References of "Francis, Frédéric"
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See detailEffect of flower traits and hosts on the abundance of parasitoids in perennial multiple species wildflower strips sown within oilseed rape (Brassica napus) crops
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULiege; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (in press)

Reducing the use of insecticides is an important issue for agriculture today. Sowing wildflower strips along field margins or within crops represents a promising tool to support natural enemy populations ... [more ▼]

Reducing the use of insecticides is an important issue for agriculture today. Sowing wildflower strips along field margins or within crops represents a promising tool to support natural enemy populations in agricultural landscapes and, thus, enhance conservation biological control. However, it is important to sow appropriate flower species that attract natural enemies efficiently. The presence of prey and hosts may also guide natural enemies to wildflower strips, potentially preventing them from migrating into adjacent crops. Here, we assessed how seven flower traits, along with the abundance of pollen beetles (Meligethes spp., Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and true weevils (Ceutorhynchus spp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae), affect the density of parasitoids of these two coleopterans in wildflower strips sown in an oilseed rape field in Gembloux (Belgium). Only flower traits, not host (i.e. pollen beetles and true weevils) abundance, significantly affected the density of parasitoids. Flower colour, ultraviolet reflectance and nectar availability were the main drivers affecting parasitoids. These results demonstrate how parasitoids of oilseed rape pests react to flower cues under field conditions. Similar analyses on the pests and natural enemies of other crops are expected to help to develop perennial flower mixtures able to enhance biological control throughout a rotation system. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformances of local poultry breed fed black soldier fly larvae reared on horse manure
Moula, Nassim ULiege; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULiege; Douny, Caroline ULiege et al

in Animal Nutrition (in press)

In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of Black Soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect ... [more ▼]

In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of Black Soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect competition with human food. Little information is currently available on the utility of these larvae in poultry feed, so goals of this study were to determine whether larvae could be reared on horse manure under traditional farming conditions and to evaluate the growth performances of a local poultry fed these larvae and the fatty acids profiles of their meat. After freezing and thawing, larvae were introduced in the feed of Ardennaise chickens between 30 and 80 days of age. Birds in the control group received a commercial standard feed while those in the treatment group received the same commercial feed in which 8% was substituted with whole fresh larvae corresponding to 2% on a dry matter basis. Mean ± standard errors of larval length and weight were 20.67 ± 2.21 mm and 0.14 ± 0.02 g, respectively. Mean larval percentages of dry matter and of substances extractable in diethyl ether were 24.6% and 23.1%, respectively. Larval fatty acids profiles were predominantly composed of lauric (28.1%) and palmitic (22.0%) acids. Least squares means of weekly weights of chicken, adjusted for the effects of sex, replication and initial weights, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) by 77.03 ± 53.37 g in larvae-fed than in control chickens. All the other measurements were not statistically different between larvae-fed and control chicken, including fatty acid profiles, protein content and ω6/ω3 ratio. In conclusion, the use of black soldier fly larvae in the diet of local chicken breed may be an alternative to the use of soy. [less ▲]

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See detailInsects, the next European foodie craze?
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Haubruge, Eric ULiege; Francis, Frédéric ULiege

in Edible Insects in Sustainable Food Systems (in press)

Edible insects are systematically targeted as a major future food for European consumers but success in introducing entomophagy in Western society depends on factors governing consumers’ attitudes towards ... [more ▼]

Edible insects are systematically targeted as a major future food for European consumers but success in introducing entomophagy in Western society depends on factors governing consumers’ attitudes towards insect-based products. Effectively, as for sushi in the 2000s, edible insects are considered as new food products in Europe and are deeply related to a fear or a reject feeling by consumers called “food neophobia“. Consequently, several studies have been achieved to face the actual aversion of European consumers for insects. These studies principally tried to understand the insect-related neophobia, to highlight positive arguments for entomophagy development and also to test possible ways of integration of insects as food. The purpose of this chapter is to get an overview of the actual literature on edible insect acceptability in Europe to propose conceivable solutions for product development and new approaches for further studies. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of Basil-Cabbage intercropping to control insect pests in Benin, West Africa
Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULiege; Assogba Komlan, Françoise; Tossou, Eric et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (in press)

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) is a common vegetable whose production is severely limited by insect pest pressure in Western Africa. This study was conducted during the dry and rainy season in the south ... [more ▼]

