References of "Lancellotti, Patrizio"
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See detailEACVI appropriateness criteria for the use of transthoracic echocardiography in adults: a report of literature and current practice review
Steeds, RP; Garbi, M; Cardim, N et al

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2017)

The European Association for Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) has outlined the rationale for setting appropriate use criteria (AUC) in cardiovascular (CV) imaging. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is ... [more ▼]

The European Association for Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) has outlined the rationale for setting appropriate use criteria (AUC) in cardiovascular (CV) imaging. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the most common imaging modality in CV disease and is a central tool in diagnosis, follow-up, management planning and intervention. The purpose of AUC is to inform referrers, both to avoid under-use, which may result in incomplete or incorrect diagnosis and treatment, and also over-use, which may delay correct diagnosis, lead to 'treatment cascade', and wastes resources. The first step in defining AUC for TTE in the adult has been for a panel of experts in echocardiography to review the evidence, guidelines, recommendations, and position papers from the European Society of Cardiology, EACVI and other specialist societies, and current state-of-the-art clinical practice. The attached document summarizes this work, which will be used to under-pin the development of AUC. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois BIPRESSIL(R) : Premiere association fixe bisoprolol et perindopril arginine.
GACH, Olivier ULiege; FALQUE, Bertrand ULiege; CANIVET, Antoine ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017), 72(5), 260-265

In patients suffering from systemic arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, or heart failure, beta-blockers and angiotensin-convertase enzyme inhibitors play a major therapeutic and preventive ... [more ▼]

In patients suffering from systemic arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, or heart failure, beta-blockers and angiotensin-convertase enzyme inhibitors play a major therapeutic and preventive role. Coronary artery disease remains the leading cause of mortality in industrialized countries. Unless adapted preventive strategy, notably pharmacological interventions, cardiovascular events in these patients remain high. One reason for this relative failure is represented by non-adherence to treatment. A treatment consisting in an association in one pill of several different molecules should confer a higher treatment compliance and thus efficacy. This article describes the characteristics of the first available dual association between a cardioselective beta-blocker agent, bisoprolol, and an angiotensin-convertase enzyme inhibitor, perindopril arginine. [less ▲]

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See detailFibrillation auriculaire et anticoagulation chez le patient hémodialysé : une décision difficile
DELANAYE, Pierre ULiege; BOUQUEGNEAU, Antoine ULiege; DUBOIS, Bernard ULiege et al

in Néphrologie & Thérapeutique (2017)

Cardiovascular mortality of hemodialysis patients remains a major problem. The prevalence and incidence of atrial fibrillation in this population are more important than in the general population. The ... [more ▼]

Cardiovascular mortality of hemodialysis patients remains a major problem. The prevalence and incidence of atrial fibrillation in this population are more important than in the general population. The indication of antivitamin K therapy (AVK) in this context of atrial fibrillation must be weighted against the increased risk of bleeding. Unfortunately, and contrary to the general population, an indication of anticoagulation based on embolic or hemorrhagic risk scores is not as clearly established in the hemodialysis population. No prospective randomized study has investigated the benefit/risk balance of anticoagulant treatment in hemodialysis subjects. This article is a review of the current literature on this topic, showing the prevalence of thromboembolic but also bleeding events in the hemodialysis population. The impact of AVK treatment in this specific population is also reviewed. To the best of our knowledge, the indication of treatment must be individualized. [less ▲]

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See detailSerum albumin level and hospital mortality in acute non-ischemic heart failure.
ANCION, Arnaud ULiege; Allepaerts, Sophie; Oury, Cécile ULiege et al

in ESC heart failure (2017), 4(2), 138-145

AIMS: Hypoalbuminemia is common in heart failure (HF), especially in elderly patients. It is associated with an increased risk of death. The present study sought to examine the prognostic significance of ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Hypoalbuminemia is common in heart failure (HF), especially in elderly patients. It is associated with an increased risk of death. The present study sought to examine the prognostic significance of serum albumin level in the prediction of hospital mortality in patients admitted for acute non-ischemic HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the association between albumin and hospital mortality in a cohort of 546 patients admitted for acute non-ischemic HF. None of the patients had infectious disease, severe arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation), required invasive ventilation, or presented with acute coronary syndrome or primary valvular disease. Thirty-six patients (7%) died during the hospital stay. These patients were significantly older (78 +/- 9 vs. 72 +/- 12 years; P = 0.006), had higher heart rate (P < 0.0001), increased creatinine level (P = 0.01), lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures (P < 0.05), elevated leucocyte count (P = 0.001), and lower albumin levels (31.3 +/- 5.6 g/L vs. 36.9 +/- 4.1 g/L; P < 0.001). With multivariable analysis, age (P = 0.01), heart rate (P < 0.0003), diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), leukocyte count (P = 0.009), and serum albumin level (P < 0.0001) emerged as independent predictors of hospital mortality. Hypoalbuminemia (<34 g/L) yielded the best sensitivity (78.8%) and specificity (75%) for predicting hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: Serum albumin level measured at admission can serve as a simple prognostic factor in acute non-ischemic HF. Hypoalbuminemia is associated with increased risk of hospital mortality, especially in elderly patients. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommendations on the echocardiographic assessment of aortic valve stenosis: a focused update from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography
Baumgartner, HC; Hung, J Co-Chair; Bermejo, J et al

