References of "Erpicum, Sébastien"
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See detailComparison of perturbation methods for rainfall and temperature data: case of a Belgian catchment
Peltier, Yann; Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege et al

in International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology (in press)

Analyses of hydrological impacts of climate change require appropriate methods for perturbing meteoric time-series to represent future climate conditions. Two readily available tools for perturbing ... [more ▼]

Analyses of hydrological impacts of climate change require appropriate methods for perturbing meteoric time-series to represent future climate conditions. Two readily available tools for perturbing rainfalls and temperatures are tested for a medium-sized catchment in Belgium. CCI-HYDR provides three scenarios, tailored for Belgium every decade until 2100. In contrast, KNMI-ADC tool provides 191 scenarios, at a regional level and for two horizons (near and far future). With its three contrasted scenarios of possible future climate conditions, CCI-HYDR is found suitable for forcing computationally intensive detailed hydrological models. With its broader spectrum of climate scenarios, KNMI-ADC tool is suitable for forcing multiple runs of fast conceptual hydrological models. As the two perturbation tools deliver stationary time-series, they are also compared to an alternate method producing transient time-series. Transient stochastic tools are particularly computationally demanding due to their stochastic nature, which is not optimal when combined with detailed distributed hydrological models. [less ▲]

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See detailMaximum energy dissipation to explain velocity fields in shallow reservoirs
Westhoff, Martijn; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Research (in press)

Shallow reservoirs are often used as sediment traps or storage basins, in which sedimentation depends on the flow pattern: Short rectangular reservoirs reveal a straight jet from inlet to outlet with on ... [more ▼]

Shallow reservoirs are often used as sediment traps or storage basins, in which sedimentation depends on the flow pattern: Short rectangular reservoirs reveal a straight jet from inlet to outlet with on both sides identical recirculation zones. In longer reservoirs, the main jet reattaches to the side of the reservoir leading to a small and a large recirculation zone. Previous studies found an empirical geometric relation describing the switch between these two flow patterns. In this study, we demonstrate, with a simple analytical model, that this switch coincides with a maximization of energy dissipation in the shear layer between the main jet and recirculation zones: Short reservoirs dissipate more energy when the flow pattern is symmetric, while longer reservoirs dissipate more energy with an asymmetric pattern. This approach enables to predict the flow patterns without detailed knowledge of small scale processes, potentially useful in the early phase of reservoir design. [less ▲]

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See detailFlow field in shallow reservoir with varying inlet and outlet position
Ferrara, Velia; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Research (in press)

Shallow reservoirs are used for multiple purposes, such as storm water retention and trapping of sediments. Reliable predictions of the flow fields are necessary to inform the design and operation of ... [more ▼]

Shallow reservoirs are used for multiple purposes, such as storm water retention and trapping of sediments. Reliable predictions of the flow fields are necessary to inform the design and operation of these structures. Using numerical simulations, we performed a systematic analysis of the influence of the location of the inlet and outlet on the flow fields developing in rectangular shallow reservoirs of various sizes. Depending on the relative location of the inlet and outlet with respect to the reservoir centreline, contrasting flow patterns are obtained, involving either no flow reattachment, or a jet reattached on either of the reservoir sidewalls. The results reveal also the occurrence of bi-stable flow configurations, i.e. different steady state flow fields are reached depending on the flow history. This is of high relevance for the design of shallow reservoirs as such configurations should certainly be avoided to achieve a robust hydraulic sizing of the reservoir. [less ▲]

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See detailHydraulic determination of dam releases to generate warning waves in a mountain stream: performance of an analytical kinematic wave model
Stilmant, Frédéric; Pirotton, Michel ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (in press)

In this case study, we study the generation of warning waves with prescribed characteristics in a mountain stream. We determine which dam release will generate the desired warning wave. We solve this ... [more ▼]

In this case study, we study the generation of warning waves with prescribed characteristics in a mountain stream. We determine which dam release will generate the desired warning wave. We solve this inverse problem following a two-model approach. An analytical kinematic model is used for a preliminary design of the dam release and a detailed two-dimensional (2D) fully dynamic model is used to converge to the final solution. Although the presented case study is far from an idealized academic case, the analytical model performs well and, beyond its role for preliminary design, turns out to be of prime interest for both understanding and discussing the results of the detailed 2D model. The complex interactions between the release hydrograph, the geometry of the river and the friction formula are brought to light by the analytical model, which highlights the complementarity of both models and the usefulness of such a two-model approach. [less ▲]