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) is a common vegetable whose production is severely limited by insect pest pressure in Western Africa. This study was conducted during the dry and rainy season in the south Benin to evaluate the potential of tropical basil (Ocimum gratissimum L.) for repelling cabbage pests (Hellula undalis Fabricius, Plutella xylostella L. and Spodoptera litto-ralis Boisduval). In a complete randomized block design with four replicates, the insect infestation were compared between three association modalities: (i) cabbage intercropped with tropical basil, (ii) cabbage plots surrounded by tropical basil and (iii) control (no basil in the cabbage area). The presence of tropical basil near cabbage plots significantly reduced insect pest abundance on cabbage. Damages were also less important on cabbage intercropped with tropical basil. Among both intercropping modalities, alternate rows showed the best results in terms of reducing pest populations and damages than compared to cabbage plots surrounded by tropical basil. [less ▲]

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See detailA push–pull strategy to control aphids combines intercropping with semiochemical releases
Xu, Qingxuan ULiege; Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULiege et al

in Journal of Pest Science (in press)

Even if insect pest populations can be reduced by increasing plant diversity through intercropping, natural enemies are not always favored in such systems. Alternatively, semiochemical substances have ... [more ▼]

Even if insect pest populations can be reduced by increasing plant diversity through intercropping, natural enemies are not always favored in such systems. Alternatively, semiochemical substances have been tested to enhance biological control, with inconsistent results. Combining both strategies can be an interesting way to maximize pest control. In this work, a 2-year setup involving wheat–pea strip intercropping combined with the release of E-b-farnesene (EBF) or methyl salicylate (MeSA) was tested as a push–pull strategy to simultaneously repel aphids and attract beneficials. Two types of slow-release formulation (i.e., oil and alginate beads) containing EBF or MeSA were deployed with the intercropping. The abundance of aphids was significantly decreased, while hoverfly larvae and mummified aphids increased on both pea plants and wheat tillers by the release of oil-formulated EBF and MeSA. The proportion parasitism of the aphid-parasitism rate [mummies/(aphids + mummies)] was also increased by treating both crops in both years. Releasing EBF through oil rather than alginate beads proved significantly better for attracting natural enemies and reducing aphids. Aphids were negatively correlated with the density of hoverflies (both adults and larvae) and numbers of mummies. All these results showed that combining intercropping with the release of EBF or MeSA formulated in oil can significantly reduce aphid density and attract their natural enemies. Therefore, the combination of both strategies could help farmers reduce the use of insecticides. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of the Alarm Pheromone of Cowpea Aphid, and Comparison With Two Other Aphididae Species
Bayendi Loudit, Sandrine ULiege; Boullis, Antoine ULiege; Verheggen, François ULiege et al

in Journal of Insect Science (2018)

In response to a predator attack, many Aphidinae species release an alarm pheromone, which induces dispersal behavior in other individuals within the colony. The major component of this pheromone is the ... [more ▼]

In response to a predator attack, many Aphidinae species release an alarm pheromone, which induces dispersal behavior in other individuals within the colony. The major component of this pheromone is the sesquiterpene (E)- β-farnesene (Eβf), but variations occur between aphid species. In the present work, we collected, identified, and quantified the alarm pheromone of Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae), before quantifying the escape behavior induced in the neighboring individuals. We compared the semiochemistry and associated behavior of alarm signaling with two other aphid species: Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Eβf was the only volatile found for each species. M. persicae produces a higher quantity of Eβf (8.39 ± 1.19 ng per individual) than A. craccivora (6.02 ± 0.82 ng per individual) and A. fabae (2.04 ± 0.33 ng per individual). Following exposure to natural doses of synthetic Eβf (50 ng and 500 ng), A. craccivora respond more strongly than the two other Aphidinae species with 78% of the individuals initiated alarm behavior for 500 ng of Eβf. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-Term Effects of Tillage Practices and Crop Residue Exportation on Soil Organic Matter and Earthworm Communities in Silt Loam Arable Soil
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULiege; Colinet, Gilles ULiege; Alabi, Taofic ULiege et al

in Angeles Munoz, Maria; Zornoza, Raul (Eds.) SOIL MANAGEMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE : EFFECTS ON ORGANIC CARBON, NITROGEN DYNAMICS, AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS (2018)

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See detailEffect of household cooking techniques on the microbiological load and the nutritional quality of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L. 1758)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege; Poeleart, Christine; Ernens, Majorie et al

in Food Research International (2018)

Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating ... [more ▼]