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2017)

Echocardiography is the key tool for the diagnosis and evaluation of aortic stenosis. Because clinical decision-making is based on the echocardiographic assessment of its severity, it is essential that ... [more ▼]

Echocardiography is the key tool for the diagnosis and evaluation of aortic stenosis. Because clinical decision-making is based on the echocardiographic assessment of its severity, it is essential that standards are adopted to maintain accuracy and consistency across echocardiographic laboratories. Detailed recommendations for the echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis were published by the European Association of Echocardiography and the American Society of Echocardiography in 2009. In the meantime, numerous new studies on aortic stenosis have been published with particular new insights into the difficult subgroup of low gradient aortic stenosis making an update of recommendations necessary. The document focuses in particular on the optimization of left ventricular outflow tract assessment, low flow, low gradient aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction, a new classification of aortic stenosis by gradient, flow and ejection fraction, and a grading algorithm for an integrated and stepwise approach of artic stenosis assessment in clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailMultimodality imaging in restrictive cardiomyopathies: an EACVI expert consensus document: In collaboration with the 'Working Group on myocardial and pericardial diseases' of the European Society of Cardiology Endorsed by the Indian Academy of Echocardiography
Habib, G; Bucciarelli-Ducci, C; Caforio, ALP et al

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2017)

Restrictive cardiomyopathies (RCMs) are a diverse group of myocardial diseases with a wide range of aetiologies, including familial, genetic and acquired diseases and ranging from very rare to relatively ... [more ▼]

Restrictive cardiomyopathies (RCMs) are a diverse group of myocardial diseases with a wide range of aetiologies, including familial, genetic and acquired diseases and ranging from very rare to relatively frequent cardiac disorders. In all these diseases, imaging techniques play a central role. Advanced imaging techniques provide important novel data on the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of RCMs. This EACVI consensus document provides comprehensive information for the appropriateness of all non-invasive imaging techniques for the diagnosis, prognostic evaluation, and management of patients with RCM. [less ▲]

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See detailEcho-Doppler estimation of left ventricular filling pressure: results of the multicentre EACVI Euro-Filling study
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULiege; Galderisi, M; Edvardsen, T et al

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2017)

Aims: The present Euro-Filling report aimed at comparing the diagnostic accuracy of the 2009 and 2016 echocardiographic grading algorithms for predicting invasively measured left ventricular filling ... [more ▼]

Aims: The present Euro-Filling report aimed at comparing the diagnostic accuracy of the 2009 and 2016 echocardiographic grading algorithms for predicting invasively measured left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP). Method and results: A total of 159 patients who underwent simultaneous evaluation of echo estimates of LVFP and invasive measurements of LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were enrolled at nine EACVI centres. Thirty-nine (25%) patients had a reduced LV ejection fraction (<50%), 77 (64%) were in NYHA ≥ II, and 85 (53%) had coronary artery disease. Sixty-four (40%) patients had elevated LVEDP (≥15 mmHg). Taken individually, all echocardiographic Doppler estimates of LVFP (E/A, E/e', left atrial volume, tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity) were marginally correlated with LVEDP. By using the 2016 recommendations, 65% of patients with normal non-invasive estimate of LVFP had normal LVEDP, while 79% of those with elevated non-invasive LVFP had elevated invasive LVEDP. By using 2009 recommendations, 68% of the patients with normal non-invasive LVFP had normal LVEDP, while 55% of those with elevated non-invasive LVFP had elevated LVEDP. The 2016 recommendations (sensitivity 75%, specificity 74%, positive predictive value 39%, negative predictive value 93%, AUC 0.78) identified slightly better patients with elevated invasive LVEDP (≥ 15 mmHg) as compared with the 2009 recommendations (sensitivity 43%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value 49%, negative predictive value 71%, AUC 0.68). Conclusion: The present Euro-Filling study demonstrates that the new 2016 recommendations for assessing LVFP non-invasively are fairly reliable and clinically useful, as well as superior to the 2009 recommendations in estimating invasive LVEDP. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommendations on the Echocardiographic Assessment of Aortic Valve Stenosis: A Focused Update from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography
Baumgartner, H; Hung, J; Bermejo, J et al

in Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography (2017)

