. Results: Confirmatory factor analyses carried out on the QESA confirmed the eight-factor structure of both versions. There were significant correlations between the QESA and the parent versions of the BRIEF, DEX-C, and CHEXI. Both forms of the QESA were able to distinguish between children who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and control participants. A self-other discrepancy score was computed to assess children’s executive self-awareness. A statistical difference was observed between the TBI and control groups on this score, suggesting that TBI may trigger self-awareness impairments in children. Conclusion: The good psychometric properties of the two forms of the QESA were established. Furthermore, results of the analyses carried on the different discrepancy scores seem to indicate that the QESA could help clinicians to detect patients with self-awareness deficits. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of Executive Functions in Children’s Metamemory
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Catale, Corinne ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

in Applied Cognitive Psychology (2016), 30(1), 70-80

This experiment examined how knowledge of memory strategies and of memory functioning improves during childhood and what variables are involved in this development. Three main aspects of metamemory were ... [more ▼]

This experiment examined how knowledge of memory strategies and of memory functioning improves during childhood and what variables are involved in this development. Three main aspects of metamemory were assessed based on the performance of a group of 100 children (aged 4, 6, 9 and 11 years) on a battery of executive tasks. At the same time, the influence of variables such as intelligence, vocabulary and parental education level was also investigated. Results of mediation analyses reveal that the relation between children’s age and internal strategy knowledge was partially mediated by working memory skills but that executive functions did not mediate the impact of chronological age on children’s knowledge of external strategies or of memory functioning. Additionally, verbal fluency predicted internal and external strategy knowledge. Implications for general learning theories in childhood are discussed [less ▲]

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See detailStereotype reactance effect in individuals practicing contact sports
Fresson, Megan ULiege; Dardenne, Benoît ULiege; Geurten, Marie ULiege et al

Poster (2015, November)

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See detailApprentissage implicite d'habiletés perceptivo-motrices
Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

Conference (2015, October 08)

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See detailWhat can unilateral neglect tell us about the structure of visuospatial working memory?
Wansard, Murielle ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

Conference (2015, May 28)

Some studies have proposed that deficits in visuospatial working memory (WM) could exacerbate the neglect syndrome, as reflected in the patients’ tendency to repeatedly search through items located on the ... [more ▼]

Some studies have proposed that deficits in visuospatial working memory (WM) could exacerbate the neglect syndrome, as reflected in the patients’ tendency to repeatedly search through items located on the right, as if they did not realize that they had previously examined the rightward locations favoured by their lateral attentional bias (e.g., Husain et al., 2001). However, we have recently shown that the efficiency level of spatial WM, as evaluated by the Corsi Block test, might not be sufficient to explain perseveration and omission behaviors in neglect patients (Wansard et al., 2014). Moreover, it appears that, until now, research has mostly focused on spatial sequential WM, addressing the study of visuospatial WM through tasks involving the recall of serial order. We will present data suggesting that other subcomponents of visuospatial WM, such as simultaneous-spatial or visual WM (Logie, 1995), could also be involved in the neglect syndrome. We will also present evidence of a double dissociation between the two aspects of visuospatial WM (simultaneous vs sequential) in neglect patients, confirming the dual dimension of visuospatial WM (Wansard et al., 2015). [less ▲]

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See detailCan the exploration of left space be induced implicitly in unilateral neglect?
Wansard, Murielle ULiege; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Vanderaspoilden, Valérie et al

Poster (2015, March)

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their contralesional side in a Posner spatial cueing task. The majority of the cues (i.e. 80%) were invalid, indicating that the target would appear on the opposite side, although patients were not informed of this bias. Our results demonstrate that some neglect patients were able to extract the cue’s predictability and use it to orient faster toward the left. This cueing effect was present even in patients who were subsequently unable to describe the predictive character of the cues, and thus was not modulated by reportable awareness of the cue-target relation. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of the Distinctiveness Heuristic in Children's Decision Making
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

Poster (2015)

Over the past decades, researchers studying adult metacognition have placed a heavy emphasis on how expectations and naïve theories about memory functioning can improve memory accuracy through the ... [more ▼]

Over the past decades, researchers studying adult metacognition have placed a heavy emphasis on how expectations and naïve theories about memory functioning can improve memory accuracy through the implementation of some metacognitive rules. By contrasts, however, research on metacognition in children has only recently started to pay attention to the influence of these heuristic-based judgments on decision making. Generally, the results of these studies indicate that memory decisions are already based on some heuristics by the ages of 7-8 years. Thus far, the question of whether younger children can do the same has widely gone unexamined. The present experiment investigates whether young children are able to reduce their false recognitions rate after distinctive encoding through the implementation of a strategic metacognitive rule. Specifically, we examine the use of a retrieval strategy called the distinctiveness heuristic whereby people infer that an event has not occurred when they cannot remember expected memorial information about it. Seventy-two children, aged 4, 6, and 9 years, studied two lists of unrelated items. One of these lists was visually displayed (picture/dictinctive condition) while the other was presented auditorily (word/no-distinctive condition). After each study phase, participants completed recognition tests. Finally, they answered questions about their explicit knowledge of the distinctive-encoding effect. The results revealed that even the youngest children in our sample showed a smaller proportion of intrusions in the picture condition than in the word condition. Furthermore, the findings of the signal detection analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that the lower rate of false recognitions after picture encoding results from the implementation of a conservative response criterion based on the participants’ metacognitive expectations (distinctiveness heuristic). Moreover, the absence of correlation between children’s explicit knowledge of the distinctiveness rule and their effective use of this metacognitive heuristic seems to indicate that its involvement in memory decisions could be mediated by implicit mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailCan the exploration of left space be induced implicitly in unilateral neglect?
Wansard, Murielle ULiege; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Geurten, Marie ULiege et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2015), 31