Mealworms are new food products in Europe, but consumers do not know how to cook them. Although cooking could increase the safety, acceptability, palatability, and digestibility of insects, the heating process could have deleterious effects on protein and lipid quality. Therefore, this study characterized the effects of different household cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying, vacuum cooking, and oven cooking) on the microbial load and nutritive value of mealworms, with a focus on protein digestibility and fatty acid composition. Boiling and cooking under vacuum were the most efficient techniques to reduce microbial load while maintaining the high levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids of mealworms. Cooking method-related changes were very low on macronutrients content except for pan-fried mealworms which exhibited the highest lipid content. Cooking slightly changed fatty acid composition of mealworms by principally decreasing their level of saturated fatty acids but also increased the in vitro crude protein digestibility of mealworms. [less ▲]

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See detailDispersal capacity of Haematopota spp. and Stomoxys calcitrans using a mark–release–recapture approach in Belgium
Lempereur, Laetitia ULiege; Sohier, Charlotte; Smeets, François et al

in Medical and Veterinary Entomology (2018)

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See detailSpatial diversification of agroecosystems to enhance biological control and other regulating services: An agroecological perspective
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Boeraeve, Fanny ULiege; Artru, Sidonie ULiege et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2018), 621

Spatial diversification of crop and non-crop habitats in farming systems is promising for enhancing natural regulation of insect pests. Nevertheless, results from recent syntheses show variable effects ... [more ▼]

Spatial diversification of crop and non-crop habitats in farming systems is promising for enhancing natural regulation of insect pests. Nevertheless, results from recent syntheses show variable effects. One explanation is that the abundance and diversity of pests and natural enemies are affected by the composition, design and management of crop and non-crop habitats. Moreover, interactions between both local and landscape elements and practices carried out at different spatial scales may affect the regulation of insect pests. Hence, research is being conducted to understand these interdependencies. However, insects are not the only pests and pests are not the only elements to regulate in agroecosystems. Broadening the scope could allow addressing multiple issues simultaneously, but also solving them together by enhancing synergies. Indeed, spatial diversification of crop and non-crop habitats can allow addressing the issues of weeds and pathogens, along with being beneficial to several other regulating services like pollination, soil conservation and nutrient cycling. Although calls rise to develop multifunctional landscapes that optimize the delivery of multiple ecosystem services, it still represents a scientific challenge today. Enhancing interdisciplinarity in research institutions and building interrelations between scientists and stakeholders may help reach this goal. Despite obstacles, positive results from research based on such innovative approaches are encouraging for engaging science in this path. Hence, the aim of the present paper is to offer an update on these issues by exploring the most recent findings and discussing these results to highlight needs for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailSowing flower strips in a wheat field to enhance biological control of aphids and support pollinators
Amy, Clara ULiege; Brigode, Mélanie ULiege; Hatt, Séverin ULiege et al

Poster (2017, November 14)

Insect pests are responsible, among other factors, for reducing the productivity of crops. While chemical insecticides used to control them cause harmful effects on human health and the environment ... [more ▼]

Insect pests are responsible, among other factors, for reducing the productivity of crops. While chemical insecticides used to control them cause harmful effects on human health and the environment, conservation biological control, i.e. managing habitats in agricultural landscapes to support pest natural enemies, turns out to be a promising approach. Moreover, the decline of pollinators in agricultural areas is observed since a few decades, being partly due to the intensification of agriculture which homogenizes and degrades agricultural landscape. To reduce the detrimental effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services, farmers have the opportunity to adopt agri-environmental measures. Among them, the establishment of flower strips, with a recognized interest in biological control and the conservation of pollinators, is proposed. However, their establishment is not systematically efficient and profitable for the farmers. Adapting mixture composition to farmer’s need may encourage their adoption. Thus, the research project has a double goals (i) to provide intercropping flower strips for promoting the attraction of beneficial insects against pests and for promoting pollinators diversity; and (ii) to suggests diversification of farm income by planting monospecific oilseed flower strips. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of real-time PCR targets for the detection of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens
Marien, Aline; Debode, Frédéric; Aerts, Céline et al

Poster (2017, October 01)

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See detailLes savoirs paysans pour coordonner la conservation de la nature et l’agriculture - Piste pour une prise en compte renforcée des compétences des agriculteurs dans l’action agro-environnementale.
Brédart, David; Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Méhu, Marie et al

in Mille Lieux (2017), 7

Lors d’un travail de recherche, nous avons rencontré des agriculteurs de la zone limoneuse en Wallonie, un territoire de culture des plus productifs. Ces agriculteurs ont en commun d’avoir installé des ... [more ▼]

