References of "Laureys, Steven"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detail2 Years outcome of patients in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state and minimally conscious state
Cassol, Helena ULiege; LEDOUX, Didier ULiege; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie et al

Poster (2017, March)

INTRODUCTION: Following severe acute brain damage, patients typically evolve from coma to an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state (UWS/VS; wakefulness without awareness) and later to a ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Following severe acute brain damage, patients typically evolve from coma to an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state (UWS/VS; wakefulness without awareness) and later to a minimally conscious state (MCS; fluctuating but consistent nonreflex behaviors). MCS is subcategorized in MCS+ (i.e., command following) and MCS- (i.e., visual pursuit, localization of noxious stimulation or contingent behaviours). Reliable and consistent interactive communication and/or functional use of objects indicate the next boundary – emergence from MCS (EMCS). To date, there is still no reliable predictive model of recovery from the UWS/VS and the MCS. A better understanding of patients' outcome would help in decisions regarding patients’ care and rehabilitation, as well as end-of-life decisions. METHODS: We collected demographic information, acute care history and longitudinal follow-up of patients in UWS/VS and MCS admitted in 15 expert centers in Belgium (via the Belgian Federal Public Service Health). Patients were evaluated at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post injury with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised and the diagnosis was based on internationally accepted criteria of UWS/VS, MCS or EMCS. Results were considered significant at p<0.001. RESULTS: 24 months follow-up was available for 476 patients including 261 diagnosed in UWS/VS (88 traumatic, 173 non-traumatic) and 215 diagnosed in MCS (80 traumatic, 135 non-traumatic) one month after the injury. Patients who were in MCS one month after the insult were more likely to recover functional communication or object use after 24 months than patients in UWS/VS. Moreover, functional recovery occurred more often in MCS+ (79%) as compared to MCS- (29%), and mortality rate was more important in MCS- patients (68%) as compared to MCS+ (21%). Comparisons within UWS/VS and MCS groups based on etiology showed that traumatic patients had a better outcome at 24 months than non-traumatic patients. Among non-traumatic patients, no difference was found between anoxic patients and patients with other etiologies regarding functional recovery. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights that the outcome is significantly better for patients who are in MCS one month post-injury as compared to patients who remain in UWS/VS at that time. Concerning MCS patients, the outcome is significantly better for patients who are MCS+ one month post-injury as compared to patients who are MCS- at that time. This study also confirms that patients with traumatic etiology have better prognosis than patients with non-traumatic causes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 150 (11 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailApplication of Qualitative Thematic Analysis to Near-Death Experiences
Cassol, Helena ULiege; Pétré, Benoît ULiege; Degrange, Sophie ULiege et al

Poster (2017, February 01)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailCharacterization of minimally conscious state minus and plus according to resting functional connectivity
Aubinet, Charlène ULiege; Heine, Lizette; Martial, Charlotte ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2017, February 01)

The minimally conscious state (MCS) has been sub-categorized in MCS plus and MCS minus, i.e. respectively with and without command following capacity. Here we aimed at characterizing differences in MCS ... [more ▼]

The minimally conscious state (MCS) has been sub-categorized in MCS plus and MCS minus, i.e. respectively with and without command following capacity. Here we aimed at characterizing differences in MCS plus as compared to MCS minus by means of functional connectivity (FC). Resting state functional magnetic resonance imagery (fMRI) was acquired in 292 MCS patients and a seed-based analysis was conducted on a convenience sample of 19 MCS patients (10 MCS plus and 9 MCS minus) and 35 healthy controls. We investigated the left and right frontoparietal networks (FPN), the auditory network and the default mode network (DMN). We employed a ROI-to-ROI analysis and a voxel-based morphometry in order to investigate the inter-hemispheric connectivity and the grey and white matter volume, respectively. A significantly higher FC was found in MCS plus as compared to MCS minus in the left FPN, specifically between the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the left temporo-occipital fusiform cortex (TOFC). The FC of auditory network, right FPN and DMN, inter-hemispheric connectivity and structure of grey and white matter did not show differences between patients groups. The clinical sub-categorization of MCS is therefore sustained by FC differences in a language-related executive control network. These patient groups are not differentiated by networks involved in auditory processing, perception of surroundings and internal thoughts, nor by differences in inter-hemispheric connectivity and in morphology. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 79 (8 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe effect of spaceflight and microgravity on the human brain
Van Ombergen, Angelique; Demertzi, Athina ULiege; Tomilovskaya et al