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See detailPressure and velocity on an ogee spillway crest operating at high head ratio: experimental measurements and validation
Peltier, Yann; Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

in Journal of Hydro-Environment Research (in press)

This paper aims at validating pressure and velocity measurements conducted in two physical scale models of an ogee spillway crest operating at heads largely greater than the design head. The design head ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at validating pressure and velocity measurements conducted in two physical scale models of an ogee spillway crest operating at heads largely greater than the design head. The design head of the second model is 50% smaller than the one of the first model. No pier effect or air venting is considered in the study. The velocity field is measured by Bubbles Image Velocimetry. The relative pressure along the spillway crest is measured using pressure sensors. Comparison of measured velocities between both spillways indicates low scale effects, the scaled-profiles collapsing in most parts of the flow. By contrast, measurements of relative pressure along the spillway crest differ for large heads. A theoretical velocity profile based on potential flow theory and expressed in a curvilinear reference frame is fitted to the velocity measurements, considered as reference, for extrapolating the velocity at the spillway crest. Comparing the extrapolated velocity at the spillway crest and the velocity calculated from the relative pressure considering a potential flow finally emphasizes that bottom pressure amplitudes seem overestimated for the larger spillway, while an averaging effect might operate for the pressure measurements on the smaller spillway. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrodynamics of shallow reservoirs: recent advances
Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Ferrara, Vélia et al

in New challenges in hydraulic research and engineering (2018, June)

The reliable prediction of the flow field in shallow reservoirs is crucial to guide the optimal design and operation of these structures. We highlight here configurations leading to bi-stable flow fields ... [more ▼]

The reliable prediction of the flow field in shallow reservoirs is crucial to guide the optimal design and operation of these structures. We highlight here configurations leading to bi-stable flow fields and we present a radically new, energy-based, approach to predict theoretically the flow fields. [less ▲]

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See detailHow good are shallow water models at capturing the effect of small-scale obstacles on urban flooding in crossroads?
Bruwier, Martin ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 5th IAHR Europe Congress (2018, June)

This paper reviews the accuracy of shallow water models to reproduce flow characteristics in flooded crossroads in the presence of a small-scale obstacle. In particular, we identify the potential benefit ... [more ▼]

This paper reviews the accuracy of shallow water models to reproduce flow characteristics in flooded crossroads in the presence of a small-scale obstacle. In particular, we identify the potential benefit of using a turbulence model or an anisotropic porosity-based model. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of urban pattern on inundation flow in floodplains of lowland rivers
Bruwier, Martin ULiege; Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed El Saeid ULiege; Aliaga, Daniel G. et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2018), 622–623

The objective of this paper is to investigate the respective influence of various urban pattern characteristics on inundation flow. A set of 2,000 synthetic urban patterns were generated using an urban ... [more ▼]

The objective of this paper is to investigate the respective influence of various urban pattern characteristics on inundation flow. A set of 2,000 synthetic urban patterns were generated using an urban procedural model providing locations and shapes of streets and buildings over a square domain of 1 x 1 km². Steady two-dimensional hydraulic computations were performed over the 2,000 urban patterns with identical hydraulic boundary conditions. To run such a large amount of simulations, the computational efficiency of the hydraulic model was improved by using an anisotropic porosity model. This model computes on relatively coarse computational cells, but preserves information from the detailed topographic data through porosity parameters. Relationships between urban characteristics and the computed inundation water depths have been based on multiple linear regressions. Finally, a simple mechanistic model based on two district-scale porosity parameters, combining several urban characteristics, is shown to capture satisfactorily the influence of urban characteristics on inundation water depths. The findings of this study give guidelines for more flood-resilient urban planning. [less ▲]

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See detailA brief review of urban flood experimental models, with a focus on laboratory model at the district level
Li, Xuefang ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2018, March)

This communication provides brief review of recent experimental research on urban flooding. It highlights the most studied research questions and proposes a classification of the various experimental ... [more ▼]