Lors d’un travail de recherche, nous avons rencontré des agriculteurs de la zone limoneuse en Wallonie, un territoire de culture des plus productifs. Ces agriculteurs ont en commun d’avoir installé des bandes aménagées en bordure de parcelles dans le cadre des méthodes agro-environnementales (MAEC - dispositifs de la Politique Agricole Commune visant à protéger l’environnement dans les espaces agricoles). Nous avons tenté de comprendre ce que sont et ce que pourraient devenir les bandes aménagées pour ces agriculteurs. En effet, alors que de nombreux travaux se sont intéressés aux aspects techniques, notamment à la composition et à la gestion des mélanges semés, peu d’attention a été portée aux agriculteurs et à la façon dont ils intègrent ces mélanges dans leur pratique. Nous explorons, à travers notre analyse, la possibilité d’une co-construction des MAEC avec les agriculteurs pour une action agro-environnementale pertinente aussi du point de vue de la production agricole. [less ▲]

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See detailPlantes pesticides et protection des cultures maraichères en Afrique de l’Ouest (synthèse bibliographique)
Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULiege; Silvie, Pierre; Assogba Komlan, Françoise et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2017), 21(4), 288-304

Introduction. Les cultures maraichères occupent une place importante pour l’alimentation humaine et contribuent significativement aux revenus des familles en Afrique de l’Ouest, mais leur production est ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Les cultures maraichères occupent une place importante pour l’alimentation humaine et contribuent significativement aux revenus des familles en Afrique de l’Ouest, mais leur production est confrontée à une pression des bioagresseurs qui limite leur productivité. Littérature. Cette revue, basée sur des publications scientifiques, a pour objectif d’évaluer le potentiel des plantes pesticides comme alternative à l’usage des pesticides de synthèse pour lutter contre les bioagresseurs des cultures maraichères en Afrique de l’Ouest. Elle montre que le principal moyen actuel pour combattre ces bioagresseurs repose essentiellement sur les pesticides de synthèse. Cependant, compte tenu de leur nocivité sur l’homme et l’environnement, en plus de la sélection de populations résistantes chez les bioagresseurs, la recherche de solutions alternatives s’impose. Les plantes pesticides se présentent comme une alternative prometteuse dans le contexte ouest-africain. En effet, diverses espèces de plantes pesticides peuvent être utilisées comme extraits de plantes ou en association avec d’autres cultures pour le contrôle des bioagresseurs. Celles-ci sont présentées dans le présent article de synthèse. Conclusions. Les plantes pesticides peuvent être une alternative prometteuse pour la gestion des bioagresseurs des cultures maraichères. Cependant, la plupart d’entre elles ne sont pas cultivées. Explorer les capacités biocides de plantes d’intérêt comme le genre Ocimum, connu pour ses usages thérapeutique, médicinal et alimentaire pourrait être intéressant pour le producteur. Toutefois, les populations doivent être sensibilisées sur les avantages à long terme des produits traités avec les pesticides à base de plantes pour faciliter leur utilisation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of wildflower strips and an adjacent forest on aphids and their natural enemies in a pea field
Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Mouchon, Pierre; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULiege et al

in Insects (2017), 8(3), 99

Landscape diversification is a key element for the development of sustainable agriculture. This study explores whether the implementation of habitats for pest natural enemies enhances conservation ... [more ▼]

Landscape diversification is a key element for the development of sustainable agriculture. This study explores whether the implementation of habitats for pest natural enemies enhances conservation biological control in an adjacent field. In the present study conducted in Gembloux (Belgium) in 2016, the effect of two different habitats (wildflower strips and a forest) and aphid abundance on the density of aphid natural enemies, mummified aphids and parasitism on pea plants was assessed through visual observations. The effect of the habitats on aphids was also evaluated. The habitats but not aphid density significantly affected hoverfly larvae, which were more abundant adjacent to wildflower strips than to the forest. The contrary was observed for ladybeetle adults, which were positively related with aphids but not affected by the adjacent habitats. The abundance of mummies and the parasitism rate were significantly affected by both the habitats and aphid density. They were both significantly enhanced adjacent to wildflower strips compared to the forest, but the total parasitism rate was low (<1%), questioning whether parasitoids could significantly control aphids on the pea crop. As for the aphids, their abundance was not significantly affected by the adjacent habitats. These results are discussed with respect to the potential of these habitats to provide overwintering sites and food resources for natural enemies, and thereby enhance conservation biological control. [less ▲]

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See detailOviposition deterrent activity of basil plants and their essentials oils against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULiege; Bawin, Thomas; Boullis, Antoine ULiege et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2017)