in Journal of Neurology (2017)

Microgravity, confinement, isolation, and immobilization are just some of the features astronauts have to cope with during space missions. Consequently, long-duration space travel can have detrimental ... [more ▼]

Microgravity, confinement, isolation, and immobilization are just some of the features astronauts have to cope with during space missions. Consequently, long-duration space travel can have detrimental effects on human physiology. Although research has focused on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system in particular, the exact impact of spaceflight on the human central nervous system remains to be determined. Previous studies have reported psychological problems, cephalic fluid shifts, neurovestibular problems, and cognitive alterations, but there is paucity in the knowledge of the underlying neural substrates. Previous space analogue studies and preliminary spaceflight studies have shown an involvement of the cerebellum, cortical sensorimotor, and somatosensory areas and the vestibular pathways. Extending this knowledge is crucial, especially in view of long-duration interplanetary missions (e.g., Mars missions) and space tourism. In addition, the acquired insight could be relevant for vestibular patients, patients with neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the elderly population, coping with multisensory deficit syndromes, immobilization, and inactivity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (7 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMapping the functional connectome traits of levels of consciousness
Amico, Enrico ULiege; Marinazzo, Daniele; Di Perri, Carol ULiege et al

in NeuroImage (2017)

Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may ... [more ▼]

Examining task-free functional connectivity (FC) in the human brain offers insights on how spontaneous integration and segregation of information relate to human cognition, and how this organization may be altered in different conditions, and neurological disorders. This is particularly relevant for patients in disorders of consciousness (DOC) following severe acquired brain damage and coma, one of the most devastating conditions in modern medical care. We present a novel data-driven methodology, connICA, which implements Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the extraction of robust independent FC patterns (FC-traits) from a set of individual functional connectomes, without imposing any a priori data stratification into groups. We here apply connICA to investigate associations between network-traits derived from task-free FC and cognitive features that define levels of consciousness. Three main independent FC-traits were identified and linked to consciousness-related clinical features. The first one represents the functional configuration of an "awake resting" brain, and is associated to the level of arousal. The second FC-trait reflects the disconnection of the visual and sensory-motor connectivity patterns and relates to the ability of communicating with the external environment. The third FC-trait isolates the connectivity pattern encompassing the fronto-parietal and the default-mode network areas as well as the interaction between left and right hemisphere, which are also associated to the awareness of the self and its surroundings. Each FC-trait represents a distinct functional process with a role in the degradation of conscious states in functional brain networks, shedding further light on the functional subcircuits that get disrupted in severe brain-damage. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (8 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVariation in monitoring and treatment policies for intracranial hypertension in traumatic brain injury: A survey in 66 neurotrauma centers participating in the CENTER-TBI study
Cnossen, M. C.; Huijben, J. A.; van der Jagt, M. et al

in Critical Care (2017), 21(1),

Background: No definitive evidence exists on how intracranial hypertension should be treated in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is therefore likely that centers and practitioners ... [more ▼]