Echocardiography is the key tool for the diagnosis and evaluation of aortic stenosis. Because clinical decision-making is based on the echocardiographic assessment of its severity, it is essential that ... [more ▼]

Echocardiography is the key tool for the diagnosis and evaluation of aortic stenosis. Because clinical decision-making is based on the echocardiographic assessment of its severity, it is essential that standards are adopted to maintain accuracy and consistency across echocardiographic laboratories. Detailed recommendations for the echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis were published by the European Association of Echocardiography and the American Society of Echocardiography in 2009. In the meantime, numerous new studies on aortic stenosis have been published with particular new insights into the difficult subgroup of low gradient aortic stenosis making an update of recommendations necessary. The document focuses in particular on the optimization of left ventricular outflow tract assessment, low flow, low gradient aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction, a new classification of aortic stenosis by gradient, flow and ejection fraction, and a grading algorithm for an integrated and stepwise approach of aortic stenosis assessment in clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailRational and design of EuroCRT: an international observational study on multi-modality imaging and cardiac resynchronization therapy
Donal, E; Delgado, V; Magne, J et al

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2017)

Aims: Assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (LVEF) with cardiac imaging is important in the selection of patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Several ... [more ▼]

Aims: Assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (LVEF) with cardiac imaging is important in the selection of patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Several observational studies have explored the role of imaging-derived LV dyssynchrony parameters to predict the response to CRT, but have yielded inconsistent results, precluding the inclusion of imaging-derived LV dyssynchrony parameters in current guidelines for selection of patients for CRT. METHODS: The EuroCRT is a large European multicentre prospective observational study led by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. We aim to explore if combing the value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and echocardiography could be beneficial for selecting heart failure patients for CRT in terms of improvement in long-term survival, clinical symptoms, LV function, and volumes. Speckle tracking echocardiography will be used to assess LV dyssynchrony and wasted cardiac work whereas myocardial scar will be assessed with late gadolinium contrast enhanced CMR. All data will be measured in core laboratories. The study will be conducted in European centres with known expertise in both CRT and multimodality cardiac imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal longitudinal strain predicts outcome after MitraClip implantation for secondary mitral regurgitation
Citro, R; Baldi, C; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULiege et al

in Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine (Hagerstown, Md.) (2017)

AIM: The aim of this study was to assess preoperative determinants, prevalence, and prognostic impact of left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling (LVRR) in patients with secondary mitral regurgitation ... [more ▼]

AIM: The aim of this study was to assess preoperative determinants, prevalence, and prognostic impact of left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling (LVRR) in patients with secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR), undergoing MitraClip implantation (MCi). METHODS: From March 2012 to January 2015, a total of 41 consecutive patients with moderate-to-severe SMR treated successfully with MCi were enrolled. All patients underwent clinical and echocardiographic follow-up after MCi. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) was obtained using two dimensional speckle tracking analysis. A reduction in LV end-systolic volume more than 10% compared with baseline was considered as a marker of LVRR. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of LVRR. Cardiac events were defined as the occurrence of cardiac death, rehospitalization for worsening heart failure, and mitral valve surgery. RESULTS: On univariable analysis, EuroSCORE II and GLS were associated with LVRR. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, GLS was the only independent correlate of LVRR (P = 0.004). A receiver operating characteristic curve identified a cutoff value for GLS of -9.25% (P < 0.001) associated with LVRR, with a sensitivity and specificity of 81 and 74%, respectively. New York Heart Failure Association class more than 2 after MCi, absence of LVRR after MCi, and preoperative GLS more than -9.25% were significantly correlated with adverse cardiac events at long-term follow-up. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, GLS was the only independent predictor of composite adverse cardiac events at 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: A worse preoperative GLS predicts no LVRR and is associated with adverse long-term outcome after successful MCi for SMR. [less ▲]

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See detailEchocardiographic reference ranges for normal left ventricular 2D strain: results from the EACVI NORRE study
Sugimoto, T; DULGHERU, Raluca Elena ULiege; BERNARD, Anne-Catherine ULiege et al

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2017)

Aims To obtain the normal ranges for 2D echocardiographic (2DE) measurements of left ventricular (LV) strain from a large group of healthy volunteers accounting for age and gender. Methods and results A ... [more ▼]