The leafminer Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most important pests of tomato, reducing crop yields by up to 100% in greenhouses and fields, in several countries globally ... [more ▼]

The leafminer Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most important pests of tomato, reducing crop yields by up to 100% in greenhouses and fields, in several countries globally. Because synthetic insecticides lead to resistance and have adverse effects on natural enemies and the health of producers, alternative control methods are needed. In this study, we assessed the oviposition-deterring effect of basil plants, Ocimum gratissimum L. and O. basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), using dual-choice behavioural assays performed in flight tunnels. We found that both plants significantly reduced T. absoluta oviposition behaviour on a tomato plant located nearby. To evaluate the potential effect of basil volatile organic compounds, we formulated essential oils of both plant species in paraffin oil, and observed a similar oviposition-deterring effect. Gas chromatography analyses detected 18 constituents in these essential oils which the major constituents included thymol (33.3%), p-cymene (20.4%), γ-terpinene (16.9%), myrcene (3.9%) in O. gratissimum and estragol (73.8%), linalool (8.6%), β-elemene (2.9%) and E-β-ocimene (2.6%) in O. basilicum. Twenty and 33 compounds were identified of the volatiles collected on O. gratissimum and O. basilicum plants, respectively. The main components include the following: p-cymene (33.5%), γ-terpinene (23.6%), α-terpinene (7.2%), α-thujene (6.7%) and E-α-bergamotene (38.9%) in O. gratissimum, and methyl eugenol (26.1%), E-β-ocimene (17.7%), and linalool (9.4%) in O. basilicum. Four compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, Myrcene, Limonene) were common in essential oils and plants. Our results suggest the valuable potential of basil and associated essential oils as a component of integrated management strategies against the tomato leafminer. [less ▲]

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See detailLe maraîchage périurbain à Libreville et Owendo (Gabon) : pratiques culturales et durabilité
Bayendi-Loudit, Sandrine ULiege; Ndoutoume Ndong, Auguste; Francis, Frédéric ULiege

in Cahiers Agricultures (2017)

In Gabon, peri-urban gardening is an opportunity to provide vegetables to the main cities, such as Libreville and Owendo. Following a survey conducted in three market gardening areas, an inventory was ... [more ▼]

In Gabon, peri-urban gardening is an opportunity to provide vegetables to the main cities, such as Libreville and Owendo. Following a survey conducted in three market gardening areas, an inventory was conducted on the socio-economic characteristics, the diversity of crops, and pesticide uses. The cropped areas range from 0.08 ha to 0.4 ha per farmer, according to the site. National operators represent 51%, while people from Burkina Faso manage 40% of vegetable production. The most cultivated species throughout the year are amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), Guinea sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.). The most important pests are Aphididae and some beetles. The most commonly used plant protection products are insecticides, mainly conventional neurotoxic. Best crop monitoring, pest control including pesticide application reduction, and the possibility to offer microcredit systems to small producers would help increasing peri-urban healthy vegetable production and increase local food autonomy [less ▲]

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See detailCan we use semiochemicals to control Aphis craccivoraKoch?
Bayendi-Loudit, Sandrine ULiege; Yarou, Boni Barthélémy ULiege; Boullis, Antoine ULiege et al

Poster (2017, July)

Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae) is among the most important vegetable crop in several sub-Saharan countries. Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) is an aphid species that cause significant ... [more ▼]

Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae) is among the most important vegetable crop in several sub-Saharan countries. Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) is an aphid species that cause significant losses in absence of chemical control. In this laboratory research, we evaluate the efficiency of informative substances (E-b-farnesene, methyl salicylate, essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum basilicum L.) to repel aphids from their host plant. Our assays were carried out in plastic trays containing twenty-five amaranth plants. In each tray, twenty apterous A. craccivora adults were placed on the central plant (release plant) associated with a semiochemical releaser containing 100 µl of the substance to be tested diluted in paraffin oil. The number of aphids was then counted on each plant surrounding plants every three-days for twelve days. We observed a significant repulsive effect of O. gratissimum and O. basilicum essential oils, that considerably reduced the aphid population on the treated plant, compared to control. However, no repulsive effect of E-b-farnesene and methyl salicylate on aphids was observed. Bioactivities of these substances and their using as alternative aphicidal in integrated pest management are discussed [less ▲]

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See detailDispersion of Myzus persicae and transmission of Potato Virus Y under elevated CO2 atmosphere
Bosquée, Emilie ULiege; Boullis, Antoine ULiege; Bertaux, Morgane et al

Poster (2017, July)

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