Background: No definitive evidence exists on how intracranial hypertension should be treated in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is therefore likely that centers and practitioners individually balance potential benefits and risks of different intracranial pressure (ICP) management strategies, resulting in practice variation. The aim of this study was to examine variation in monitoring and treatment policies for intracranial hypertension in patients with TBI. Methods: A 29-item survey on ICP monitoring and treatment was developed on the basis of literature and expert opinion, and it was pilot-tested in 16 centers. The questionnaire was sent to 68 neurotrauma centers participating in the Collaborative European Neurotrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study. Results: The survey was completed by 66 centers (97% response rate). Centers were mainly academic hospitals (n=60, 91%) and designated level I trauma centers (n=44, 67%). The Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines were used in 49 (74%) centers. Approximately 90% of the participants (n=58) indicated placing an ICP monitor in patients with severe TBI and computed tomographic abnormalities. There was no consensus on other indications or on peri-insertion precautions. We found wide variation in the use of first- and second-tier treatments for elevated ICP. Approximately half of the centers were classified as using a relatively aggressive approach to ICP monitoring and treatment (n=32, 48%), whereas the others were considered more conservative (n=34, 52%). Conclusions: Substantial variation was found regarding monitoring and treatment policies in patients with TBI and intracranial hypertension. The results of this survey indicate a lack of consensus between European neurotrauma centers and provide an opportunity and necessity for comparative effectiveness research. © 2017 The Author(s). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (3 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe repetition of behavioral assessments in diagnosis of disorders of consciousness.
Wannez, Sarah ULiege; Heine, Lizette ULiege; Thonnard, Marie et al

in Annals of Neurology (2017), 81(6), 883-889

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether repeated examinations using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) have an impact on diagnostic accuracy of patients with disorders of consciousness and to provide ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether repeated examinations using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) have an impact on diagnostic accuracy of patients with disorders of consciousness and to provide guidelines regarding the number of assessments required for obtaining a reliable diagnosis. METHODS: One hundred twenty-three adult patients with chronic disorders of consciousness were referred to our tertiary center. They were assessed at least six times with the CRS-R within a 10-day period. Clinical diagnoses based on one, two, three, four, and five Coma Recovery Scale-Revised assessments were compared with a reference diagnosis (ie, the highest behavioral diagnosis obtained after six evaluations) using nonparametric statistics. Results were considered significant at p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: The number of assessments had a significant effect on the clinical diagnosis. Up to the fourth examination, the diagnosis was still statistically different from the reference diagnosis based on six CRS-R assessments. Compared to this reference diagnosis, the first evaluation led to 36% of misdiagnoses. INTERPRETATION: The number of CRS-R assessments has an impact on the clinical diagnosis of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. Up to the fourth examinations, behavioral fluctuations may still impact the diagnostic accuracy. We here suggest performing at least five assessments in each patient with disorders of consciousness within a short time interval (eg, 2 weeks) to reduce misdiagnosis. Ann Neurol 2017;81:883-889 Ann Neurol 2017;81:883-889. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIntensity and memory characteristics of near-death experiences
Martial, Charlotte ULiege; Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULiege; Cassol, Helena ULiege et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2017)

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) seem to be very detailed and stable over time. At present, there is still no satisfactory explanation for the NDEs’ rich phenomenology. Here we compared ... [more ▼]

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) seem to be very detailed and stable over time. At present, there is still no satisfactory explanation for the NDEs’ rich phenomenology. Here we compared phenomenological characteristics of NDE memories with the reported experience’s intensity. We included 152 individuals with a self-reported “classical” NDE (i.e. occurring in life-threatening conditions). All participants completed a mailed questionnaire that included a measure of phenomenological characteristics of memories (the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire; MCQ) and a measure of NDE’s intensity (the Greyson NDE scale). Greyson NDE scale total score was positively correlated with MCQ total score, suggesting that participants who described more intense NDEs also reported more phenomenological memory characteristics of NDE. Using MCQ items, our study also showed that NDE’s intensity is associated in particular with sensory details, personal importance and reactivation frequency variables. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 180 (24 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailHow Does Spasticity Affect Patients with Disorders of Consciousness?
Martens, Géraldine ULiege; Foidart-Dessalle, Marguerite ULiege; Laureys, Steven ULiege et al

in Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven (Eds.) Coma and Disorders of Consciousness (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (6 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNear-death experiences: actual considerations.
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULiege; Martial, Charlotte ULiege; Cassol, Helena ULiege et al

in Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven (Eds.) Coma and Disorders of Consciousness, Second Edition (2017)