Aims To obtain the normal ranges for 2D echocardiographic (2DE) measurements of left ventricular (LV) strain from a large group of healthy volunteers accounting for age and gender. Methods and results A total of 549 (mean age: 45.6 ± 13.3 years) healthy subjects were enrolled at 22 collaborating institutions of the Normal Reference Ranges for Echocardiography (NORRE) study. 2DE data sets have been analysed with a vendor-independent software package allowing homogeneous measurements irrespective of the echocardiographic equipment used to acquire the data sets. The lowest expected values of LV strains and twist calculated as ± 1.96 standard deviations from the mean were −16.7% in men and −17.8% in women for longitudinal strain, −22.3% and −23.6% for circumferential strain, 20.6% and 21.5% for radial strain, and 2.2 degrees and 1.9 degrees for twist, respectively. In multivariable analysis, longitudinal strain decreased with age whereas the opposite occurred with circumferential and radial strain. Male gender was associated with lower strain for longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain. Inter-vendor differences were observed for circumferential and radial strain despite the use of vendor-independent software. Importantly, no intervendor differences were noted in longitudinal strain. Conclusion The NORRE study provides contemporary, applicable 2D echocardiographic reference ranges for LV longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain. Our data highlight the importance of age- and gender-specific reference values for LV strain. [less ▲]

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See detailPercutaneous left atrial appendage closure improves left atrial mechanical function through Frank-Starling mechanism.
Coisne, A; Pilato, R; Brigadeau, F et al

in Heart Rhythm : The Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society (2017)

BACKGROUND: Modifications in left atrial (LA) flow velocities after left atrial appendage (LAA) exclusion have been shown in animal and ex vivo models. In a substudy of PROTECT AF (Percutaneous Closure of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Modifications in left atrial (LA) flow velocities after left atrial appendage (LAA) exclusion have been shown in animal and ex vivo models. In a substudy of PROTECT AF (Percutaneous Closure of the Left Atrial Appendage Versus Warfarin Therapy for Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation), an objective improvement in quality of life was observed after LAA closure. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of LAA closure on LA transport function. METHODS: Comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography evaluation (2-dimensional [2D]/3-dimensional [3D], 2D speckle tracking) was prospectively performed before and after LAA closure (at discharge and 45 days after procedure) in 33 patients. RESULTS: LAA closure was associated with a significant improvement in LA reservoir function at discharge and 45 days after the procedure with (1) increased maximum LA volume index, (2) increased 2D-LA reservoir volume and expansion index, and (3) increased 2D speckle tracking-derived peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) (27.9 ± 14 and 26 ± 12.6 vs 21.7 ± 10.7%, P <.0001). LAA closure was also associated with a significant improvement in LA contractile function with (1) increased LA ejection fraction and (2) increased speckle tracking-derived peak atrial contraction strain (PACS) in sinus rhythm patients (19.1 ± 6.8 and 18.1 ± 5.4 vs 14.4 ± 6.4%, P = .0006). Conversely, the slope of the relation between PACS and PALS remained unchanged (0.5 ± 0.27 and 0.53 ± 0.3 vs 0.5 ± 0.25, P = .99), thus arguing for an improvement in LA contractile function secondary to a Frank-Starling effect rather than a modification in its intrinsic contractility. CONCLUSION: LAA closure was associated with an improvement in LA mechanical function. These changes appeared to be related to a modification in loading conditions, that is, a Frank-Starling effect. [less ▲]

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See detail3D echocardiographic reference ranges for normal left ventricular volumes and strain: results from the EACVI NORRE study
BERNARD, Anne-Catherine ULiege; Addetia, K; DULGHERU, Raluca Elena ULiege et al

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2017)

Aim: To obtain the normal ranges for 3D echocardiography (3DE) measurement of left ventricular (LV) volumes, function, and strain from a large group of healthy volunteers. Methods and results: A total of ... [more ▼]

Aim: To obtain the normal ranges for 3D echocardiography (3DE) measurement of left ventricular (LV) volumes, function, and strain from a large group of healthy volunteers. Methods and results: A total of 440 (mean age: 45 ± 13 years) out of the 734 healthy subjects enrolled at 22 collaborating institutions of the Normal Reference Ranges for Echocardiography (NORRE) study had good-quality 3DE data sets that have been analysed with a vendor-independent software package allowing homogeneous measurements regardless of the echocardiographic machine used to acquire the data sets. Upper limits of LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were larger in men (97 and 42 mL/m2) than in women (82 and 35 mL/m2; P < 0.0001). Conversely, lower limits of LV ejection fraction were higher in women than in men (51% vs. 50%; P < 0.01). Similarly, all strain components were higher in women than in men. Lower range was -18.6% in men and -19.5% in women for 3D longitudinal strain, -27.0% and -27.6% for 3D circumferential strain, -33.2% and -34.4% for 3D tangential strain and 38.8% and 40.7% for 3D radial strain, respectively. LV volumes decreased with age in both genders (P < 0.0001), whereas LV ejection fraction increased with age only in men. Among 3DE LV strain components, the only one, which did not change with age was longitudinal strain. Conclusion: The NORRE study provides applicable 3D echocardiographic reference ranges for LV function assessment. Our data highlight the importance of age- and gender-specific reference values for both LV volumes and strain. [less ▲]