This communication provides brief review of recent experimental research on urban flooding. It highlights the most studied research questions and proposes a classification of the various experimental models. The communication will focus on models at the district level, and will identify knowledge gaps. [less ▲]

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See detailReview of urban flood experimental models and preliminary design of a laboratory setup of urban flooding
Li, Xuefang ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

In this study, we will investigate a study on an urban flood experimental model. Firstly, a literature review of urban flood experimental models is addressed to summarize the studies in this sector ... [more ▼]

In this study, we will investigate a study on an urban flood experimental model. Firstly, a literature review of urban flood experimental models is addressed to summarize the studies in this sector (Section 2). Next, a strategy of experimental model design will be proposed (section 3.1). Particularly, we are interested in analyzing the influence of model distortion to the flow characteristics (Section 3) and the effect of the interaction between surface flow and underground space (Section 4). [less ▲]

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See detailRésilience urbaine et risque d’inondation : apports du numérique et de l’expérimental
Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2017, December 07)

L’urbanisation croissante et l’intensification des extrêmes hydrologiques accentuent l’importance de la gestion du risque d’inondation. Différents mesures en matière d’aménagement du territoire peuvent ... [more ▼]

L’urbanisation croissante et l’intensification des extrêmes hydrologiques accentuent l’importance de la gestion du risque d’inondation. Différents mesures en matière d’aménagement du territoire peuvent contribuer à maîtriser la vulnérabilité accrue des zones construites, mais leurs effets sont rarement quantifiés de manière objective. Nous montrerons des exemples d’analyse prospective de l’évolution du risque d’inondation pour différents scénarios d’urbanisation. Les nouvelles constructions affectent non seulement la vulnérabilité dans les plaines inondables, mais également les écoulements d’inondation. Une analyse systématique de l’impact hydrologique de choix en matière d’aménagement de la ville sera présentée. Des implications pratiques en matière de résilience des tissus urbains seront mises en évidence. Nous soulignerons également la complémentarité entre modélisation numérique et expérimentale sur cette thématique, ainsi que l’importance des incertitudes qui affectent de façon contrastée les différentes étapes de la modélisation et présentent une hétérogénéité spatiale à ne pas négliger. [less ▲]

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See detailProtection contre l’affouillement du barrage de Poses-Amfreville : études sur modèles réduit et numérique
Sixdenier, Jean Philippe; Shaiek, Salah; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Loudière, Daniel (Ed.) Hydraulique des barrages et des digues (2017, December)

The worrying development of a scouring downstream of the Poses dam decided Voies Navigables de France to carry on tests on experimental and numerical hydraulic models in order to design a suitable ... [more ▼]

The worrying development of a scouring downstream of the Poses dam decided Voies Navigables de France to carry on tests on experimental and numerical hydraulic models in order to design a suitable protection solution. In a first step, the study enabled to identify the operation situations for which scouring risk was the most important. Second, a rip rap protection made of 3-6 t blocks on a length of 30 m downstream of the dam has proved to be able to resist the whole realistic flow solicitations. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental investigation of fluvial dike breaching due to flow overtopping
El Kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal; Rifai, Ismail; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege et al

Conference (2017, December)

The failure of fluvial dikes (levees) often leads to devastating floods that cause loss of life and damages to public infrastructure. Overtopping flows have been recognized as one of the most frequent ... [more ▼]