The notion that death represents a passing to an afterlife, where we are reunited with loved ones and live eternally in a utopian paradise, is common in the anecdotal reports of people who have ... [more ▼]

The notion that death represents a passing to an afterlife, where we are reunited with loved ones and live eternally in a utopian paradise, is common in the anecdotal reports of people who have encountered a “near-death experience” (NDE). These experiences are usually portrayed as being extremely pleasant including features such as a feeling of peacefulness, the vision of a dark tunnel leading to a brilliant light, the sensation of leaving the body, or the experience of a life review. NDEs are increasingly being reported as a clearly identifiable physiological and psychological reality of clinical and scientific significance. The definition and causes of the phenomenon as well as the identification of NDE experiencers are still matters of debate. The phenomenon has been thoroughly portrayed by the media, but the science of NDEs is rather recent and still lacking of rigorous experimental data and reproducible controlled experiments. It seems that the most appropriate theories to explain the phenomenon tend to integrate both psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. The paradoxical dissociation between the richness and intensity of the memory, probably occurring during a moment of brain dysfunction, offers a unique opportunity to better understand the neural correlates of consciousness. In this chapter, we will attempt to describe NDEs and the methods to identify them. We will also briefly discuss the NDE experiencers’ characteristics. We will then address the main current explicative models and the science of NDEs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 108 (21 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailSleep, Coma, Vegetative and Minimally 4 Conscious States
Di Perri, Carol ULiege; Cavaliere, Carlo; Bodart, Olivier ULiege et al

in Sleep Disorders Medicine (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (3 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFalse memory susceptibility in coma survivors with and without a near-death experience
Martial, Charlotte ULiege; Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULiege; Dehon, Hedwige ULiege et al

in Psychological Research (2017)

It has been postulated that memories of neardeath experiences (NDEs) could be (at least in part) reconstructions based on experiencers’ (NDErs) previous knowledge and could be built as a result of the ... [more ▼]

It has been postulated that memories of neardeath experiences (NDEs) could be (at least in part) reconstructions based on experiencers’ (NDErs) previous knowledge and could be built as a result of the individual’s attempt to interpret the confusing experience. From the point of view of the experiencer, NDE memories are perceived as being unrivalled memories due to its associated rich phenomenology. However, the scientific literature devoted to the cognitive functioning of NDErs in general, and their memory performance in particular, is rather limited. This study examined NDErs’ susceptibility to false memories using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm. We included 20 NDErs who reported having had their experience in the context of a life-threatening event (Greyson NDE scale total score ≥7/32) and 20 volunteers (matched for age, gender, education level, and time since brain insult) who reported a life-threatening event but without a NDE. Both groups were presented with DRM lists for a recall task during which they were asked to assign “Remember/Know/Guess” judgements to any recalled response. In addition, they were later asked to complete a post-recall test designed to obtain estimates of activation and monitoring of critical lures. Results demonstrated that NDErs and volunteers were equally likely to produce false memories, but that NDErs recalled them more frequently associated with compelling illusory recollection. Of particular interest, analyses of activation and monitoring estimates suggest that NDErs and volunteers groups were equally likely to think of critical lures, but source monitoring was less successful in NDErs compared to volunteers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (9 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMirror efficiency in the assessment of visual pursuit in patients in minimally conscious state.
Wannez, Sarah ULiege; VANHAUDENHUYSE, Audrey ULiege; Laureys, Steven ULiege et al

in Brain Injury (2017)