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See detailMid-term results of bicuspid aortic valve repair guided by morphology and function assessment.
Fattouch, K; Moscarelli, M; Castrovinci, S et al

in Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery (2017)

OBJECTIVES: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is frequently associated with aortic insufficiency (AI) due to cusp disease and/or aortic root dilatation. Based on functional classification and morphology, a ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is frequently associated with aortic insufficiency (AI) due to cusp disease and/or aortic root dilatation. Based on functional classification and morphology, a systematic surgical approach was used for aortic valve repair (AVr). METHODS: : From 2004 to 2014, 152 consecutive patients (mean age 55 ± 7 years) with BAV underwent AVr with or without concomitant aortic root surgery. Cusp pathology was treated with central plication in 60 (39.5%) patients, free edge reinforcement in 45 (29.6%), triangular resection in 28 (18.4%) and pericardial patch in 19 (12.5%). Aortic root dilatation was corrected with valve sparing reimplantation in 65 patients. Mean follow-up was 68 ± 36 months. RESULTS: : In-hospital death was 1.3%. Overall 5-year survival was 88.6 ± 3.6%. Freedom from recurrent ≥ grade 2 AI requiring reoperation at 5-year was 93 ± 3.1%. Five-year freedom from reintervention was 98.4 ± 1.6%, 93.3 ± 6.4% and 82.6 ± 9.6 in the group of patients treated with AVr and reimplantation technique, AVr and subcommissural plasty and AVr repair alone (log-rank P  = 0.005). Commissural orientation <160°, type 2 Siever's BAV and preoperative annulus diameter >29 mm were identified as predictors for recurrent ≥ grade 2 AI. CONCLUSIONS: : BAV repair could be achieved with low incidence of recurrent AI, especially when concomitant annulus stabilization was performed. Systematic preoperative morphological and functional characteristics of the aortic valve should be carried out in order to reduce the risk of repair failure. [less ▲]

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See detailAortic root calcium burden and post-transcatheter aortic valve implantation paravulvar leak : Can't Live Without It, Can't Live With It.
Qian, Z; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULiege; Vannan, MA

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2017)

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See detailThe Clinical Use of Stress Echocardiography in Non-Ischaemic Heart Disease: Recommendations from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULiege; Pellika, PA; Budts, W et al

in Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography (2017)

A unique and highly versatile technique, stress echocardiography (SE) is increasingly recognized for its utility in the evaluation of non-ischaemic heart disease. SE allows for simultaneous assessment of ... [more ▼]

A unique and highly versatile technique, stress echocardiography (SE) is increasingly recognized for its utility in the evaluation of non-ischaemic heart disease. SE allows for simultaneous assessment of myocardial function and haemodynamics under physiological or pharmacological conditions. Due to its diagnostic and prognostic value, SE has become widely implemented to assess various conditions other than ischaemic heart disease. It has thus become essential to establish guidance for its applications and performance in the area of non-ischaemic heart disease. This paper summarizes these recommendations. [less ▲]

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See detailComprehensive multi-modality imaging approach in arrhythmogenic cardiomyoapthy : an expert consensus document of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging
Haugaa, KH; Basso, C; Badano, LP et al

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2017)

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is a progressive disease with high risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. A genetic mutation is found in up to 50-60% of probands, mostly affecting desmosomal ... [more ▼]

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is a progressive disease with high risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. A genetic mutation is found in up to 50-60% of probands, mostly affecting desmosomal genes. Diagnosis of AC is made by a combination of data from different modalities including imaging, electrocardiogram, Holter monitoring, family history, genetic testing, and tissue properties. Being a progressive cardiomyopathy, repeated cardiac imaging is needed in AC patients. Repeated imaging is important also for risk assessment of ventricular arrhythmias. This expert consensus document gives clinical recommendations for how to use multi-modality imaging in the different aspects of AC disease, including diagnosis, family screening, follow-up, risk assessment, and differential diagnosis. [less ▲]

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