The failure of fluvial dikes (levees) often leads to devastating floods that cause loss of life and damages to public infrastructure. Overtopping flows have been recognized as one of the most frequent cause of dike erosion and breaching. Fluvial dike breaching is different from frontal dike (embankments) breaching, because of specific geometry and boundary conditions. The current knowledge on the physical processes underpinning fluvial dike failure due to overtopping remains limited. In addition, there is a lack of a continuous monitoring of the 3D breach formation, limiting the analysis of the key mechanisms governing the breach development and the validation of conceptual or physically-based models. Laboratory tests on breach growth in homogeneous, non-cohesive sandy fluvial dikes due to flow overtopping have been performed. Two experimental setups have been constructed, permitting the investigation of various hydraulic and geometric parameters. Each experimental setup includes a main channel, separated from a floodplain by a dike. A rectangular initial notch is cut in the crest to initiate dike breaching. The breach development is monitored continuously using a specific developed laser profilometry technique. The observations have shown that the breach develops in two stages: first the breach deepens and widens with the breach centerline being gradually shifted toward the downstream side of the main channel. This behavior underlines the influence of the flow momentum component parallel to the dike crest. Second, the dike geometry upstream of the breach stops evolving and the breach widening continues only toward the downstream side of the main channel. The breach evolution has been found strongly affected by the flow conditions (i.e. inflow discharge in the main channel, downstream boundary condition) and floodplain confinement. The findings of this work shed light on key mechanisms of fluvial dike breaching, which differ substantially from those of dam breaching. These specific features need to be incorporated in flood risk analyses involving fluvial dike breach and failure. In addition, a well-documented, reliable data set, with a continuous high resolution monitoring of the 3D breach evolution under various flow conditions, has been gathered, which can be used for validating numerical models. [less ▲]

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See detailTo which extend inundations are influenced by urban patterns?
Bruwier, Martin ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege et al

Conference (2017, November 17)

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See detailAvailable tools for the quantification of the evolution of future flood risk in Wallonia
Bruwier, Martin ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege; Pirotton, Michel ULiege et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

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See detailBarrage d’Aubusson d’Auvergne (63) Mise aux normes d’un évacuateur de crues de type seuil latéral double
Routtier; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Pirotton, Michel ULiege

in Loudière, Daniel (Ed.) Hydraulique des barrages et des digues (2017, November)

A scale model of the double side weir spillway of Aubusson d’Auvergne dam has been built and operated with a 1:20 scale factor and Froude similitude. The model enabled designing and optimizing, in ... [more ▼]

A scale model of the double side weir spillway of Aubusson d’Auvergne dam has been built and operated with a 1:20 scale factor and Froude similitude. The model enabled designing and optimizing, in concertation with the Client, a modified geometry of the structures meeting updated discharge capacity requirements. The modified geometry includes a fish ladder within the limits of the secondary channel. It implies modifications of the secondary channel cross section and longitudinal profile, the building of a side wall along the right bank and of a downstream ski jump with a deflector as well as a partial lowering of the side wall between the main and the secondary channels on its downstream part in order to optimize the use of the existing ski jump. From the designer point of view, the use of a hydraulic model enables, for a structure with a complex and non-conventional geometry, to clearly identify its hydraulic limitations and the solutions to be analyzed in order to mitigate them and thus fulfill the new design criteria. It would probably not have been possible to define the proposed solution without the use of a physical model as it is closely related to the hydraulic specificities of the studied structure. Thus, even in the case of small dams, hydraulic experimental modeling may improve the design, making it safer, better optimized and then decrease the project overall costs. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence de la géométrie du quadrant amont et comportement hydraulique sous forte charge des seuils profilés standard
Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege; Pirotton, Michel ULiege; Blancher, Benoit et al

in Loudière, Daniel (Ed.) Hydraulique des barrages et des digues (2017, November)

In order to study the variation of the hydraulic characteristics of ogee-crested weirs for upstream heads higher than the design head, several profiles have been tested on an experimental facility ... [more ▼]

In order to study the variation of the hydraulic characteristics of ogee-crested weirs for upstream heads higher than the design head, several profiles have been tested on an experimental facility specifically designed and instrumented. These profiles have been defined regarding the real profiles of spillways of dams operated by EDF as well as the most used geometry of the literature. The experimental tests have been supplemented by numerical modeling, whose results were found to be very similar. The analysis shows that the discharge coefficient increases with the upstream head until head ratios around 5.5. This evolution follows very well the power equations from the literature. For higher head ratios, the discharge coefficient abruptly decreases from a value around 0.6 to a value around 0.55. This decrease corresponds to the apparition between the main flow and the weir of a low velocity area (the lower nappe does no more correspond to the weir profile). The analysis also shows a significant reduction of the discharge coefficient (around 10%) if the upstream quadrant design head is higher than 2 times the design head of the downstream quadrant. On the contrary, no modification of the discharge coefficient is measured if the upstream quadrant design head is smaller than the downstream quadrant one. [less ▲]

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