OBJECTIVE: Visual pursuit should be tested with a mirror in patients with disorders of consciousness. This stimulus was indeed more efficient than a person or an object, and the auto-referential aspect ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Visual pursuit should be tested with a mirror in patients with disorders of consciousness. This stimulus was indeed more efficient than a person or an object, and the auto-referential aspect was supposed to be the key feature. The present study tested the hypothesis that the mirror was more efficient because of its self-aspect. METHODS: The mirror was compared (1) to the patient's picture and to the picture of a famous face, in 22 patients in minimally conscious state and (2) to the patient's picture and a fake mirror, which had dynamical and bright aspects of the mirror, without reflecting the face, in 26 other patients in minimally conscious state. RESULTS: The mirror was more efficient than the patient's picture, which was not statistically different from the famous face. The second part of the study confirmed the statistical difference between the mirror and the picture. However, the fake mirror was neither statistically different from the mirror nor from the picture. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results suggest that the hypothesis proposed by previous studies was partly wrong, they confirm that the mirror is the best stimulus to use when assessing visual pursuit. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (21 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCerebral metabolism before and after external trigeminal nerve stimulation in episodic migraine
MAGIS, Delphine ULiege; D'Ostilio, Kevin ULiege; Thibaut, Aurore ULiege et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (4 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailCognitive functioning and multimodal neuroimaging interactions in patients with disorders of consciousness
Aubinet, Charlène ULiege; Murphy, Lesley; Gosseries, Olivia ULiege et al

in Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSedation of Patients With Disorders of Consciousness During Neuroimaging: Effects on Resting State Functional Brain Connectivity.
KIRSCH, Murielle ULiege; Guldenmund, Pieter; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULiege et al

in Anesthesia and Analgesia (2017), 124(2),

Detailed reference viewed: 63 (20 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAltered functional brain connectivity in patients with visually induced dizziness
Van Ombergen, Angelique; Heine, Lizette ULiege; Jillings, Steven et al

in NeuroImage (2017), 14

Background: Vestibular patients occasionally report aggravation or triggering of their symptoms by visual stimuli, which is called visually induced dizziness (VID). These patients therefore experience ... [more ▼]

Background: Vestibular patients occasionally report aggravation or triggering of their symptoms by visual stimuli, which is called visually induced dizziness (VID). These patients therefore experience dizziness, discomfort, disorientation and postural unsteadiness. The underlying pathophysiology of VID is still poorly understood. Objective: The aimof the current explorative study was to gain a first insight in the underlying neural aspects of VID. Methods:We included 10 VID patients and 10 healthymatched controls, all ofwhich underwent a resting state fMRI scan session. Changes in functional connectivitywere explored bymeans of the intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC). Seed-based analysis was subsequently performed in visual and vestibular seeds. Results: We found a decreased functional connectivity in the right central operculum (superior temporal gyrus), as well as increased functional connectivity in the occipital pole in VID patients as compared to controls in a hypothesis-free analysis. A weaker functional connectivity between the thalamus and most of the right putamen was measured in VID patients in comparison to controls in a seed-based analysis. Furthermore, also by means of a seed-based analysis, a decreased functional connectivity between the visual associative area and the left parahippocampal gyrus was found in VID patients. Additionally,we found increased functional connectivity between thalamus and occipital and cerebellar areas in the VID patients, as well as between the associative visual cortex and both middle frontal gyrus and precuneus. Conclusions:We found alterations in the visual and vestibular cortical network in VID patients that could underlie the typical VID symptoms such as a worsening of their vestibular symptoms when being exposed to challenging visual stimuli. These preliminary findings provide the first insights into the underlying functional brain connectivity in VID patients. Future studies should extend these findings by employing larger sample sizes, by investigating specific task-based paradigms in these patients and by exploring the implications for treatment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (4 ULiège)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPrevalence of coma-recovery scale-revised signs of consciousness in patients in minimally conscious state
Wannez, Sarah ULiege; Gosseries, Olivia ULiege; Azzolini, Deborah et al

in Neuropsychological Rehabilitation (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (27 ULiège)