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present study was to explore the ability of neglect patients to detect and exploit the predictive value of a cue to respond more quickly and accurately to targets on their contralesional side in a Posner spatial cueing task. The majority of the cues (i.e. 80%) were invalid, indicating that the target would appear on the opposite side, although patients were not informed of this bias. Our results demonstrate that some neglect patients were able to extract the cue’s predictability and use it to orient faster toward the left. This cueing effect was present even in patients who were subsequently unable to describe the predictive character of the cues, and thus was not modulated by reportable awareness of the cue-target relation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI): Confirmatory Factor Analyses and Cross-Cultural Clinical Validity in a Sample of 8- to 11-Year-Old Children
Catale, Corinne ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege; Thorell, Lisa B.

in Journal of Attention Disorders (2015)

The Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI) is a new rating instrument for executive functioning developed by Thorell and Nyberg (2008). Through exploratory factor analyses, this inventory has ... [more ▼]

The Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI) is a new rating instrument for executive functioning developed by Thorell and Nyberg (2008). Through exploratory factor analyses, this inventory has been shown to tap into working memory and inhibition-related behaviors in young children. In this study, we present the psychometric characteristics of the French adaptation of the CHEXI in 8- to 11-year-old children. In addition, we explore the cross-cultural validity of the CHEXI in discriminating between children with ADHD and normally developing children in two culturally different samples (Belgian and Swedish). Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the two-factor solution, referred to as inhibition and working memory, that was identified in the original study with Swedish children. Supplementary analyses indicated that both subscales have good psychometric properties. From a clinical point of view, the CHEXI was found to discriminate, with high sensitivity and specificity, between children with ADHD and normally developing controls in both cultural samples. Cross-cultural clinical implications are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLess is more: The availability heuristic in early childhood
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege; Germain, Sophie ULiege et al

in British Journal of Developmental Psychology (2015), 33(4), 405-410

This study examined whether young children are influenced by the subjective experience associated with an easy or difficult recall when making memory decisions. Seventy-one children, aged 4, 6, and 8 ... [more ▼]

This study examined whether young children are influenced by the subjective experience associated with an easy or difficult recall when making memory decisions. Seventy-one children, aged 4, 6, and 8 years, were asked to generate either a small (easy condition) or large (hard condition) number of first names. Statistical analyses revealed that participants in the hard condition were more likely to infer that they did not know many names than participants in the easy condition, contrary to what would be expected if children based their memory judgement on the objective number of recalled items. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that children as young as 4 years old rely on the subjective experience of ease to regulate their decision-making processes. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMemorability in context: An heuristic story
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege

in Experimental Psychology (2015), 62(5), 306-319

We examined children’s ability to employ a metacognitive heuristic based on memorability expectations to reduce false recognitions, and explored whether these expectations depend on the context in which ... [more ▼]

We examined children’s ability to employ a metacognitive heuristic based on memorability expectations to reduce false recognitions, and explored whether these expectations depend on the context in which the items are presented. Specifically, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children were presented with high-, medium-, and low-memorability words, either mixed together (Experiment 1) or separated into two different lists (Experiment 2). Results revealed that only children with a higher level of executive functioning (9-year-olds) used the memorability-based heuristic when all types of items were presented within the same list. However, all children, regardless of age or executive level, implemented the metacognitive rule when high- and low-memorability words were presented in two separate lists. Moreover, the results of Experiment 2 showed that participants processed medium-memorability words more conservatively when they were presented in a low- than in a high-memorability list, suggesting that children’s memorability expectations are sensitive to list-context effects. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Influence of Context on Children’s Use of the Memorability Heuristic
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege; Willems, Sylvie ULiege

Poster (2015)

We examined children’s ability to employ a metacognitive heuristic based on memorability expectations to reduce false recognitions, and explored whether these expectations depend on the context in which ... [more ▼]

We examined children’s ability to employ a metacognitive heuristic based on memorability expectations to reduce false recognitions, and explored whether these expectations depend on the context in which the items are presented. Specifically, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children were presented with high-, medium-, and low-memorability words, either mixed together (Experiment 1) or separated into two different lists (Experiment 2). Results revealed that only children with a higher level of executive functioning (9-year-olds) used the memorability-based heuristic when all types of items were presented within the same list. However, all children, regardless of age or executive level, implemented the metacognitive rule when high- and low-memorability words were presented in two separate lists. Moreover, the results of Experiment 2 showed that participants processed medium-memorability words more conservatively when they were presented in a low- than in a high-memorability list, suggesting that children’s memorability expectations are sensitive to list-context effects. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen Children’s Knowledge of Memory Improves Children’s Performance in Memory
Geurten, Marie ULiege; Catale, Corinne ULiege; Meulemans, Thierry ULiege

in Applied Cognitive Psychology (2015), 29

One of the strongest hypotheses in the field of metacognition research involves the positive effect of metamemory on memory performance. However, due to the lack of appropriate instruments to appraise ... [more ▼]

One of the strongest hypotheses in the field of metacognition research involves the positive effect of metamemory on memory performance. However, due to the lack of appropriate instruments to appraise knowledge of memory, few studies have examined this effect among children. This study was conducted to create and validate an instrument to assess children’s metamemory knowledge and link this knowledge with their memory performance and strategy use. A sample of 166 children was given a new three-factor metamemory interview, and its psychometric properties were investigated. Regression analyses were carried out to investigate the link between metamemory and memory performance in a subgroup of 128 children from the validation study. Results confirmed the scale’s good psychometric properties and revealed its ability to predict children’s memory performance. However, none of the scale’s factors could predict children’s use of memory strategies. Implications for the study of children’s metamemory development are discussed. [less ▲]

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